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Španska armada - poraz in definicija

Španska armada - poraz in definicija

Španska armada je bila ogromna pomorska flota s 130 ladjami, ki jo je Španija poslala leta 1588 kot del načrtovane invazije na Anglijo. Po letih sovražnosti med Španijo in Anglijo je španski kralj Filip II sestavil flotilo v upanju, da bo s prestola odstranil protestantsko kraljico Elizabeto I. in obnovil rimskokatoliško vero v Angliji. Maja je odplula španska "nepremagljiva armada", vendar so jo Angleži premagali, nato pa so jo viharji pretrgali, medtem ko je šepalo nazaj v Španijo, pri čemer je vsaj tretjina ladij potopila ali poškodovana. Poraz španske armade je v Angliji povzročil val nacionalnega ponosa in je bil eno najpomembnejših poglavij anglo-španske vojne.

Filip in Elizabeta

Odločitev kralja Filipa II, da poskuša strmoglaviti kraljico Elizabeto I., je nastajala nekaj let.

Kljub družinskim povezavam-Philip je bil nekoč poročen z Elizabethino polsestro Marijo-sta imela kraljeva kraljestva hude politične in verske razlike in sta bila v večini 1560-ih in 1570-ih vpletena v "hladno vojno".

Filipa je še posebej razjezilo širjenje protestantizma v Angliji in dolgo se je poigraval z idejo, da bi osvojil britanski otok, da bi ga vrnil v katoliško okrilje.

Napetosti med Španijo in Anglijo so se razširile v 1580 -ih, potem ko je Elizabeth začela dopuščati zasebnikom, kot je sir Francis Drake, da izvajajo piratske napade na španske flote, ki so nosile zaklad iz svojih bogatih kolonij Novega sveta.

Do leta 1585, ko je Anglija podpisala pogodbo o podpori z nizozemskimi uporniki na Nizozemskem, ki je pod nadzorom Španije, je med obema silama obstajalo stanje neprijavljene vojne. Istega leta je Philip začel oblikovati "angleško podjetje" za odstranitev Elizabete s prestola.

Kaj je bila španska armada?

Španska armada je bila pomorska sila s približno 130 ladjami, skupaj z okoli 8.000 mornarji in približno 18.000 vojaki, ki so sestavljali na tisoče pušk. Približno 40 ladij je bilo vojnih ladij.

Španski načrt je zahteval, da ta "velika in najsrečnejša mornarica" ​​pluje iz Lizbone na Portugalskem v Flandrijo, kjer bi se srečal s 30.000 vojaki, ki jih je vodil vojvoda Parma, guverner španske Nizozemske.

Flota bi nato varovala vojsko, ko so jo prepeljali čez Rokavski preliv do obale Kent, da bi začeli kopensko ofenzivo proti Londonu.

Anglija se pripravlja na invazijo

Španiji je bilo nemogoče skriti priprave na tako veliko floto, kot je Armada, in do leta 1587 so Elizabetini vohuni in vojaški svetovalci vedeli, da je v teku invazija. Aprila je kraljica pooblastila Francisca Drakea, da izvede preventivni napad na Špance.

Potem ko je z majhno floto izplul iz Plymoutha, je Drake sprožil presenetljivo racijo v španskem pristanišču Cadiz in uničil več deset ladij Armade in več kot 10.000 ton zalog. "Opevanje kralja španske brade", kot je bil Drakeov napad znan v Angliji, je bilo kasneje pripisano, da je izstrelitev Armade za nekaj mesecev odložila.

Angleži so izkoristili čas, ki ga je kupil napad na Cadiz, da okrepijo svojo obrambo in se pripravijo na vdor.

Elizabethine sile so zgradile jarke in zemeljska dela na najverjetnejših invazijskih plažah, nanizale velikansko kovinsko verigo čez izliv Temze in zbrale vojsko milic. Pripravili so tudi sistem zgodnjega opozarjanja, sestavljen iz več deset obalnih svetilnikov, ki bi prižgali ogenj, da bi označili približevanje španske flote.

Kraljevska mornarica je pod vodstvom Drakea in lorda Charlesa Howarda sestavila floto približno 40 bojnih ladij in več deset oboroženih trgovskih plovil. Za razliko od španske Armade, ki je načrtovala, da se bo za zmago v bitkah na morju zanašala predvsem na vkrcanje in boj v bližnjih prostorih, je bila angleška flotila močno oborožena s pomorskimi puškami dolgega dosega.

Španska armada jadra

Maja 1588 je po večletnih pripravah španska armada odplula iz Lizbone pod poveljstvom vojvode Medinsko-Sidonijskega. Ko so pozneje julija 130-ladijsko floto opazili ob angleški obali, sta Howard in Drake tekmovala s 100 silami angleških plovil.

Angleška flota in španska armada sta se prvič srečala 31. julija 1588 ob obali Plymouth. Zanašajoč se na spretnost svojih strelcev, sta se Howard in Drake držala na razdalji in s svojimi težkimi pomorskimi topovi poskušala bombardirati špansko flotilo. Čeprav jim je uspelo poškodovati nekatere španske ladje, jim ni uspelo prodreti v obrambno formacijo polmeseca Armade.

V naslednjih nekaj dneh so Angleži še naprej nadlegovali špansko armado, ko je ta napadla proti Rokavskemu kanalu. Obe strani sta se spojili v parih pomorskih dvobojih blizu obale Portland Billa in otoka Wight, vendar sta se obe bitki končali v zastoju.

Do 6. avgusta je Armada uspešno spustila sidro na cestah Calais na francoski obali, kjer je Medina-Sidonia upala, da se bosta srečala z vojsko invazije vojvode Parme.

Požarne ladje raztresejo Armado

Howard in Drake, ki sta obupana, da bi preprečila združevanje svojih sil, sta zasnovala zadnji načrt za razpršitev Armade. 8. avgusta ob polnoči so Angleži vžgali osem praznih plovil in jim omogočili, da jih je veter in plima odnesla proti španski floti, nagnjeni ob cestah Calais.

Nenaden prihod gasilskih ladij je povzročil val panike, ki se je spustil nad Armado. Več plovil je rezalo svoja sidra, da bi se izognilo požaru, in celotna flota je bila primorana pobegniti na odprto morje.

Bitka pri Gravelines

Ker Armada ni bila ustanovljena, so Angleži 8. avgusta ob zori začeli pomorsko ofenzivo. V tako imenovani bitki pri Gravelinesu se je kraljeva mornarica nevarno približala španski floti in sprožila večkratne salve topovskega streljanja.

Več ladij Armade je bilo poškodovanih, najmanj štiri pa so bile uničene med devet urnim spopadom, vendar sta bila Howard in Drake kljub temu, da sta imela prednost, prisiljena predčasno preklicati napad zaradi zmanjševanja zalog streljanja in prahu.

Govor čet v Tilburyju

Ker je španska armada v vsakem trenutku grozila z invazijo, so se angleške čete zbrale v bližini obale pri Tilburyju v Essexu, da bi preprečile kopenski napad.

Prisotna je bila tudi sama kraljica Elizabeta, ki je, oblečena v vojaške regalije in belo žametno obleko, govorila svojim četam, ki je pogosto navedena kot eden najbolj navdihujočih govorov, ki jih je kdaj napisal in izrekel suvereni voditelj:

"Vem, da imam telo šibke, šibke ženske; vendar imam srce in želodec kralja, pa tudi kralja Anglije, in mislim, da je grdo zaničevanje, da bi si Parma ali Španija ali kateri koli evropski princ upali vdreti v meje mojega kraljestva; do katerega bo namesto mene naraščala vsaka sramota, bom sam vzel orožje, sam bom vaš general, sodnik in nagrajevalec vsake vaše vrline na tem področju. "

Slabo vreme začenja armado

Kmalu po bitki pri Gravelinesu je močan veter odnesel Armado v Severno morje in razbil upanje Špancev, da se povežejo z vojsko vojvode Parme. Ker je zalog primanjkovalo in se je bolezen začela širiti po njegovi floti, se je vojvoda Medinsko-Sidonijski odločil opustiti misijo invazije in se vrniti v Španijo z zaokrožitvijo Škotske in Irske.

Španska armada je med pomorskimi angažmaji z Angleži izgubila več kot 2000 mož, vendar se je njena pot domov izkazala za veliko bolj smrtonosno. Nekoč mogočno flotilo so uničile morske nevihte, ko je zaokrožila Škotsko in zahodno obalo Irske. Več ladij je potonilo v buri, druge pa so se nasedle ali razbile, potem ko so jih vrgle ob obalo.

Poraz španske armade

Ko je "velika in najsrečnejša mornarica" ​​jeseni 1588 končno prispela v Španijo, je izgubila kar 60 od 130 ladij in utrpela približno 15 000 smrtnih žrtev.

Veliko izgubo španske armade je povzročila bolezen in slabo vreme, vendar je bil njen poraz vseeno zmagovita vojaška zmaga Anglije.

Z odbijanjem španske flote se je otoška država rešila pred invazijo in si prislužila priznanje kot ena najstrašnejših morskih sil v Evropi. Spopad je tudi ugotovil premoč težkih topov v pomorskih bojih, kar je oznanilo začetek nove dobe v vojskovanju na morju.

Čeprav se španska armada zdaj spominja kot ena največjih vojaških zmot v zgodovini, ni pomenila konca spora med Anglijo in Španijo. Leta 1589 je kraljica Elizabeta proti Španiji sprožila neuspešno "angleško armado".

Kralj Filip II je pozneje obnovil svojo floto in v 1590 -ih poslal še dve španski armadi, ki sta jo razpršili nevihti. Šele leta 1604-več kot 16 let po izplutju prvotne španske armade-je bila končno podpisana mirovna pogodba, ki je anglo-špansko vojno končala kot zastoj.

Viri

Španska armada. Avtor Robert Hutchinson
Španska armada. BBC.
Sir Francis Drake. Avtor John Sugden.
Španska armada: Angleški srečni pobeg. Zgodovina Extra.
Elizabethin Tilburyjev govor: julij 1588. Britanska knjižnica.


ARMADA, ŠPANJOLSKA

ARMADA, ŠPANJOLSKA. Španska armada, pogosto imenovana "nepremagljiva armada", je bila invazivna flota, ki jo je leta 1588 proti Angliji sprožil španski Filip II. Njegov poraz je Anglijo pustil protestantsko, pomagal nizozemskemu uporu in povečal davčno obremenitev napetega španskega gospodarstva.

Leta 1585 so se poslabšali odnosi med španskim Filipom II in angleško Elizabeto I. Elizabeth je z Nizozemci podpisala pogodbo Nonesuch in dovolila Sir Francisu Drakeu, da se zlorabi kot odgovor na špansko embargo. Drake je oktobra presenetil špansko Vigo, nato se je odpravil na Karibe in opustošil Santo Domingo in Cartageno.

Filip je markizu Santa Cruz v Lizboni naročil, naj oblikuje armado štiriinštiridesetih ladij, ki bodo preganjale in "kaznovale" Drakea. Prosil je tudi Santa Cruza in vojvodo Parme, njegovega poveljnika na Nizozemskem, da predložita načrte za "Enterprise of England", to je njeno invazijo, za kar je prosil blagoslov in denar od papeža Siksta V. Parma je menila, da je 35.000 mož lahko prečka v dvanajstih urah ob ugodnem vremenu in dovolj tajnosti. Na koncu je zbral več kot dvesto bark in osemdeset podstavkov.

Santa Cruz je pripravil načrt, ki je zahteval približno sto petdeset bojnih galijon in ladij, šest galerij, štirideset galij in več kot tristo drugih velikih in malih plovil za prevoz petinpetdeset tisoč pehote in šestnajst sto konjenikov, topništva in zalog. Čete bi pristale v Walesu ali na Irskem. Glede na načrte se je Philip odločil za manjšo armado. Ko so se angleške kopenske in pomorske sile odzvale na pristanek, je Parma vdrla v Kent, strmoglavila Elizabeto in vzpostavila katoliški režim.

Santa Cruz je v Lizboni sestavil devet portugalskih galeonov in še tri desetine plovil. Iz baskovskih pristanišč bi Juan Mart í nez de Recalde in Miguel de Oquendo pripeljal dva ducata oboroženih ladij. V C á diz je Pedro de Vald é s sestavil petnajst oboroženih Indijancev, medtem ko je še ducat velikih ladij in štiri galerije priplulo iz Italije z Alonsom Martom í nez de Leyva.

Drake je aprila – maja 1587 napadel Španijo, uničil več kot dvajset ladij v zalivu C á diz in motil obalno ladijski promet. Santa Cruz je odhitel v zasledovanje prepozno. Nevihte so ga udarile ob vrnitvi v Lizbono, kjer je ugotovil, da so se načrti spremenili. Takoj naj bi odplul v Doversko ožino, pokril napad Parme na Anglijo in izročil šest tisoč mož. Komunikacija med armado in Parmo, ki je morala biti pripravljena, je povzročila takojšen problem. Armada ni imela varnega pristanišča, kjer bi lahko počakala. Komunikacija je doslej potekala preko Filipa. Kljub Filipovim zahtevam Santa Cruz ni jadral, kar so mu preprečile škoda, pomanjkanje in vreme. Bolezen je umrl 9. februarja 1588.


Španska armada - poraz in definicija - ZGODOVINA


The Španska armada, imenovano tudi Nepremagljiva Armada, je bila flota, ki naj bi leta 1588 napadla Anglijo. King Filip II Španiji je bilo vse jasno.

Španski načrt je bil izogniti se bitki, dokler niso združili moči s kopensko vojsko Alessandro Farnese, vojvoda Parme, v Flandriji, ki je v današnji Belgiji. Armada bi teh 30.000 vojakov zaščitila pred angleško floto, da bi lahko varno prečkali Rokavski preliv od Flandrije do Anglije.

Toda zaradi slabih vremenskih razmer in Angležev, ki so jim bili ves čas tako blizu, da Španci tega niso mogli izpeljati. Namesto tega so se morali umakniti proti severu in odpluti domov preko Škotske in Irske.

Zaradi hudih neviht, bolezni in pomanjkanja stopal je bilo pot domov popolna katastrofa.

Zakaj je Španija želela vdreti v Anglijo?

Španija je bila pripravljena na vojno, ker se je Filipu II naveličal

a) vera v Angliji od takrat ni več rimskokatoliška Henrik VIII se je leta 1533 odcepil od katoliške cerkve,

b) protestant Elizabeta I. na splošno. Namesto tega se je nameraval postaviti na angleški prestol.

c) Anglija, ki spodbuja nizozemske upornike proti Španiji, in

d) angleški pirati, ki ogrožajo špansko trgovino in trgovino. In Sir Francis Drake , viceadmiral angleške flote, zlasti huda bolečina v hrbtu, ko je ropal po vodi ob domači obali in v tujini.

Že od leta 1586 so Španci začeli delati noč in dan, da bi prišli do invazije na Anglijo. Priprave so bile resno zakasnjene, ko se je Sir Francis Drake leta 1587 pojavil s presenetljivim napadom na Cídiz.

Maja 1588 je bila Španija pripravljena in iz Lizbone izstrelila svojo veliko armado.

Elizabeth I je šla v Tilbury, ji dala Govor španske armade in poslal svoje čete na pot.

Nevihte so prisilile floto, da ostane v La Coruñi do julija. Nazadnje so 29. julija (19. julij 1588, stari slog) prispeli do Lizard Pointa.

Angleška flota je bila v Plymouthu in je sledila Armadi navzgor ob Rokavskem prelivu.

Prvo srečanje je bilo pri Plymouthu, 31. julija (21. julij), drugo pri Portland Bill -u, 2. avgusta (23. julija), tretje pri otoku Wight, 4. avgusta (25. julija). Armada ni bila resno poškodovana in njena tvorba je ostala nedotaknjena.

6. avgusta (27. julija) je Armada dosegla Doversko ožino in se zasidrala pri Calaisu. Istega dne je vojvoda Parma pripravil svoje čete, da zapustijo Flandrijo in se pridružijo Armadi v Calaisu, šestdnevni izlet.

Vmes je Armada naredila stvar sedeče race. Vsi izpostavljeni so se jim Angleži prikradli sredi noči 7./8. Avgusta (28./29. Julija). Španske ladje so se razkropile.

Angleži so izkoristili zmedo, ko so naslednje jutro končali Armado, ko so spet napadli pri Gravelinesu. To je bila mornarica Bitka pri Gravelines, se je boril 8. avgusta 1588.

Španci so pobegnili proti severu in poskušali odpluti domov okoli Škotske in po zahodni obali Irske.

Zlobne nevihte so nadvladale Armado. Španskim mornarjem, ki so še imeli čoln, je zmanjkalo hrane. Tiste, ki so pristali na Irskem, so ubili Angleži.

Konec septembra so v Španijo prišli žalostni ostanki nekoč nepremagljive armade. Domov je prispelo le 60 ladij španske flote.

Španija je zaradi bojnih dejanj in bolezni izgubila približno 15.000 mož, Anglija nekaj tisoč mož. Tukaj so zemljevidi.

Vrhovni poveljnik španske armade je bil Alonso Pírez de Guzmín, duque de Medina Sidonia. Alonso je bil po službi umrl markiz de Santa Cruz, ki je bil španski admiral. Za primerjavo: Alonso je imel pred tem malo pomorskih izkušenj. Toda dober človek je bil zvest in pogumen. Zato se ni ustrašil in odšel.

Angleški floti je poveljeval Charles Howard, drugi baron Howard iz Effinghama, ki je kasneje postal grof od Nottinghama. Njegov viceadmiral je bila španska nočna mora Sir Francis Drake.

Špansko armado je sestavljalo približno 130 ladij s približno 8.000 mornarji in 19.000 vojaki. Približno 40 teh ladij je bilo bojnih.

Angleška flota, ki jo sestavlja približno 130 ladij, od katerih je 40 vojaških, je sledila Armadi navzgor ob Rokavskem prelivu. Za primerjavo, flote so bile približno enake velikosti, vendar je bila angleška flota na splošno v boljšem stanju, hitrejša in bolje oborožena.


Kako je bila španska armada resnično poražena

Kampanja španske armade leta 1588 je spremenila potek evropske zgodovine. Če bi 27.000 močnih napadalcev vojvode Parme varno prečkalo ozka morja iz Flandrije, bi preživetje vlade Elizabete I. in protestantske Anglije izgledalo dvomljivo. Če bi te bitke utrjene španske čete pristale, kot je bilo načrtovano, v bližini Margate na obali Kenta, bi bile verjetno v enem tednu na slabo zaščitenih ulicah Londona, kraljica in njeni ministri pa ujeti ali ubiti. Anglija bi se vrnila v katoliško vero in morda ne bi prišlo do britanskega cesarstva.

Španska armada je premagala slaba sreča, slaba taktika in slabo vreme-ne derring-do, ki so ga na odprtem morju prikazali neustrašni morski psi Elizabeth.

Ampak to je bila skoraj tekoča zadeva.


Španska armada ob angleški obali, zgodovinska slika Cornelisa Claesza. van Wieringen (1620-1625) prek Wikimedia Commons.

Zaradi Elizabethine milosti, ki jo je vodila nerodno prazna blagajna, so angleške ladje izgubile smodnik in strelivo, zato jim v devetih dneh prečkanja Rokavskega preliva julija ni uspelo ubiti morilca. Avgusta 1588.

Le 129 španskih ladij od 129, ki so plule proti Angliji, je bilo uničenih zaradi neposredne pomorske bitke. Najmanj petdeset ladij Armade (verjetno kar štiriinštirideset) je bilo izgubljenih zaradi nesreče ali med atlantskimi nevihtami, ki so razpršile floto na poti v Anglijo in ko je šepala, močno razbita, nazaj v severno Španijo. Več kot 13.500 mornarjev in vojakov ni prišlo domov - velika večina ni bila žrtev angleškega topovskega streljanja, ampak pomanjkanja hrane in vode, virulentnih bolezni in nesposobne organizacije.

Trideset let prej, ko je bil Filip II. Iz Španije tako brez navdušenja mož Marije I, je opazil: “ Angleško kraljestvo je in mora vedno ostati močno na morju, saj je od tega odvisna varnost kraljestva. &# 8221

Elizabeth je to dobro vedela in sta zaigrala, da bi njena mornarica, okrepljena z najetimi oboroženimi trgovci in prostovoljnimi ladjami, lahko uničila invazijske sile na morju. Trdila je, da so njene bojne ladje stene njenega kraljestva in so postale prva in verjetno zadnja obrambna črta. Zaradi desetletij zanemarjanja je bila večina angleške kopenske obrambe skoraj neuporabna proti izkušenemu in odločnemu sovražniku. Marca 1587 so okrožja ob Rokavskem prelivu imela le šest topov.

Anglija ni imela stalne vojske popolnoma oboroženih in usposobljenih vojakov, razen majhnih garnizonov v Berwicku na škotskih mejah in v gradu Dover na obali Rokavskega preliva. Poleg tega je bil Elizabetin narod razdeljen zaradi verskega nesoglasja - skoraj polovica je bila še vedno katoličana in strah pred tem, da bi se uprli v podporo Španiji, je preganjal njeno vlado.

Robert Dudley, grof iz Leicesterja, je bil imenovan za poveljevanje Elizabetini vojski "v južnih delih", da se borijo ne le proti napadalcem, ampak proti vsem "upornikom in izdajalcem in drugim storilcem kaznivih dejanj in njihovim privržencem, ki poskušajo kaj proti nam, naši kroni in dostojanstvu". in "zatirati in podrediti, ubiti ali ubiti in usmrtiti vse načine in sredstva" vse te upornike "za ohranitev naše osebnosti in miru".

Nekateri med Elizabetinimi podložniki so imeli dobiček pred domoljubjem. Leta 1587 so odkrili dvanajst angleških trgovcev - večinoma iz Bristola -, ki so Armado dobavljali »v škodo njenega veličanstva in razveljavitev kraljestva, če ne celo popravljanja«. Devet tihotapnih tovorov v vrednosti med 300 in 2000 funtov ni bilo le preskrba, ampak tudi strelivo, smodnik, muškete in naboji. Kaj se je zgodilo s temi izdajalci (ali so bili katoličani?), Ni znano, toda v tistih razburkanih časih verjetno ne bi uživali v kraljičinem usmiljenju.

Drugje je sir John Gilbert, polbrat Sir Walterja Raleigha, zavrnil dovoljenje, da bi se njegove ladje pridružile Drakejevi zahodni eskadrili in jim dovolil, da so marca 1588 v nasprotju z mornariškimi ukazi plule na načrtovanem potovanju.

Ker se niso zavedali, da bi Parma nameravala pristati na obali Kenta, so se Elizabetini vojaški svetovalci odločili za Essex kot najverjetnejše mesto, kjer bodo Španci vdrli na kopno. Estuarij Temze je imel širok kanal, ki je vodil naravnost v osrčje prestolnice, obrobljen z blatnimi ploskvami, ki so predstavljale veliko oviro za plovilo katerega koli ugreza. Zato so obrambni načrti vključevali postavitev železne verige čez rečno plovbo v Gravesendu v Kentu. Ta strela, ki jo podpira 120 ladijskih jamborov (stanejo 6 funtov vsakega), zabitih v strugo in pritrjenih na zasidrane vžigalnike, je nameravala ustaviti sovražne ladje, ki so prodirale navzgor proti Londonu.

Prva poplava je prebila oviro.

Podrobna raziskava možnih invazijskih plaž ob Rokavskem prelivu je ustvarila zaskrbljujoč katalog ranljivosti. Samo v Dorsetu je bilo naštetih enajst zalivov s komentarji, kot so: "Chideock in Charmouth sta dve plaži za pristajanje čolnov, vendar mora biti vreme zelo lepo in veter severni." Swanage Bay bi lahko "držal sto ladij in [sidrišče je sposobno] izkrcati ljudi z dvesto čolni in se znova upokojiti brez nevarnosti nizke vode".

Ker ni imela časa, denarja in sredstev, je lahko Elizabetova vlada branila najnevarnejše plaže le z zabijanjem lesenih kolov v pesek in skodlo kot ovire za čolne ali s kopanjem globokih jarkov nad oznako visoke vode. Blatno obzidje so vrgli, da bi zaščitili nekaj topov, ki so na voljo, ali čete, oborožene z arkebusi (zgodnja vrsta muškete) ali loki in puščicami. Utrdbe na strateško pomembnem otoku Wight so morale biti visoke vsaj štiri čevlje in debele štiri metre, z nabodenimi palicami, zabitimi v obraz, in širokim jarkom spredaj. Toda njegov guverner, Sir George Carey, je imel samo štiri pištole in smodnik, ki so bili dovolj za samo en dan uporabe.

Raleigh je ostro kritiziral sveže zgrajene obzidje Portsmouth, ki je varoval njegove kopenske pristope in so bili na veliko žalost Elizabeth uničeni. Nove zemeljske stene so bile zgrajene v samo štirih mesecih, podprte s petimi kamnitimi bastioni v obliki puščice za poplavljenim jarkom. Kljub temu je bila več kot polovica garnizona Portsmouth ocenjena kot "po starosti in nemoči nikakor uporabna", grof Sussex pa je pobegnil nepoškodovan, ko je stara železna pištola (domnevno eden njegovih najboljših topov) razletela na drobce.

Mreža opozorilnih svetilnikov, ki se nahajajo po vsej južni Angliji vsaj od začetka štirinajstega stoletja, je bila prenovljena. Železne košare za ognje, nameščene na visoki leseni konstrukciji na zemeljske gomile, so bile postavljene približno petnajst milj narazen. Kent in Devon sta imela triinštirideset svetilnikov, v Sussexu in Hampshiru pa jih je bilo štiriindvajset. Običajno sta jih v bolj prijaznem vremenu od marca do oktobra posadila dva »modra, budna in diskretna« moška v dvanajsturnih izmenah. Pregledi presenečenj so jim zagotovili skrbnost, zaradi strahu pred motenjem jim je bilo prepovedano imeti pse s seboj. Niso vsi porabili svojega časa za iskanje obzorja za sovražne ladje: dva opazovalca na Stanway beacon v Essexu sta raje ulovila jerebice na koruzni njivi in ​​jih vlekla na sodišče.

Popis leta 1588 je pokazal, da je za vojaško službo na voljo le sto izkušenih "borcev", in ker so se nekateri pred štiridesetimi leti borili v francoskih in škotskih vojnah Henrika VIII., So se ti stari spoti šteli za predjed. Pehoto in konjenico so črpali iz usposobljenih godb in okrajne milice. Tisoč neplačanih veteranov iz angleške vojske na Nizozemskem je bilo naglo odpoklicanih, a so se kmalu opustili, da bi se skrili v stanovanjih Kent's Cinque Ports.

Policisti so bili plemiči in plemiči, katerih motivacija ni bila le obramba njihove države, ampak tudi zaščita njihove lastnine. Mnogi, ki živijo v bližini obale, so menili, da je bolj pametno preseliti svoja gospodinjstva v notranjost, kot pa ostati in se boriti na plažah, vendar so dobili ukaz, naj se vrnejo "zaradi bolečine ogorčenja njenega veličanstva, poleg odvzema [njihovih] zemljišč in blaga".

Glavna vojska je bila razdeljena v dve skupini. Prvi, pod Leicesterom, s 27.000 pehotami in 2.418 konjeniki, bi se spopadel s sovražnikom, ko bi pristal na sili. Druga in večja formacija, ki ji je poveljeval kraljičin bratranec, Lord Hunsdon, je štela 28.900 pehote in 4.400 konjenikov. Zaposleni so bili izključno za obrambo svete osebe same Elizabete, ki je verjetno nameravala ostati v Londonu, z gradom Windsor kot priročno luknjo, če bo prestolnica padla.

Kljub napornim prizadevanjem za nakup orožja v Nemčiji in arkebusov iz Nizozemske je bilo veliko policistov oboroženih le z loki in puščicami. Velik del je bil neoborožen in neobučen.

Da bi se izognili nevarnostim zagovornikov pete kolumne v vrstah milice, je moral vsak moški pred svojimi mojstri priseči na zvestobo Elizabeti.

Okrožje Hampshire je na koncu vzgojilo 9.088 moških, a "mnogi ... [so bili] zelo slabo opremljeni, nekaterim manjka naglavna čelada, nekaterim meč, nekaterim, ki so zanj hudobni, neprimerni ali neprimerni."


Portret španske armade Elizabete I., posnet leta 1588 v spomin na njihov poraz, prek Wikimedia Commons.

Problematična je bila tudi disciplina: poveljnik 3159 pripadnikov milice Dorset (1800 popolnoma neobučenih) je trdno verjel, da se bodo "prej ubili drug drugega, kot da bi motili sovražnika".

Ko je Armada sčasoma očistila Cornwall, so nekatere korniške milice, ki jim je bilo ukazano okrepiti sosednje okraje, mislile, da so naredile več kot dovolj za služenje kraljici in državi. Mislili so na žetev in ti nejevoljni vojaki so se odločili umakniti se svojim poveljnikom in barvam.

Španci so bili zdaj problem nekoga drugega.

ROBERT HUTCHINSON je doktoriral iz arheologije in je svojo kariero preživel kot novinar in založniški direktor, preden je postal kritično priznan zgodovinar Tudor, katerega knjige so prevedene v devet jezikov. Njegova zadnja knjiga je Španska armada.


Španska armada

Čeprav sta Britanija in Španija že prej imeli pacifiške in diplomatske odnose, se je njihov odnos do konca XVI. Stoletja poslabšal. Španski monarh je bil Filip II (ki je bil nekaj časa poročen z Marijo I. Angleško), britanski prestol pa je zasedla Elizabeta I.

V zadnjih desetletjih 16. stoletja je bila Španija najmočnejša država v Evropi, Filip pa v Angliji ni bil dobro cenjen: pravzaprav je na čelu katoliške države preziral protestantizem in je imel kraljico za nezaupljivo in heretična oseba (Britanska knjižnica brez datuma).

Leta 1568 je Španija napadla Nizozemsko in Philip je verjel, da je takšen geografski položaj primeren, ker mu bo sčasoma omogočil z lahkoto vdor v Britanijo. Poleg tega Elizabeth ni bila zadovoljna s špansko invazijo na Nizozemsko in v Belgijo, saj so te države priznavale protestantsko vero.

Parmski vojvoda je vodil špansko odpravo in zahvaljujoč vojaškemu nadzoru je Filipu dosegel odlične rezultate. Zato je Elizabeth do leta 1585 poslala vojake in finančna sredstva Nizozemcem, da bi jim pomagala pri obrambi pred Španci.

Največji udar angleške kraljice pa je bil napad španske vojske v pristaniščih na Karibih: petindvajset ladij je bilo dodeljenih siru Francisu Drakeu.

Filipov poskus vdora v Anglijo in njegov poraz

Leta 1585 se je Filip II odločil za svoj "Enterprise of England": njegov načrt je obsegal pošiljanje velikega števila ladij na Nizozemsko (kjer sta bili španska vojska in vojvoda od Parme), da bi nato dosegli Anglijo in jo napadli. Filipovo floto je sestavljalo skoraj 130 ladij. Vendar se je moral španski monarh spopasti z bližajočo se težavo: pravzaprav Španija ni mogla priti v nizozemsko pristanišče brez nevarnosti, da bi jo napadli lokalni uporniki, ki niso naklonjeni španskemu nadzoru. Tudi vojvoda Parme je menil, da takšna strategija ne bo uspešna. Parmova prerokba se je izkazala za resnično: leta 1587 so Angleži v pristanišču Cadiz (Španija) napadli Filipovo floto. Kljub prvemu padcu je naslednje leto Španija organizirala novo floto pod poveljstvom vojvode od Medine Sidonije (Britanska knjižnica brez datuma). Vendar pa Medina Sidonia ni bila resnično primerna: španskemu kralju je celo trdil, da "po majhnih izkušnjah vem, da bom kmalu zbolel za morjem" (Hutchinson 2013). Medina je bil prepričan, da bo v svojih odpravah kmalu propadel. Kljub temu so ga Filipovi svetovalci poskušali prepričati v nasprotno: 'ne zatirajte nas s strahovi za usodo Armade, ker bo v takem primeru Bog poskrbel, da bo uspela' (Hutchinson 2013). Poleg tega je Medina, ko je nevihtno vreme poškodovalo špansko floto, takoj ko je zapustila Lizbono, Medina pisala Filipu: Priznati moram, da v Armadi vidim zelo malo ali komaj katerega od njih, ki bi vedel ali zmožen opravljajo naloge, ki so jim zaupane. [..] Vaše veličanstvo mi lahko verjame, ko vam zagotovim, da smo zelo šibki. Naj vas ne zavede nihče, ki bi vas želel prepričati v nasprotno. [..] No, gospod, kako mislite, da lahko s tako močjo napademo tako veliko državo, kot je Anglija, kot je naša zdaj “(Hutchinson 2013). Tudi vojvoda Parme je španskega kralja opozoril na bližajoče se nevarnosti: "Če bi naleteli na oborožene angleške ali [nizozemske] uporniške ladje, bi nas lahko z največjo lahkoto uničili" (Hutchinson 2013). Ne glede na številna opozorila, ki jih je prejel Philip, se je kljub temu počutil, da je treba nadaljevati svoje poslanstvo proti Angliji, in napisal pismo admiralom, v katerem je trdil, da ne smejo obupati, saj je vso svojo vero dal Bogu: prihaja iz tega. [..] To podjetje sem posvetil Bogu. Potem se zberi skupaj in naredi svoj del! '(Hutchinson 2013) ..

Ko pa so se Španci približali Rokavskemu kanalu, so jih takoj opazili sovražniki. Zato je bil odhod iz Plymoutha cilj Anglije uničiti špansko armado, preden so prispeli na Nizozemsko, da bi se srečali z vojvodom Parme in njegovo vojsko. Ko je prejel novico, da se Parma ni pripravljena srečati z Armado, se je 7. avgusta španska flota ustavila v pristanišču Calais. Izbira vojvode Medine se je izkazala za nespametno, saj je označila začetek njihovega poraza.

Dejansko je bil Calais nevaren geografski položaj za namestitev španskih ladij: tako blizu britanskih meja so jih lahko kadar koli napadli. Naslednji dan, 8. avgusta, je angleška flota povzročila opustošenje med svojimi sovražniki. Angliji je uspelo premagati špansko armado po zaslugi poveljnikov: Sir Francis Drake, John Hawkins in John Frobisher (Britanska knjižnica).

When the Spanish Armada was defeated, Philip II’s fleet was ‘forced to make the treacherous journey north around Scotland and Ireland’ since the closest route back to Spain was still occupied by the English naval forces (British Library). Such long journey back home caused Spain to lose even more ships due to wrecks along the Scottish coast and the the stormy weather in Ireland (Mackenzie 2018).

The victorious Elizabeth I made public appearances in Tilbury (Essex) as soon as she defeated the Spanish Armada, and she uttered the following famous sentence: ‘I known I have the body of a weak, feeble woman but I have the heart and stomach of a king, and of a king of England too. [..] Shortly we shall have a famous victory over the enemies of my God and of my kingdom’ (Mackenzie 2018 citing Elizabeth I).

Moreover, although the following fact is not widely discussed (especially in English history books), in 1589, England responded to Spain’s attack with a counter-Armada which proved to be a disaster. Such military expedition is known as English-Armada or as the Drake-Norris Expedition.

Facts about the Armada

Philip II had taken two years to put together a fleet of 122 ships. On the other hand, when the Spanish first spotted their enemies in the Port of Plymouth, England possessed only sixty-six ships, and only subsequently its fleet reached two-hundred ships. Although the British and the Spanish did not declare it, they were in the midst of a war, and the Spanish Armada represented the ultimate hostile action against Britain (Mackenzie 2018). Notwithstanding Spain’s military strength, Philip II was aware of the fact that defeating England would have been a great challenge because of their powerful naval fleet. Although England was much stronger in her fleet, Spain’s firepower was 50% stronger than the British one (Mackenzie 2018).

According to Hutchinson (2013) Spain did not lose its naval battle only because of England’s strength: in fact, some of the factors that contributed to their loss were the ‘appalling weather, poor planning and flawed strategy and tactics’.

Following its defeat, Spain almost went bankrupt, whereas England entered a period of peace and prosperity known as the ‘Golden Age’.

Spain did not surrender, and organised other two expeditions in 1596 and 1597: however, they ended disastrously since they were not able to handle the storms.

Reasons that pushed the Spanish Armada to attach England

Being a protestant queen, Elizabeth felt it was her duty to protect the Protestants of other countries that were being attacked. Amongst these, were the Spanish Netherlands. Yet, Queen Elizabeth knew perfectly that assisting them also meant provoking the English Catholics, the Spanish Catholics and the Irish rebels (Adams 2017).

Moreover, being a Catholic country, the Pope strongly supported the Spanish aggression towards Protestant England. In fact, it is worth noting that Elizabeth’s father, Henry VIII, had denied the pope of his powers by creating the Act of Supremacy in 1534, which made the monarch the ‘Supreme Head of the Church of England’. Pope Sixtus V admired Queen Elizabeth for her strength, courage and resolution, and also stated to one of his Venetian ambassadors ‘were she a Catholic, she would be our most beloved, for she is of great worth’ (Hutchinson 2013). Moreover, Philip II and Elizabeth I’s ministers were convinced that the English Catholic population would have upraised and helped the king of Spain in its war against their protestant queen. Those who did betray Elizabeth I by joining the Armada were captured and executed at the Tower of London with the accusation of being ‘rebels and traitors to their country’ (Hutchinson 2013).


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Aflojar - Spanish to English Translation | Spanish Central

se sentó y se aflojó (el nudo de) la corbatahe sat down and loosened (the knot in) his tie. caminamos sin aflojar el paso or la marcha or el ritmowe walked .


The defeat of the Spanish Armada was a turning point in the histories of both England and Spain and one of the great achievements of Queen Elizabeth I.

The defeat of the Spanish Armada was a turning point in the histories of both England and Spain and one of the great achievements of Queen Elizabeth I.

It effectively destroyed the Spanish Empire while establishing England as a world power with a superb Navy.

Spain’s King Philip had decided to invade England for two main reasons.

The first was to crush England’s support for a Protestant uprising in the Netherlands, a land then controlled by Catholic Spain.

The second was to convert England back to Catholicism by ousting Protestant Elizabeth.

The plan was for the Spanish Navy and its army based in the Netherlands to join forces for a simultaneous assault on England.

In 1587 Philip prepared a force of 130 ships, carrying 30,000 men, for the invasion.

The English got wind of the plan and attacked the fleet in Cadiz, Spain, before it could sail — inflicting damage which set the Spanish assault back a year.

The Armada did finally set sail in 1588 and was first sighted off the Lizard, Cornwall, on July 29.

Admiral Lord Howard, with Sir Francis Drake as his vice-admiral, intercepted it with smaller and faster ships and fought battles off Plymouth, Portland Bill and the Isle of Wight.

But the Armada kept its formation and pushed on to Calais, ready to meet the land force coming from the Netherlands.

Here Howard struck the decisive blow.

After Elizabeth’s famous speech to her men, he sailed “fireships” into the Armada’s midst.

These were obsolete ships deliberately torched in the hope of setting light to the Spanish galleons.

The Spanish panicked, scattered and eventually fled, with the English Navy in hot pursuit.

Bad weather had cut off the Armada’s route home via the Channel and they were forced to head north to sail back to Spain around Scotland and Ireland.

The English gave up the chase, but the Spanish still faced a gruelling voyage. Only 67 of the original 130 ships made it home — most of those badly damaged.

The defeat of the Armada was one of the defining moments of Elizabeth’s extraordinary 45-year reign — which saw England enjoy an unprecedented period of economic and cultural prosperity and transformed into a world power.

Elizabeth, daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, managed to unify a deeply divided country by setting herself up as its glittering focal point.

Her bravery and cunning combined with her talent for self-display provided an inspirational figurehead.

Elizabeth firmly established Protestantism in England and brutally put down attempts to re-establish Catholicism.

This included executing her cousin Mary, Queen of Scots, in 1587 after learning that plotters aimed to assassinate her and put Mary on the throne.

Elizabeth never married and was known as the Virgin Queen.

In 1559 she refused a proposal from Spain’s King Philip, who later planned the Armada.

Elizabeth’s reign is also noteworthy for the most prolific period for literature in English history — thanks to writers such as William Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe and Edmund Spenser.

Sir Francis Drake

Sir Francis Drake devoted his life to waging war on the Spanish and became England’s first millionaire in the process.

Born near Tavistock, Devon, about 1540, he commanded his first ship at 27. Spaniards attacked his ship on a slave-trading trip in the Gulf of Mexico — and his hatred of Spain was born. He went on a string of voyages to the Caribbean and the New World, destroying and looting Spanish ships and ports and returning laden down with silver.

After one trip (1577-80) to the coast of the New World he returned by sailing west across the Pacific, rounding the Cape of Good Hope in Africa and thus becoming the first Englishman to sail round the world.

Drake’s most daring feat was when, on the orders of Queen Elizabeth, he wrecked the Spanish fleet at Cadiz as it prepared for the Armada. He served as vice-admiral when the Armada attacked a year later — and is famously said to have carried on playing bowls after its first sighting.

In 1595 Elizabeth sent him on another expedition against the Spanish in the West Indies, where he caught dysentery and died.


Who were the Black Irish, and what is their story?

The term "Black Irish" has been in circulation among Irish emigrants and their descendants for centuries. Yet, as a subject of historical discussion, it is almost never referred to in Ireland.

There are a number of different claims as to the origin of the term, none of which are possible to entirely prove or disprove.

The term is commonly used to describe people of Irish origin who have dark features, black hair, a dark complexion and dark eyes.

A quick review of Irish history reveals that the island was subject to a number of influxes of foreign cultures. The Celts arrived on the island about the year 500 B.C.

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Whether or not this was an actual invasion or rather a more gradual migration and assimilation of their culture by the native Irish is open to conjecture, but there is sufficient evidence to suggest that this latter explanation is more likely.

The next great influx came from Northern Europe, with Viking raids occurring as early as 795 A.D. The defeat of the Vikings at the Battle of Clontarf in the year 1014 by Brian Boru marked the end of the struggle with the invaders and saw the subsequent integration of the Vikings into Irish society. The migrants became 'Gaelicized' and formed septs (a kind of clan) along Gaelic lines.

The Norman invasions of 1170 and 1172 led by Strongbow saw yet another wave of immigrants settle in the country, many of whom fiercely resisted English dominance of the island in the centuries that followed. The Plantation of Ulster in the seventeenth century saw the arrival of English and Scottish colonists in Ulster after the Flight of the Earls.

Each of these immigrant groups had their own physical characteristics and all, with the exception of the Ulster Planters, assimilated to some degree into Irish society, many claiming to be "more Irish than the Irish themselves"

The Vikings were often referred to as the "dark invaders" or "black foreigners." The Gaelic word for foreigner is "gall" and for black (or dark) is "dubh."

Many of the invaders' families took Gaelic names that utilized these two descriptive words. The name Doyle is in Irish "O'Dubhghaill" which literally means "dark foreigner" which reveals their heritage as an invading force with dark intentions.

The name Gallagher is "O Gallchobhair" which translates as "foreign help." The traditional image of Vikings is of pale-skinned blond-haired invaders but their description as "dark foreigners" may lead us to conclude that their memory in folklore does not necessarily reflect their physical description.

The Normans were invited into Ireland by Dermot McMurrough and were led by the famous Strongbow. The Normans originated in France, where black-haired people are not uncommon. As with the Vikings, these were viewed as a people of "dark intentions" who ultimately colonized much of the Eastern part of the country and several larger towns.

Many families, however, integrated into Gaelic society and changed their Norman name to Gaelic and then Anglo equivalents: the Powers, the Fitzpatricks, Fitzgeralds, Devereux, Redmonds.

It is possible that the term "Black Irish" may have referred to some of these immigrant groups as a way of distinguishing them from the "Gaels," the people of ultimately Celtic origin.

Another theory of the origin of the term "Black Irish" is that these people were descendants of Spanish traders who settled in Ireland and even descendants of the few Spanish sailors who were washed up on the west coast of Ireland after the disaster of the Spanish Armada of 1588.

It is claimed that the Spanish married into Irish society and created a new class of Irish who were immediately recognizable by their dark hair and complexion. There is little evidence to support this theory and it is unlikely that any significant number of Spanish soldiers would have survived long in the war-torn place that was 16th century Ireland.

It is striking, though, how this tale is very similar to the ancient Irish legend of the Milesians who settled in Ireland having traveled from Spain.

The theory that the "Black Irish" are descendants of any small foreign group that integrated with the Irish and survived is unlikely. It seems more likely that "Black Irish" is a descriptive term rather than an inherited characteristic that has been applied to various categories of Irish people over the centuries.

One such example is that of the hundreds of thousands of Irish peasants who emigrated to America after the Great Famine of 1845 to 1849. 1847 was known as "black 47." The potato blight which destroyed the main source of sustenance turned the vital food black. It is possible that the arrival of large numbers of Irish after the famine into America, Canada, Australia and beyond resulted in their being labeled as "black" in that they escaped from this new kind of black death.

Immigrant groups throughout history have generally been treated poorly by the indigenous population (or by those who simply settled first).

Derogatory names for immigrant groups are legion and in the case of those who left Ireland include "Shanty Irish" and almost certainly "Black Irish." It is also possible that within the various Irish cultures that became established in America that there was a pecking order, a class system that saw some of their countrymen labeled as "black."

The term "Black Irish" has also been applied to the descendants of Irish emigrants who settled in the West Indies. It was also used in Ireland by Catholics in Ulster Province as a derogatory term to describe the Protestant Planters.

While it at various stages was almost certainly used as an insult, the term "Black Irish" has emerged in recent times as a virtual badge of honor among some descendants of immigrants. It is unlikely that the exact origin of the term will ever be known and it is also likely that it has had a number of different iterations, depending on the historical context. It remains, therefore, a descriptive term used for many purposes, rather than a reference to an actual class of people who may have survived the centuries.

Visit The Information about Ireland site to read more about Irish history, culture, and heritage.

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Zaključek

The defeat of the Armada was a major turning point in English history. It saved the throne of Elizabeth I and guaranteed English independence from Spain. The Spanish saw the invasion as a crusade and one that would stamp out the heresy of Protestantism in England. The failure of the invasion meant that Protestantism became more entrenched and less sympathetic to Catholicism. Indeed, in the aftermath of the Armada, Protestantism became part of the national identity. To be English was to be a Protestant and to reject Catholicism.

The attempted Spanish invasion led to the adoption of an anti-Catholic discourse, known as Popery, and this was an important factor in English political life for over two centuries. The Armada did not end Spanish maritime supremacy, but it did lead to England becoming a formidable naval power. This allowed it to found colonies and trading companies in the early seventeenth century to lay the British Empire's foundation.


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I'm a Spaniard, and I have studied a lot about this battle.

First of all, the two navies:

Spanish armada: 22 galleons (actual equivalent of destroyers) 103 light warship (corvettes).

Royal Navy: 34 warships 163 light warships 30 dutch flyboats (equivalent of actual frigates).

Spanish navy: Alvaro de Bazan (One of the best admirals of the Spanish navy) Duke of Medina Sidonia (A young man with no experience, captain of the navy).

Royal Navy: Charles Howard (The Lord High Admiral of the Royal Navy) Francis Drake (A vice-admiral of the Royal Navy, with experience in naval battles with the Spanish navy).

Third, the incidents before the mission:

Alvaro de Bazan, the leader of the naval mission, died five months before the start of the mission, so Medina Sidonia became the leader and had to prepare the invasion fleet.

Fourth, the mission of the Spanish fleet: Spanish navy: Go to Flanders and join with the Spanish army. When the Spanish army joins the naval fleet, land in Dover.

Royal navy: Naval fight at sea and avoid any incursion of the Spanish navy.

Fifth, incidents before the battle: The Royal Navy fleet saw the Spanish fleet and they went to attack.

In spite of advice from captains of the Spanish armada to the Spanish commander to fight the Royal Navy, the Spanish commander said no and they continued the trip. So the royal navy chased all the Spanish fleet along the English channel.

Sixth, they arrived at the Belgium coast. In spite of the chase by the royal navy and the desperate English attacks at the port. the Spanish fleet lost only eight warships. The Spanish fleet never lost the formation.

The final surprise: One of the biggest storms arrived in the English channel and with that storm, the Spanish army could not join the fleet.

This big storm disbanded the Spanish fleet formation and gave the possibility to the English fleet to destroy the Spanish fleet. anon129458 November 23, 2010

Very helpful for my work, but I could have done with more reasons on why they had failed. Thanks anyway. heyheyhey123 April 29, 2010

i found this to be a very good site. it got to the main points and even though it did not have what i was looking for it was good!

very helpful in getting ideas for writing an essay. thank you! anon68613 March 3, 2010

i think it needs to say why the Spanish Armada is important in history! otherwise it is really helpful. anon50852 November 1, 2009

I think that these few paragraphs are very helpful with the understanding of the Spanish Armada .


Poglej si posnetek: The Spanish Armada. Episode 39. Lineage (November 2021).