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Curtiss A-3

Curtiss A-3


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Curtiss A-3

Curtiss A-3 je bilo napadalno letalo, izdelano za letalsko korpus ameriške vojske z modifikacijo obstoječega opazovalnega letala O-1 Falcon. O-1 je bil dvosedežni dvokrilni motor z enim motorjem, izdelan z okvirjem iz aluminijastih cevi, povezanih z jeklenimi palicami. Krila so bila leseno uokvirjena in prekrita s tkanino. Krila so bila razporejena, pri čemer je bilo daljše zgornje krilo postavljeno naprej od krajšega spodnjega krila. Za boljšo vidljivost pilota je bilo središče zgornjega krila nameščeno precej naprej, pri čemer so bili konci odmaknjeni nazaj za devet stopinj.

Standard O-1B je nosil dve fiksni strelni pištoli, ki sta sinhronizirani za streljanje skozi lok propelerja, in dve fleksibilni pištoli v zadnji kabini. A-3 sta bili dodani še dve fiksni strelni pištoli, ki sta se nahajali v spodnjem krilu tik izven loka propelerja, da so lahko streljali pri visoki hitrosti. A-3 je dobil tudi stojala za bombe pod spodnjimi krili. A-3 je poganjal motor Curtiss V-1150-3 (D-12D) in je imel podobne podatke kot O-1B.

Prototip A-3 je bil izdelan s spreminjanjem standarda O-1B (št. 27-243). To letalo je bilo kasneje spremenjeno nazaj v standard O-1B. Sledila so tri naročila za skupaj 66 A-3. Šest od teh letal je bilo pozneje razoroženo, z dvojnim upravljanjem in uporabljenih kot letala za usposabljanje z oznako A-3A.

Leta 1928 je AAC namesto običajnih manevrov izvedel vrsto zračnih operacij v vojaških šolah. Prvi A-3 so prišli pravočasno, da bi sodelovali v teh vajah, devet jih je skupaj s šestnajstimi O-2 sestavilo napadno eskadrilo.

A-3B

V letu 1930 je bilo naročenih še 78 A-3. Ta letala so vključevala vse izboljšave Falcona med O-1B in O1-E in so bila označena kot A-3B. Te spremembe so vključevale uporabo krilcev Frize, dvigov z uravnoteženim rogom in oleo-pnevmatskih amortizerjev. Do leta 1931 je sedemdeset letal A-3B predstavljalo večino napadalnih letal, uporabljenih v manevrih tega leta, preostale pa majhno število A-3.

Letalski korpus z A-3 ni bil prav zadovoljen. Sprejemljiva letala so bila označena kot "standardna"-to je standardni bombnik ali standardni borec letalskega korpusa, vendar je bil A-3 označen kot "omejen" ali "nadomestni" standard. Zadnji od A-3B je bil odpravljen oktobra 1937.

A-3B (Curtissov model 44)
Motor: Curtiss D-12E (V-1150)
Moč: 426 KM
Razpon: 38ft 0in
Dolžina: 27ft 7in
Višina: 10ft 3in
Teža prazne: 2,902lb
Bruto teža: 4,476lb
Največja hitrost: 139,4 km / h
Potovalna hitrost: 111 km / h
Hitrost vzpona: 948ft/ sec
Strop: 14.400 ft
Domet: 647 milj s 100 litri goriva
Pištole: štiri fiksne in dve prilagodljivi strojnici
Obremenitev bombe: 200 lb

Predlagano branje
Letalo Curtiss, 1907-1947, Peter M Bowers (Amazon.co.uk)
Letalo Curtiss, 1907-1947, Peter M Bowers (Amazon.com)


Model XA-8 59, en prototip, serijska številka 30-387, dolžina 32  ft 6  in (9.9  m), razpon kril 44  ft (13.4  m), bruto teža 5.413  lb (2.455   160 kg) Curtiss V-1570-23 motor z neposrednim pogonom Β ]

Servisna testna letala YA-8, 5 izdelanih, serijske številke 32-344 do 32-348, bruto teža 5,706  lb (2,588  kg), Β ] eno je bilo predelano v prototip YA-10 s 625 & #160 KM (466  kW) Pratt & amp Whitney Hornet radialni motor in#912 ] Y1A-8 servisna testna letala, 8 zgrajenih, bruto teža 5.710  lb (2.590   kg) Β ] A-8 12 preoblikovano Letala YA-8 in Y1A-8 Β ] Y1A-8A zadnji Y1A-8 z motorjem Curtiss V-1570-57, z dolžino 10,24  in (10,24  in), bruto teža 6,287  lb (2.852   kg) Β ] A-8A preimenovano letalo Y1A-8A Β ] A-8B odpovedano, zamenjano z A-12 Shrike Β ]


Možnosti za zaposlitev

Curtiss-Wright ima zgodovino stalne rasti, osredotočenost na inovativno tehnologijo in podjetniški duh. Kariere, ki ponujajo ustvarjalne izzive, možnosti za delo v globalnem okolju in zadovoljstvo, da svojim strankam pomagamo do uspeha na konkurenčnem trgu, so na voljo v celotni organizaciji. Izkoristite priložnost, da spoznate Curtiss-Wrighta, raziščete zaposlitvene možnosti in razmislite o tem, da postanete del naše ekipe.

Prosim, da ne posredujete agencij. OPOMBA: Življenjepisi, predloženi kateremu koli zaposlenemu v podjetju Curtiss-Wright brez trenutne, podpisane in veljavne pogodbe z ekipo za zaposlovanje Curtiss-Wright, bodo last Curtiss-Wrighta in ne bodo plačani nobeni stroški iskanja.


Amerika na križarjenju

Letalskega pionirja Glenna Curtissa je regija Finger Lakes na jugu zvezne države New York pritegnila posebno pozornost. "Curtiss je bil navdušen nad izstopom iz vode," pravi Trafford Doherty, izvršni direktor muzeja Glenn H. Curtiss v Hammondsportu, domačem kraju Curtissa, ki se nahaja na južnem koncu jezera Keuka (izgovorjeno "CUE-ka"). Leta 1908 ni bilo letališč, zato bi bilo letalo, ki bi lahko vzletelo in pristalo na vodi, veliko bolj vsestransko uporabno od kopenskega letala.

Iz te zgodbe

Ko se je dvomotorna Amerika izkazala za premalo zmogljivo, je Curtiss dodal še tretji motor. Delovalo je na jezeru Keuka, vendar se je poraba goriva izkazala za preveliko za prehod čez Atlantik. (NASM (SI Neg. #83-8674)) Strokovnjak za muzejske motorje Curtiss Norm Brush, levo, in Lee Sackett, kopilot reprodukcije, imata sedeža v prvi vrsti kot Amerika vlečejo na krst. (James Wynbrandt) Ob predstavitvi nove reprodukcije so navdušenci Curtissa znova ustvarili krst izvirnika leta 1914 Amerika. Ženska v belem igra krstiteljico, ki ni mogla razbiti steklenice ob trup. Posadka je steklenico pritrdila na pramček in uporabila kladivo. (James Wynbrandt) Prostorna kabina je nosila nekaj instrumentov. (James Wynbrandt) Reprodukcija je povzročila hitre taksije, vendar ni mogla poleteti iz vode. (James Wynbrandt) Z Glennom Curtissom za kontrolo je Amerika preletel jezero Keuka leta 1914. "Najboljše leteče plovilo, v katerem sem kdaj sedel - miren kot skala," je poročal, a je kmalu izvedel številne izboljšave. (NASM (SI NEG: #A-4813-A)) Na poletni dan leta 1914 se je srečna množica izkazala za Amerikalansira na jezeru Keuka. Hydroaeroplane Curtiss je zasidran za Amerika. (NASM (SI NEG: #94-18))

Foto galerija

Doherty, nekdanji pilot in specialist za nadzor proizvodnje pri letalski družbi Schweizer v bližnji Elmiri, je genialni turistični vodnik. Ko pripravlja muzej na banket ob petem letnem vikendu povratka domov s hidroplanom, opozarja na artefakte in eksponate, ki potrjujejo Curtissovega iznajdljivega genija: kolesa, motorna kolesa, motorje, hišno prikolico in seveda letala, od zgodnjega "potiskalca" (s propelerjem obrnjenim proti zadnjemu delu letala) skozi znamenito serijo JN "Jenny" do kasnejših modelov, vključno z oriolo in robinom.

Do leta 1911, ko je Curtiss izpopolnil tehnologijo, potrebno za operacije s hidroplani, si je že prislužil naziv "Najhitrejši človek na svetu", tako da je motor z motorjem V-8, ki ga je izdelal, pognal s hitrostjo 136 km / h. Prav tako je opravil prvi vnaprej napovedan javni let v Združenih državah (z licenco pilota številka 1 Aero Cluba v Ameriki), zmagal na prvi mednarodni letalski dirki (zaslužil pilotsko licenco številka 2 pri F éd ération A & #233ronautique Internationale Louis Bl ériot je imel številko 1) in prvi let na dolge razdalje med dvema ameriškima mestoma opravil z letenjem iz Albanyja v New York. Za premagovanje hidrostatičnega trenja —a sesalne sile, ki preprečuje, da bi se trupi in plovci hidroplanov izločili iz vode —izumil je "stopnico", kotni prelom na dnu trupov in plovcev, ki omogoča, da se hidroplan dvigne iz vode. Ta korak velja za njegov najpomembnejši prispevek k znanosti o vodnem letenju. Prvič izpopolnjen na modelu E iz leta 1912 (ki velja za prvi uspešen leteči čoln na svetu), mu je izum drugič v dveh letih prinesel prestižno nagrado Collier Trophy (prva je bila za izum "hidroaeroplana"). Medtem je iz svojega domačega kraja naredil verjetno letalsko prestolnico sveta. Art Wilder, upokojeni strojni inženir in direktor restavratorske delavnice v muzeju, pravi: "V Hammondsportu je bilo med letoma 1908 in 1914 storjenega več kot v katerem koli drugem obdobju zgodovine letal."

Turisti morda poznajo regijo Finger Lakes bolj zaradi njenih kleti kot zaradi dosežkov svojega najljubšega sina, toda na oblačen dan lanskega septembra so se obiskovalci dobro zavedali dela Glenna Curtissa. Prišli so si ogledati muzejsko reprodukcijo Curtissove leteče ladje America iz leta 1914, ki je prvič poletela. Dogodek je bil na koledarjih daleč naokoli. "Za to smo prišli celo iz Virginije," je rekla Joyce Miller, ki je stala z možem Hugom, ki je nosil majico z napisom "Kdo Wilbur in Orville?"

Za izgradnjo ameriške reprodukcije so potrebovali tri leta. Leta 1999 so prostovoljci muzejske restavratorske trgovine dokončali in odleteli z reprodukcijo letečega čolna modela E iz leta 1913, leta 2004 pa so dokončali in odleteli z reprodukcijo triade A-1. Mornarica je leta 1911 kupila izvirni A-1 in prvo letalo storitve. (To je v kombinaciji z dejstvom, da je Curtiss šolal prvega pilota mornarice, zaslužil naziv Oče pomorskega letalstva.) Toda muzej meni, da je Amerika na nek način pomembnejše letalo. Vključeval je protipelerje, ki se vrtijo, in zaprto kabino in bil je prvi leteči čoln z več motorji —dva sprva, nato trije. S 72-metrskim razponom kril in prazno težo 3000 funtov je bil to mamut. "V primerjavi z drugimi ameriškimi letali je bila Amerika kot Starship Enterprise," pravi Doherty.

Amerika je bila zgrajena za tekmovanje za nagrado 50.000 dolarjev, ki jo ponuja londonski Daily Mail za prvo čezatlantsko prečkanje z letečim strojem. Rodman Wanamaker, sin ustanovitelja veleblagovnice Philadelphia Johna Wanamakerja, je naročil gradnjo in dal Curtissu 25.000 dolarjev za gradnjo čolna Model H, Curtiss-Wanamaker America. Wanamaker je nameraval let podvojiti kot stoletni pozdrav v Gentovski pogodbi iz leta 1814, ki je končala vojno 1812, in želel je, da si to čast podelita Britanec in Američan. Cyril Porte iz kraljeve mornarice je bil imenovan za pilota, George Hallett, mehanik in uslužbenec Curtissa, pa je bil kopilot. Oba moška sta bila prisotna 22. junija 1914, ko so Ameriko krstili v Hammondsportu pred 2000 obiskovalci. Eno od Hallettovih zahtevnih nalog je bila menjava svečk med letom (čepi takrat niso trajali dolgo). Človek se sprašuje, kako se je počutil glede možnosti, da bi to storil v nemirnem zraku, slabem vremenu in večerni temi.

Poleti 1914 je bila Amerika podvržena obsežnim preskušanjem. Komaj mesec pred začetkom leta je izbruhnila prva svetovna vojna. Porte so odpoklicali v Anglijo in let ustavili.

Več kot 50 let kasneje je Hallett v svojih spominih razmišljal o očiščeni misiji: "Takrat nihče od nas ni verjel, da leta ne bi mogel uspešno opraviti, a če pogledamo nazaj po nekaj letih in veliko izkušnjah, se zdi meni, da nam ne bi uspelo. " Hallett je zaključil, da bi pomanjkanje ogrevalnega sistema uplinjača, vibracije, ki bi lahko pretresle ohlapne hladilne linije motorja, ali zaledenitev letalskega ogrodja, obsojale let. (Letalo, ki je končno opravilo prvi let čez Atlantik, je bilo tudi hidroplan, zgrajen v Curtissu, NC-4, edini od treh NC-jev, ki so poskušali leta 1919.)

Britanska vojska je kupila Ameriko in drugi model H za svoj program razvoja patruljnih letal, skupaj z množico letečih čolnov H-4 Small America. Noben model H ni preživel. "V nesrečah niso bili izgubljeni," pravi Doherty. "Preizkusili so jih do uničenja. Bilo je ostro okolje, hidroplani pa so imeli običajno kratko življenjsko dobo."
Toda osnovna zasnova trupa je preživela, prilagojena za večja obalna in protipodmorniška patruljna letala Združenega kraljestva prve svetovne vojne, začenši s Felixstowe F-1. Curtiss je razvil izvedene finančne instrumente in jih prodal ameriški in cesarski ruski mornarici. In Amerika je živela v trupih letal od Pan Am-ovih Boeing 314 Clippers do PBY Catalinas do čudeža enega leta Howard Hughesa, ki je bil po naključju označen tudi za H-4. Treba je le primerjati široka in oklepana dna ameriških potomcev s skromnimi sponzorji, ki izvirajo iz ameriškega trupa, da bi videli družinsko podobnost. "Vsi veliki leteči čolni na svetu imajo krvno linijo [segajo] nazaj do tega letala," pravi Jim Poel, nekdanji kapitan letalske družbe, lastnik republikanske dvoživke RC-3 Seabee in pilot razmnožene Amerike.

Za prvotno Ameriko ne obstaja popoln nabor načrtov. Muzej je svojo reprodukcijo temeljil na delnih načrtih, fotografijah in zapisih gradbenega materiala. Okvir je iz pepela, smreka Sitka pa krilna rebra. Tako kot izvirnik je plovilo obarvano temno rdeče. Namesto živalskih lepil in svile, ki jo je Curtiss uporabil za pokrivanje svojega modela H, je ekipa za ponovno ustvarjanje uporabila Polyfibre, sintetično letalsko tkanino, podobno Dacronu.


Buffalo History Gazette

*Četrtletnik Nacionalnega društva za zaščito pred požarom, letnik 36, št. 2, oktober 1942, str. 137-138.
"Ko je letalo strmoglavilo skozi streho, je bencin, ki se je iztekel iz rezervoarja trupa, povzročil izredno vroč požar. Zaposleni v tovarni so takoj sprožili alarm prek treh zasebnih požarnih alarmnih omar, odzvalo pa se je 90 članov gasilske enote obrata, ki so odlično opravili gašenje požara. . Pomagalo jim je delovanje 208 avtomatskih brizgalnih glav na sistemu z mokrimi cevmi. Na srečo padajoče letalo ni resno poškodovalo brizgalne cevi, čeprav sta 174-palčna brizgalna cev in 6-palčna komercialna vodovodna linija suspendirana iz strop je počil in te cevi so sprostile precejšnje količine vode, ki je poplavila veliko območje.
Inženir obrata dežurni, ko je slišal nesrečo, se je takoj posvetoval z merilnikom tlaka vode in opazil, da je tlak padel na dvajset kilogramov. Začel je 1500 g.p.m. požarno črpalko na električni pogon in začela segrevati 1500 g / min parna turbinska črpalka, ki je bila obratovana. Pri obeh črpalkah je bil vzdrževan tlak 75 funtov na kvadratni palec.
Poziv uporaba pene in ogljikovega dioksida je bila v pomoč pri preprečevanju širjenja ognja pri gorenju bencina na površini vode. Ocenjuje se, da je bil požar pod nadzorom v 15 minutah, v 30 minutah pa je bil popolnoma pogasen.
“Jesen gorečega letala so opazovali člani Engine Co. 7 gasilske enote Buffalo, nameščene na letališču Buffalo. To podjetje je ob predpostavki, da bi letalo padlo na polju izven stavbe, odgovorilo ob 17.15. s treskavcem, opremljenim z opremo iz pene in ogljikovega dioksida, ter s črpalko 1000 galon. Noben kos aparature ni bil uporabljen, je pa gasilsko podjetje dragoceno pomagalo pri oskrbi enega od zasebnih cevovodov, odpeljalo poškodovance na postajo prve pomoči, izčrpalo poplavljeno območje pod nivojem tal in pri prekrivanju poškodovane strehe &# 8230. ” (Wright. NFPA Quarterly, oktober 1942, 137.)

Izjava o upravljanju: "V zvezi z junaštvom delavcev Curtissa-ne morem reči dovolj. Mnogi so tvegali poškodbe in celo življenje, ko so reševali svoje sodelavce pred ognjem, ki je sledil nesreči. Nekateri reševalci so med tistimi, ki so zdaj v bolnišnicah." "Stražarji Curtissa, člani prostovoljnih enot za gašenje požarov in zračnih napadov ter posamezniki iz pisarniškega in tovarniškega osebja, so opravljali te dodatne naloge, ne da bi se obotavljali, da bi pomislili na stroške ali pomislili na svojo osebno nevarnost.
"Vsi drugi delavci v tovarni v tistem času, ki morda niso sodelovali neposredno, so svojo umirjenost in način, kako so ostali pri svojem delu, pokazali s svojo srčnostjo. Vsem bi se rad iz srca zahvalil," vključno z zunanjimi agencijami, ki so tako prostovoljno priskrbele svojo pomoč. To je velika zahvala tistim na bojišču, da tisti na proizvodni fronti danes normalno nadaljujejo s pravim ameriškim borbenim duhom. "


Curtiss-Wright CW-1 mlajši

Za ponovno uporabo tega medija obstajajo omejitve. Za več informacij obiščite stran s pogoji uporabe podjetja Smithsonian.

IIIF raziskovalcem ponuja bogate možnosti metapodatkov in ogledov slik za primerjavo del v zbirkah kulturne dediščine. Več - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 mlajši

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior je bilo športno letalo zmerno ceno, proizvedeno pred Veliko depresijo za širšo javnost. Zaradi cenovne dostopnosti, zmogljivosti na kratkem polju, trdne konstrukcije, nizke hitrosti vodenja in dobre vidljivosti je bilo letalo enostavno in varno za letenje. Junior je kmalu postal najbolj priljubljeno letalo tipa flivver v zgodnjih tridesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja in predstavlja pomemben mejnik v gibanju letal & quoteveryman & quot v tistem obdobju.

Veljajo pogoji uporabe

Za ponovno uporabo tega medija obstajajo omejitve. Za več informacij obiščite stran s pogoji uporabe podjetja Smithsonian.

IIIF raziskovalcem ponuja bogate možnosti metapodatkov in ogledov slik za primerjavo del v zbirkah kulturne dediščine. Več - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 mlajši motor in propelerji

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior je bilo športno letalo zmerno ceno, proizvedeno pred veliko depresijo za širšo javnost. Zaradi cenovne dostopnosti, zmogljivosti na kratkem polju, trdne konstrukcije, nizke hitrosti vodenja in dobre vidljivosti je bilo letalo enostavno in varno za letenje. Junior je kmalu postal najbolj priljubljeno letalo tipa flivver v zgodnjih tridesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja in predstavlja pomemben mejnik v gibanju letal & quoteveryman & quot v tistem obdobju. Na tej sliki je poudarjen motor in propelerji Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior.

Veljajo pogoji uporabe

Za ponovno uporabo tega medija obstajajo omejitve. Za več informacij obiščite stran s pogoji uporabe podjetja Smithsonian.

IIIF raziskovalcem ponuja bogate možnosti metapodatkov in ogledov slik za primerjavo del v zbirkah kulturne dediščine. Več - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 mlajši motor

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior je bilo športno letalo zmerno ceno, proizvedeno pred veliko depresijo za širšo javnost. Zaradi cenovne dostopnosti, zmogljivosti na kratkem polju, trdne konstrukcije, nizke hitrosti vodenja in dobre vidljivosti je bilo letalo enostavno in varno za letenje. Junior je kmalu postal najbolj priljubljeno letalo tipa flivver v zgodnjih tridesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja in predstavlja pomemben mejnik v gibanju letal & quoteveryman & quot v tistem obdobju. Na tej sliki je poudarjen motor Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior.

Veljajo pogoji uporabe

Za ponovno uporabo tega medija obstajajo omejitve. Za več informacij obiščite stran s pogoji uporabe podjetja Smithsonian.

IIIF raziskovalcem ponuja bogate možnosti metapodatkov in ogledov slik za primerjavo del v zbirkah kulturne dediščine. Več - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 mlajši trup

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior je bilo športno letalo zmerno ceno, proizvedeno pred veliko depresijo za širšo javnost. Zaradi cenovne dostopnosti, zmogljivosti na kratkem polju, trdne konstrukcije, nizke hitrosti rokovanja in dobre vidljivosti je bilo letalo enostavno in varno za letenje. Junior je kmalu postal najbolj priljubljeno letalo tipa flivver v zgodnjih tridesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja in predstavlja pomemben mejnik v gibanju letal & quoteveryman & quot v tistem obdobju. Na tej sliki je poudarjen trup Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior.

Veljajo pogoji uporabe

Za ponovno uporabo tega medija obstajajo omejitve. Za več informacij obiščite stran s pogoji uporabe podjetja Smithsonian.

IIIF raziskovalcem ponuja bogate možnosti metapodatkov in ogledov slik za primerjavo del v zbirkah kulturne dediščine. Več - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 mlajši

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior je bilo športno letalo zmerno ceno, proizvedeno pred Veliko depresijo za širšo javnost. Zaradi cenovne dostopnosti, zmogljivosti na kratkem polju, trdne konstrukcije, nizke hitrosti vodenja in dobre vidljivosti je bilo letalo enostavno in varno za letenje. Junior je kmalu postal najbolj priljubljeno letalo tipa flivver v zgodnjih tridesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja in predstavlja pomemben mejnik v gibanju letal & quoteveryman & quot v tistem obdobju.

Veljajo pogoji uporabe

Za ponovno uporabo tega medija obstajajo omejitve. Za več informacij obiščite stran s pogoji uporabe podjetja Smithsonian.

IIIF raziskovalcem ponuja bogate možnosti metapodatkov in ogledov slik za primerjavo del v zbirkah kulturne dediščine. Več - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 mlajši

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior je bilo športno letalo zmerno ceno, proizvedeno pred Veliko depresijo za širšo javnost. Zaradi cenovne dostopnosti, zmogljivosti na kratkem polju, trdne konstrukcije, nizke hitrosti rokovanja in dobre vidljivosti je bilo letalo enostavno in varno za letenje. Junior je kmalu postal najbolj priljubljeno letalo tipa flivver v zgodnjih tridesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja in predstavlja pomemben mejnik v gibanju letal & quoteveryman & quot v tistem obdobju.

Veljajo pogoji uporabe

Za ponovno uporabo tega medija obstajajo omejitve. Za več informacij obiščite stran s pogoji uporabe podjetja Smithsonian.

IIIF raziskovalcem ponuja bogate možnosti metapodatkov in ogledov slik za primerjavo del v zbirkah kulturne dediščine. Več - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 mlajši

Dvomestno enokrilno srebrno-modro monoplansko krilo s senčnikom s potisnim motorjem Szekely SR-3 s cilindrom 45 KM.

Veljajo pogoji uporabe

Za ponovno uporabo tega medija obstajajo omejitve. Za več informacij obiščite stran s pogoji uporabe podjetja Smithsonian.

IIIF raziskovalcem ponuja bogate možnosti metapodatkov in ogledov slik za primerjavo del v zbirkah kulturne dediščine. Več - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 mlajši

Dvomestno enokrilno srebrno-modro enokrilno krilo s senčnikom z motorjem Szekely SR-3 s cilindrom 45 KM.

Veljajo pogoji uporabe

Za ponovno uporabo tega medija obstajajo omejitve. Za več informacij obiščite stran s pogoji uporabe podjetja Smithsonian.

IIIF raziskovalcem ponuja bogate možnosti metapodatkov in ogledov slik za primerjavo del v zbirkah kulturne dediščine. Več - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 mlajši

Dvomestno enokrilno srebrno-modro monoplansko krilo s senčnikom s potisnim motorjem Szekely SR-3 s cilindrom 45 KM.

Veljajo pogoji uporabe

Za ponovno uporabo tega medija obstajajo omejitve. Za več informacij obiščite stran s pogoji uporabe podjetja Smithsonian.

IIIF raziskovalcem ponuja bogate možnosti metapodatkov in ogledov slik za primerjavo del v zbirkah kulturne dediščine. Več - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 mlajši

Dvomestno enokrilno srebrno-modro monoplansko krilo s senčnikom s potisnim motorjem Szekely SR-3 s cilindrom 45 KM.

Veljajo pogoji uporabe

Za ponovno uporabo tega medija obstajajo omejitve. Za več informacij obiščite stran s pogoji uporabe podjetja Smithsonian.

IIIF raziskovalcem ponuja bogate možnosti metapodatkov in ogledov slik za primerjavo del v zbirkah kulturne dediščine. Več - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 mlajši

Dvomestno enokrilno srebrno-modro monoplansko krilo s senčnikom s potisnim motorjem Szekely SR-3 s cilindrom 45 KM.

Veljajo pogoji uporabe

Za ponovno uporabo tega medija obstajajo omejitve. Za več informacij obiščite stran s pogoji uporabe podjetja Smithsonian.

IIIF raziskovalcem ponuja bogate možnosti metapodatkov in ogledov slik za primerjavo del v zbirkah kulturne dediščine. Več - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 mlajši

Dvomestno enokrilno srebrno-modro monoplansko krilo s senčnikom s potisnim motorjem Szekely SR-3 s cilindrom 45 KM.

Veljajo pogoji uporabe

Za ponovno uporabo tega medija obstajajo omejitve. Za več informacij obiščite stran s pogoji uporabe podjetja Smithsonian.

IIIF raziskovalcem ponuja bogate možnosti metapodatkov in ogledov slik za primerjavo del v zbirkah kulturne dediščine. Več - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 mlajši

Dvomestno enokrilno srebrno-modro monoplansko krilo s senčnikom s potisnim motorjem Szekely SR-3 s cilindrom 45 KM.

Veljajo pogoji uporabe

Za ponovno uporabo tega medija obstajajo omejitve. Za več informacij obiščite stran s pogoji uporabe podjetja Smithsonian.

IIIF raziskovalcem ponuja bogate možnosti metapodatkov in ogledov slik za primerjavo del v zbirkah kulturne dediščine. Več - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 mlajši

Dvomestno enokrilno srebrno-modro monoplansko krilo s senčnikom s potisnim motorjem Szekely SR-3 s cilindrom 45 KM.

Veljajo pogoji uporabe

Za ponovno uporabo tega medija obstajajo omejitve. Za več informacij obiščite stran s pogoji uporabe podjetja Smithsonian.

IIIF raziskovalcem ponuja bogate možnosti metapodatkov in ogledov slik za primerjavo del v zbirkah kulturne dediščine. Več - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 mlajši

Dvomestno enokrilno srebrno-modro monoplansko krilo s senčnikom s potisnim motorjem Szekely SR-3 s cilindrom 45 KM.

Veljajo pogoji uporabe

Za ponovno uporabo tega medija obstajajo omejitve. Za več informacij obiščite stran s pogoji uporabe podjetja Smithsonian.

IIIF raziskovalcem ponuja bogate možnosti metapodatkov in ogledov slik za primerjavo del v zbirkah kulturne dediščine. Več - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 mlajši

Dvomestno enokrilno srebrno-modro enokrilno krilo s senčnikom z motorjem Szekely SR-3 s cilindrom 45 KM.

Veljajo pogoji uporabe

Za ponovno uporabo tega medija obstajajo omejitve. Za več informacij obiščite stran s pogoji uporabe podjetja Smithsonian.

IIIF raziskovalcem ponuja bogate možnosti metapodatkov in ogledov slik za primerjavo del v zbirkah kulturne dediščine. Več - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 mlajši

Dvomestno enokrilno srebrno-modro monoplansko krilo s senčnikom s potisnim motorjem Szekely SR-3 s cilindrom 45 KM.

Veljajo pogoji uporabe

Za ponovno uporabo tega medija obstajajo omejitve. Za več informacij obiščite stran s pogoji uporabe podjetja Smithsonian.

IIIF raziskovalcem ponuja bogate možnosti metapodatkov in ogledov slik za primerjavo del v zbirkah kulturne dediščine. Več - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 mlajši

Dvomestno enokrilno srebrno-modro enokrilno krilo s senčnikom z motorjem Szekely SR-3 s cilindrom 45 KM.

Veljajo pogoji uporabe

Za ponovno uporabo tega medija obstajajo omejitve. Za več informacij obiščite stran s pogoji uporabe podjetja Smithsonian.

IIIF raziskovalcem ponuja bogate možnosti metapodatkov in ogledov slik za primerjavo del v zbirkah kulturne dediščine. Več - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 mlajši

Dvomestno enokrilno srebrno-modro monoplansko krilo s senčnikom s potisnim motorjem Szekely SR-3 s cilindrom 45 KM.

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior v centru Udvar-Hazy

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 mlajši

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 mlajši

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 mlajši

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 mlajši

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior je bilo športno letalo zmerno ceno, proizvedeno pred veliko depresijo za širšo javnost. Zaradi cenovne dostopnosti, zmogljivosti na kratkem polju, trdne konstrukcije, nizke hitrosti rokovanja in dobre vidljivosti je bilo letalo enostavno in varno za letenje. Junior je kmalu postal najbolj priljubljeno letalo tipa flivver v zgodnjih tridesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja in predstavlja pomemben mejnik v gibanju letal "vsak človek" v tem obdobju.

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 mlajši motor in propelerji

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior je bilo športno letalo zmerno ceno, proizvedeno pred Veliko depresijo za širšo javnost. Zaradi cenovne dostopnosti, zmogljivosti na kratkem polju, trdne konstrukcije, nizke hitrosti rokovanja in dobre vidljivosti je bilo letalo enostavno in varno za letenje. Junior je kmalu postal najbolj priljubljeno letalo tipa flivver v zgodnjih tridesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja in predstavlja pomemben mejnik v gibanju letal za vsakogar v tem obdobju. Na tej sliki je poudarjen motor in propelerji Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior.

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 mlajši motor in propelerji

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior je bilo športno letalo zmerno ceno, proizvedeno pred veliko depresijo za širšo javnost. Zaradi cenovne dostopnosti, zmogljivosti na kratkem polju, trdne konstrukcije, nizke hitrosti vodenja in dobre vidljivosti je bilo letalo enostavno in varno za letenje. Junior je kmalu postal najbolj priljubljeno letalo tipa flivver v zgodnjih tridesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja in predstavlja pomemben mejnik v gibanju letal "vsak človek" v tem obdobju. Na tej sliki je poudarjen motor in propelerji Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior.

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 mlajši motor

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior je bilo športno letalo zmerno ceno, proizvedeno pred veliko depresijo za širšo javnost. Zaradi cenovne dostopnosti, zmogljivosti na kratkem polju, trdne konstrukcije, nizke hitrosti rokovanja in dobre vidljivosti je bilo letalo enostavno in varno za letenje. Junior je kmalu postal najbolj priljubljeno letalo tipa flivver v zgodnjih tridesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja in predstavlja pomemben mejnik v gibanju letal za vsakogar v tem obdobju. Na tej sliki je poudarjen motor Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior.

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 mlajši trup

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior je bilo športno letalo zmerno ceno, proizvedeno pred veliko depresijo za širšo javnost. Zaradi cenovne dostopnosti, zmogljivosti na kratkem polju, trdne konstrukcije, nizke hitrosti vodenja in dobre vidljivosti je bilo letalo enostavno in varno za letenje. Junior je kmalu postal najbolj priljubljeno letalo tipa flivver v zgodnjih tridesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja in predstavlja pomemben mejnik v gibanju letal "vsak človek" v tem obdobju. Na tej sliki je poudarjen trup Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior.

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 mlajši

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior je bilo športno letalo zmerno ceno, proizvedeno pred veliko depresijo za širšo javnost. Zaradi cenovne dostopnosti, zmogljivosti na kratkem polju, trdne konstrukcije, nizke hitrosti vodenja in dobre vidljivosti je bilo letalo enostavno in varno za letenje. Junior je kmalu postal najbolj priljubljeno letalo tipa flivver v zgodnjih tridesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja in predstavlja pomemben mejnik v gibanju letal za vsakogar v tem obdobju.

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 mlajši

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior je bilo športno letalo zmerno ceno, proizvedeno pred veliko depresijo za širšo javnost. Zaradi cenovne dostopnosti, zmogljivosti na kratkem polju, trdne konstrukcije, nizke hitrosti vodenja in dobre vidljivosti je bilo letalo enostavno in varno za letenje. Junior je kmalu postal najbolj priljubljeno letalo tipa flivver v zgodnjih tridesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja in predstavlja pomemben mejnik v gibanju letal za vsakogar v tem obdobju.

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior v restavratorski trgovini

Stanje zaslona:

Ta predmet je na ogled v letalski hangarji Boeing v centru Steven F. Udvar-Hazy v Chantillyju, VA.

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior je bilo športno letalo zmernih cen, proizvedeno pred depresijo za širšo javnost. Zaradi cenovne dostopnosti, zmogljivosti na kratkem polju, trdne konstrukcije, nizke hitrosti rokovanja in dobre vidljivosti je bilo letalo enostavno in varno za letenje. Junior je kmalu postal najbolj priljubljeno letalo tipa flivver v zgodnjih tridesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja in predstavlja pomemben mejnik v gibanju letal & quoteveryman & quot v tistem obdobju.

Karl H. White, Walter Beech in H. Lloyd Child so oblikovali in izdelali Skeeter, pozneje preimenovan v Junior, ki ga je poganjal 3-valjni motor Szekely SR-3-O s 45 KM. Letalo muzeja ima bogato ozadje več let na krogu letalske razstave, ki izvaja rutino & quotFlying Farmer & quot, v kateri & quotbystander & quot poskuša leteti z letalom s komičnimi, a varnimi rezultati. Leta 1959 je bil podarjen muzeju.

CW-1 je bilo športno letalo zmernih cen, proizvedeno pred depresijo za množično privlačnost. Manjši in enostavnejši od kabinskih letal, kot je Curtiss Robin, je Curtiss-Wright zasnoval Junior posebej za nizkoproračunskega športnika pilota in operaterja fiksne baze, ki je želel ponuditi čas letenja po stopnji, ki je dosegljiva povprečnemu prebivalstvu. Enostaven za nakup, enostaven za letenje in poceni za upravljanje, je Junior kmalu postal skoraj najbolj priljubljeno letalo tipa flivver v naslednjih nekaj letih.

CW-1 je zrasel iz lesene strukture poznih dvajsetih let prejšnjega stoletja, monoplana s senčnikom, imenovanega Buzzard, ki ga je zasnoval Orval H. & quotBud & quot; Snyder, ki ga je poganjal 2-valjni motor ABC Scorpion. Zanimivo je, da je Snyder delal z Jeanom Rochejem v inženirskem oddelku na McCook Fieldu v Daytonu v Ohiu, oba pa sta v prostem času neodvisno oblikovala lahka letala. Leta 1930 sta se Ralph S. Damon in Walter Beech, vodja oddelka Curtiss-Robertson korporacije Curtiss-Wright (Curtiss-Robertson je postala družba Curtiss-Wright Airplane), odločila za trženje lahkega letala, ki bo konkuriralo družbi Aeronca C- 2, oblikovanje Roche 's in ameriški orel, ki je kmalu prišel na trg. They obtained the design rights to the Buzzard, but the aircraft had such poor performance that it had to be redesigned.

The three persons credited with the certificated design of the Junior, Karl H. White, Walter Beech, and H. Lloyd Child, labored to first produce the Skeeter, powered by a 3-cylinder 45 hp Szekely SR-3-O engine. The Skeeter's only resemblance to the Buzzard was that it was a pusher-type monoplane. It was first test-flown in October 1930, but engineering problems had to be solved before it would be ready for production. Later in the year the Skeeter was renamed the Junior and by December the aircraft was again test-flown and pronounced ready for production. The production Juniors were two-place, open cockpit parasol wing monoplanes, powered by the Szekely SR-3-O engine. By June 1931, 125 Juniors, each priced at $1,494, had been sold. It is estimated that at least 270 were built through 1931 and that 261 of those were issued registration numbers.

Company promotional material attributed the aircraft's success to price ("built to sell for the price of an automobile in the medium price class") and quality. The Junior had many admirable qualities: easy and safe in flight, short field capability, low handling speed, sturdy construction, low wing loading, and good visibility for the pilot that gave "amateur pilots factors which have hitherto been lacking in available airplanes." A pilot could take off in a Junior in as little as 200 feet and land in 250 feet it cruised at 70 miles per hour and had an gentle stall speed of 35 miles per hour.

While much of this was true, the Junior had its problems. The Szekely engine was temperamental and had a habit of occasionally throwing a cylinder. This was solved by tying a steel cable around the cylinder heads, which although it could not keep the cylinder from being thrown, kept a thrown cylinder from being blown back into the propeller. Moreover, some accidents occurred on the ground when passengers in the rear cockpit walked into the propeller after deplaning. The Junior was modified as an amphibian and called the Duck, but an accident in which a pilot was killed after he put the aircraft into a shallow, inverted dive seriously damaged the aircraft's reputation.

That accident and decreasing sales put an end to the production of the Junior. Orders had fallen off drastically between the middle of 1931 and the end of the year, and by early 1932, sales came to a halt. Meanwhile, Karl White left for the Naval Aircraft Factory and Walter Beech went to Wichita, Kansas, to form his own company. Curtiss-Wright officials in Buffalo, New York, terminated design and production of the Junior and the St. Louis plant began producing the T32 Condor instead. Curtiss-Wright's brief foray into the private aircraft market ended.

Despite its brief history, the Curtiss-Wright Junior is a significant aircraft in the NASM collection because it represents a milestone in the so-called "everyman" aircraft movement in the United States. This movement, which began before the Depression and lasted over a period of two decades, sought to produce a mass-market, affordable, personal aircraft that would appeal to the average American citizen. The Junior also represented a significant diversion for the Curtiss-Wright Corporation, which was almost exclusively oriented to the production of military and heavy commercial aircraft during that time in its history.

This Junior, serial number 1143, NC 10965, was built in the summer of 1931 but the early years are unknown. In 1934, Les Maudlin of Brownsville, Texas, received a renewed license for the Junior after work was completed on the wing - fixing loose aileron hinges, nuts and bolts and drag wires. The total aircraft flight time was listed as 636 hours. G.C. Acord of Dallas, Texas, who owned the aircraft in 1945 and 1946, had the airframe nearly rebuilt and recovered. L.M. Angevine and R.C. Christopher of Bainbridge, Georgia, bought the aircraft in 1950 and noted in 1954 that it had 127 flight hours "since new" and that the original log book was lost. He apparently did not have access to the 1934 report with earlier recorded hours.

During these years, the owners flew the Junior on air show circuit performing the "Flying Farmer" routine, a stunt in which a "bystander" attempts to fly the aircraft with comical but safe results (i.e. easy-to-fly aircraft). For this routine, the aircraft was modified by removing the fuselage fabric, painting the wings in bright polka dots, and adding a 45 hp Lycoming engine.

Robert E. Maytag of the Maytag Company, Newton, Iowa, bought the Junior in 1954 and flew it as a private sport plane before storing it for several years. He donated it to the Museum on June 22, 1959. Upon donation the flight hours were listed as 137 however, when added to the hours listed on 1934 paperwork this Junior appears to have a minimum of 773 flight hours on the airframe or at least the remaining original parts.

A volunteer restoration team working one day a week restored the Junior to its original configuration from 2001 to 2012. Once again the wings needed rebuilding as did the nosebowl, mud flaps and more. Juniors originally came in red or blue, both with silver wings blue paint was found on the steel tube frame and so it was painted blue. Goodyear Aviation donated Goodyear balloon tires, Tom Murphy of Oregon donated seats belts, and aircraft restorer Ken Hyde donated a Szekely engine and Flottorp propeller several other parts or plans for them came from owners of the few remaining Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Juniors.


The first ship the SOC was assigned to was the USS Marblehead in November 1935 by the end of the decade, the SOC had replaced its predecessor throughout the fleet. Production came to an end in 1938. By 1941, most battleships had transitioned to the Vought OS2U Kingfisher and cruisers were expected to replace their aging SOCs with the third generation SO3C Seamew. The SO3C, however, suffered from a weak engine and plans to adopt it as a replacement were scrapped. The SOC, despite being a craft from an earlier generation, went on to credibly execute its missions of gunfire observation and limited range scouting missions.

Through the first six months of naval service, the SOC was known as the XO3C-1, ΐ] The designation was changed to SOC when it was decided to merge its scouting and observation roles. The SOC was not called the Seagull until 1941, when the U.S. Navy began the wholesale adoption of popular names for aircraft in addition to their alpha-numeric designations. The name 'Seagull' had earlier been given to two civil Curtiss aircraft, a Curtiss Model 18 and a Model 25, both converted Curtiss MF flying boats. Α ]

When operating as a seaplane, returning SOCs would land on the relatively smooth ocean surface created on the sheltered side of the vessel as it made a wide turn, after which the aircraft would be winched back onto the deck. Β ]

When the SOC had been replaced by the OS2U Kingfisher, most remaining airframes were converted into trainers, and were used until 1945. Γ] But in a strange twist of history, with the failure of the Curtiss SO3C Seamew, many SOCs in second line service were returned to front line units starting in late 1943 and saw service aboard warships in the combat zone for the rest of World War II. This is one of the few instances in aviation history of an older aircraft type that was retired or sent to second line service, replacing the new aircraft type, that was supposed to replace it. Δ ]


A Serija (A-1 skozi A-8)

Between 1940 and June 1941, the USAAC used an A-for-Aerial Target designation category for radio-controlled aircraft used as gunnery targets. However, these designations could be easily confused with the A-for-Attack series, and therefore the A-series was replaced by two new categories: OQ for subscale target drones, and PQ for full-scale aircraft with provision for an on-board pilot. Existing A-series drones were redesignated in the appropriate new category with their model numbers unchanged. The redesignations affected only two models, the Radioplane A-2 (becoming the OQ-2) and the Culver A-8 (becoming the PQ-8). Both OQ- and PQ-series were then continued from their first members, leaving OQ-1 and PQ-1 through -7 unassigned. Because the PQ-series therefore started off from the last A-series target, the PQ-series was effectively a continuation of the A-series.

Fleetwings A-1

The A-1 was built around 1940 as a small aerial gunnery target, probably designed specifically for this purpose. It had a wingspan of around 6 m (20 ft), was powered by a 60 kW (80 hp) piston engine, and could reach a speed of 290 km/h (180 mph) at altitudes of at least 3000 m (10000 ft). The A-1 was flown unmanned and controlled by radio commands from the ground. There is no data available on the number of A-1s built or their service career, but the target was most likely no longer used by mid-1941.

Radioplane A-2

The A-2 was redesignated in June 1941 as OQ-2, q.v.

Curtiss A-3

In the late 1930s, the U.S. Navy converted a few surviving obsolete Curtiss N2C-2 Fledgling training biplanes to radio-controlled target drones. These drones were modified with a tricycle landing gear, and could be remote-controlled either from a ground station or another aircraft. In 1940, the Army tested at least one of these conversions as the A-3 powered target.

Photo: © Gene Palmer, Aerofiles
N2C-2 drone (A-3)

Douglas A-4

In 1940, the USAAC converted 15 BT-2B and two BT-2BI basic trainer biplanes to radio-controlled target drones. These aircraft were initially designated BT-2BR in BT-2BG, respectively, but these designations were eventually dropped in favour of A-4 for both types of conversions.

Photo: USAF
A-4

The rear cockpit was faired over, but for check-out flights the A-4 could still be flown as a single-seater. To facilitate landings under remote control, the A-4 was fitted with a tricycle undercarriage and a steerable nosewheel. The drone was controlled in flight by a BT-2CR (modified BT-2C) control plane. Photographic evidence suggests that some A-4s were still in the inventory as late as August 1941, when the PQ series for full-scale targets had already been introduced. Said photos are actually labeled "PQ-4" in some cases, but this was most likely not an official designation.

Boeing A-5

The designation A-5 was reserved in 1940 for the conversion of a single Boeing P-12E biplane fighter to a radio-controlled target drone. However, around that time the Army abandoned its plans to convert obsolete service aircraft to target drones, and therefore the A-5 never materialized.

Photo: Air Force Museum Foundation
P-12E

Douglas A-6

The designation A-6 was reserved for conversions of surplus Douglas O-38 biplanes to radio-controlled target drones. However, no O-38s were converted to A-6 configuration. The O-38 was very similar to the BT-2 trainer, and therefore the A-6 would probably have been similar to the A-4.

Photo: © Gene Palmer, Aerofiles
O-38B

Bell A-7 Airacobra

The designation A-7 was reserved for conversions of Bell P-39 Airacobra fighters to radio-controlled target drones. No P-39s were converted to A-7s by the U.S. Army Air Force, but the U.S. Navy converted at least three P-39Qs to drone configuration and tested them under the designations XTDL-1 and F2L-1K.

Photo: The Aviation History On-Line Museum
P-39Q

Culver A-8 Cadet

The A-8 was redesignated in June 1941 as PQ-8, q.v.


P-40 Recovery in Russia

Dear Readers,
We present a report by Mark Sheppard on recovery efforts of P-40C and P-40E in Russia.
All material presented here is copyrighted and can not be reprinted and/or duplicated in any form without the written consent of their respective authors.

Curtiss-Wright P-40C (C/N 16194) Serial 41-13390

Nick Grey of the Fighter Collection sat in the cockpit of the Curtiss P40-C in Russia prior to it returning for restoration. (Fighter Collection)

Gradnja

The Curtiss-Wright model H81 A-3 was manufactured for the US Army Air Corps between March and May 1941. The order number was W-535, account 15802 and it cost the US Government $40,148.00. Curtiss-Wright completed 193 P-40Cs in the Curtiss construction block of 16104-16296. The Allison engine order was for a V-1710-33, which originally would have been in the 41.35. range as seen on other P40Cs in the same block. The P-40C described was completed in Olive Drab 41 to upper surfaces and Neutral Gray to the under-side. The pre-war star and meatball was on the upper surfaces, whilst the underside of the wings had a US ARMY marking in large black letters.

Curtiss-Wright P-40C factory number 16194 was the 90th P-40C manufactured at the main production facility in Buffalo, NY. It was completed in March 1941 with the serial 41-13390 and was then issued to Holabird, Central District, on 9 April 1941. It is thought that this P-40C did not have any previous USAAC service. To support this, there are no listings on the record card and no evidence on the recovered airframe of any previous markings or painted rudder.

It became the property of the Office of Defense Aid (ST-41-24390) on 11 June 1941. P-40C 41-13390 was one of ten P-40Cs purchased by the British to be included within their Tomahawk IIB order, of which the British ordered 1180 examples. (The ten were 41-13389/13390/13396-13401/13406/13407.) Serial 41-13390 was allocated to the Soviet Union as part of the Defense Aid Program in September 1941.

Recovery

The basically complete P40C at the Fighter Collection hanger at Duxford and still in its transportation cradle.
(Mark Sheppard)

The P-40C was located by satellite photography in a desolate part of Russia in 1993. It was recovered from behind Murmashi, a rail depot south of Murmansk, where it had crash-landed during WWII.

The pilot undertook an emergency wheels-up landing in the tundra. Very little damage occurred in the crash-landing, except to the radiator chin cowl assembly. The pilot, and possibly others, then removed the radio and gun sight.
The P-40C was recovered by helicopter, dismantled, and eventually returned to the UK, where the restoration was being planned by The Fighter Collection at Duxford.

The ID located on the tail oleo showed it is P-40C-CU Model 81A-3, serial 41-13390. The serial number was also located on the oil tank. The fuselage longerons, back armor, and other panels were stamped with the construction number 194. Other panels and components clearly stated B model and these are thought to be from the production line where the B models and Tomahawk IIBs ran into the C-model batch. There was very little difference between these models and parts certainly just ran through.

The early ‘star and meatball’ emblem (later replaced with just the standard American star) on the side of the P40C.
Over it can be the individual Russian aircraft number ‘53’. (Mark Sheppard)

The P-40 was clearly marked up with a tactical number 󈧹’ on the faded camouflage. All upper surfaces had been scoured nearly down to bare metal during over 50 years of snow storms. The old-style American star was faintly visible on the fuselage side. The US ARMY on the underside of the wings was clearer and had been overpainted, and red stars had been applied. There was evidence also of brown and green camouflage and possibly the outline of an RAF roundel, also on the side of the fuselage. It is not known whether this was possibly added before being completed for the US Army or after it was taken over by the British Purchasing Commission. A number of the engine cowling panels had clearly come from a British Tomahawk IIB (with green and brown camouflage), and could have been added during its operational period in Russia.
The P-40C had clearly suffered combat damage and there were small-caliber bullet holes along the fuselage and to the wings. The oil tank was holed, which most likely led to the loss of the aircraft. It was clear, though, that repairs had been undertaken previously, particularly to one wing tip (according to V. Romanenko, it could be the result of a ramming attack).
The engine recovered from the airframe was a British-ordered Allison V1710-33 with UK War Office stamps and the number A.200541. This was one of 1,000 Allison V-1710 engines (A.199588 through to A.200587) ordered against Contract No A-196.

Zgodovina

The full fuselage and engine cowlings. Note how long the engine is.
Some of the cowling panels had clearly originally come from a British Tomahawk IIB (P40C)
and were camouflaged brown and green. (Mark Sheppard)

The Soviet Union received their first 47 Tomahawk IIBs in September 1941. They were assembled by an RAF team at Yagodnik airfield near Archangel and from here were flight- tested by USAAC pilot Lt. Zemke (later Col ‘Hub’ Zemke, 56 FG 8AF) and less so by Lt. Alison. The first two Tomahawks, serials AK300 with Allison A.200767 and AK242 with Allison engine A.200663, were handed over to the Soviet Air Force on 5 October 1941. Unfortunately, in both cases, within half an hour both had crashed/emergency landed. It was found that both had suffered gear, generator-drive gear, and accessory-drive gear failure. It appeared that the generator-drive gear on these aircraft had not received the necessary modification prior to being dispatched for the Soviet Union! As of 28 November 1941, the Soviets had suffered 19 failures with their Tomahawks due to no modification and they were not too happy! The Soviets grounded all their Tomahawks until it was all sorted out.

According to Soviet research data, the Curtiss-Wright P40C 41-13350 arrived at Murmansk in early 1942 by convoy. It was then most probably assembled and flight tested at Yagodnik airfield before being assigned to a fighter regiment. The Soviets recorded American-supplied P-40 aircraft by their construction (factory) number, so in the case of 41-13390 it was recorded as �’ as painted on the pilot’s back armor (the British-supplied aircraft were easier to inventory as they were recorded by the RAF serial). The first entry for �’ was the following:

P-40 �” was issued new to the 147 IAP VVS 14 Army (147th Fighter Regiment, 14th Army) in early 1942. On 5 February 1942, at 1340 CET (Central European Time) P-40 �’ suffered engine failure and had to make a belly-landing at Murmashi airfield, south of Murmansk. It was considered as “medium damaged” (30-50%). Pilot was Sr. Lt. N. V. Jurilin, who survived unhurt.

After repairs and with a new Allison engine fitted, it was issued to 20 GIAP (Guards Fighter Regiment) on 12 July 1942. This regiment had 20 P-40s on strength, 16 of which were operational. 147 IAP became a Guards Unit on 7 March 1942, becoming 20 GIAP. The records mention Tomahawk �” as powered by a British Air Ministry-ordered Allison C-15 No A.200541. Whether this was from a damaged Tomahawk IIB or a crated spare is still unknown. At this time, the 20 GIAP was a part of the 1SAD (Combined Air Division) of Soviet Air Force (VVS) and was on the Karelian Front as part of the defense of Murmansk.

A photo of P40C ‘58’ from 20gvIAP after a ‘Taran’ (intentional air collision to bring down another aircraft – often fatal). Note the ‘58’ is in the same style as the ‘53’. These marking type were often individual to each unit. (Carl Guest)

On 27 September 1942, the Soviet War Diary records the following combat activities:
1617 – 1723 hrs (CET), five Hurricanes of 837 IAP covered the air over own bases when nine P-40s of 20 GIAP and one P-39 of 19 GIAP were engaged in combat with eighteen Bf-109s at altitudes of 4000 – 5000meters. The air battle lasted 25 minutes. The Russians claimed three Bf-109s shot down (Luftwaffe records report undercarriage damage to a Bf-109F-4 of 7./JG5). Russian losses were two aircraft from 837 IAP and two aircraft from 20 GIAP (Jr. Lt. N. A. Fikljunin was shot down and killed in a Hurricane, Sr. Sgt. P. K. Prochan made a force landing in a Hurricane 3km east of Shonguj, Sgt A. P. Pakov was shot down and parachuted to safety from his P-40 and, finally, Major Ermakov belly-landed his P-40 �”.

The last available record for �” is on 5 January 1944, when it was written off from the inventory of 20 GIAP of the 1st Combined Air Division. It was a common Soviet practice not to strike off wrecked equipment immediately (the Soviet Navy did the same with ships and aircraft) until a period of time after the event. There is no evidence of P-40 �” being on the inventory list of 20 GIAP on 31 December 1942, or on the inventory of 7 VA (Air Army) on 1 June 1943. It can safely be assumed that 27 September 1942 was when �” was lost and 5 January 1944 was the date that �” was eventually written off from Soviet records.

Curtiss-Wright P40E (C/N 16814) Serial 41-13570

Up she comes. The P40E brakes through the surface with the remains of the red star
on the fin and the tactical number ‘51’. (Unknown copyright)

Gradnja

In late 1941, the new P-40E ‘Warhawk’, as the whole production was now named, began rolling off the production lines in Buffalo, NY. The Curtiss-Wright model H87 A-3 was manufactured for the US Army and to fill British contracts through 1941 and well into 1942. The US Army received 2320 models and 1500 were ordered by the British, who named this model the ‘Kittyhawk 1A’.

The P-40E in question was completed within the smallest batch of E models produced, towards the end of 1941. Many of the completed components were dated 󈫸.41”. This P-40E was supplied with the Curtiss construction number 16814 and the serial 41-13570. The order number was W-535 ac15802 and it cost the US government $39,628.00. Curtiss-Wright completed 79 machines within this block (construction numbers 16737-16815) and the serials 41-13521 to 41-13599 were assigned to them.

The Allison engine was a V-1710-39 that had the construction number 42-33729. The P-40E had been painted in Olive Drab 41 on the upper surfaces and Neutral Gray on the underside. It seems it had already been earmarked for the Soviet Union as it had been completed in nothing more than the serial number and stenciling. There was no sign of the American star having ever been applied.

Another photos of the P40E coming ashore. The tail unit has already been removed. Note damage to the starboard wingtip from when the aircraft hit the water. (Unknown copyright)

It was accepted by the USAAC on 23 January 1942 and on the same day 41-13570 was assigned to Defense Aid. It was then transported to one of the East-coast ports and loaded aboard a ship along with other Lend- Lease supplies bound for the Soviet Union.

Recovery

The P40E back on land. The white ‘51’ is very clear and also the damage to the cockpit area. (Unknown copyright)

The P-40E was recovered from its watery grave of 55 years on 31 August 1997. Although the lake was relatively shallow, the aircraft was brought to the surface using flotation gear and gradually brought to the shore. In shallower water the tail plane and fin were removed along with the ammunition boxes and covers to the wings. The P40-E seemed remarkably complete and well-preserved.

Once the P-40E was back on shore, other parts were recovered from the lake bottom, including the armored windscreen, canopy, and lower engine parts. The P-40E was then airlifted by Ka-25K helicopter to a site closer to civilization to be dismantled. Additional lifting support was required to the engine due to the damage which had occurred in the crash landing. Unfortunately, during the lift further damage was sustained to the port trailing edge by the use of lifting chains instead of webbing.

When lowered, the P-40E could be seen fully for the first time in 55 years. It could be clearly seen that it had not been overpainted and still retained the Olive Drab and Neutral Gray as it had been applied when it left the factory. A white painted number 󈬣” had been applied to the fuselage sides red stars had also been applied over the fin/rudder and also to the underside of the wings. Interestingly, there were no red stars on the upper surface of the wings that were often applied on Lend-Lease aircraft.

The damage to the cockpit skins and longerons can be clearly seem. This probably occurred from the crash landing and hitting the lake bottom. (Mark Sheppard)

The P-40E was clearly marked up with all the standard stenciling. It had the maximum weights and other technical stencils on the port side of the cockpit and also located there was the serial 41-13570, confirming it was an E model. The Curtiss construction number �” was located around the whole aircraft and seems to have been stamped on all of the fillets and removable panels. The most identifiable number was painted at the top of the pilot’s back armor.

The E model carried six .50-caliber (12.7mm) heavy machine guns and up to 280 rounds of ammunition. The corroded ammunition was removed and made safe. The ammunition boxes and guns themselves were in remarkably good condition and the etched panels were clearly readable. The cockpit instrumentation and control stick were all there. Generally the P-40E was recovered complete, albeit with some damage from the crash landing.

The P-40E had suffered only slight combat damage prior to its final flight. There were a couple of light-caliber bullet holes to the fin and tailplane, which had been patched. More recent combat damage consisted of two visible bullet holes that had occurred at a very shallow angle, skimming the skin. One hole was to the tail plane and another to the engine cowling. The only damage that seemed to have contributed to its loss was to the lower starboard side of the engine casing, which appeared to have resulted in the loss of coolant. The exhausts were of the early type-three sets of two through the cowling. They were of the round type, not the later flattened group of six exhausts carried on the majority of E models.

After being flown in by helicopter the P40 was ready to be dismantled. First to be removed was the Allison engine. (Unknown copyright)

The only effects from the water seemed to be corrosion to the ferrous elements. For example, the metal handles for the ammunition boxes had rusted away. Likewise, the magnesium cam covers and items on the rear of the Allison engine had literally dissolved to nothing. The wheel hubs that appeared to have been protected more by the silt looked to be intact and the tires were still inflated.

The P40E being flown out ready for dismantling. No comment on the methods or the damage inflicted to the trailing edges! (Unknown copyright)

It was probably the loss of engine coolant, leading to an overheating engine, that forced the pilot to undertake an emergency landing. Jr. Lt. A. V. Pshenev decided not to try to crash-land on the unforgiving tundra, which was covered by stunted trees and large rocks. Instead he opted to put the P-40E down on one of the numerous lakes in the area. Possibly still in combat, the P-40E seems to have hit the water at a steep ascent rather than a shallow glide. On hitting the water, the large radiator housing caused the P-40E to decelerate rapidly. The spinner received a long flat dent to one face and one propeller blade snapped completely off. The radiator probably dug in and acted as a brake, bending the fuselage along its axis to such an extent that it snapped both upper longerons on the canopy rail! Fifty odd rivets were also blown to the top skin above the port undercarriage rotation point due to the hard impact. The P-40E then skewed around, pivoting on its wing, a maneuver that produced the damage visible to the starboard wing tip. On gradually settling down, the pilot clambered out and made for shore whilst his P-40E sank below the surface.

The anodised ammunition boxes and instruction plate were in very good condition.
Only the steel handle had corroded. (Mark Sheppard)

According to Soviet records, the P-40E arrived in spring 1942 to a port, most likely Murmansk. The Soviet records list the loss by the aircraft type, construction, and engine number, which showed the following information:
P-40E �”, engine No 42-33729 of 20 GIAP, 14th Army.

Lost completely on 1 June 1942. Pilot Jr. Lt. A. V. Pshenev survived and returned to Soviet forces.
The 20 GIAP (20 Guards Fighter Air Regiment) was part of the 14th Army under the command of the Karelian Front. The unit was based at Murmashi airfield, south of Murmansk, as part of the defense of Murmansk and the Kola Peninsula.

The P40E on display on the Isle of White for a few months prior to being purchased by an American collector.
(Mark Sheppard)

According to the 14th Army Soviet War Diary for that day, this is what occurred:
On 1 June 1942, between 0452-0631 (Murmansk time) four P-39s and four P-40s of 19 GIAP escorted Soviet SB bombers to attack Petsamo airfield. Later, between 0519 – 0650 hours, six P40s of 20 GIAP escorted four more SBs to join in the attack on the German airfield. At the target the P-39s and P-40s were involved in air battle with Bf-109s of II/JG5. Soviet losses were listed as four P-40s and four SBs. No loses were recorded by II/JG5.

On this day, P-40E tactical number 󈬣” was being flown by Jr. Lt. A. V. Pshenev when it was involved in air combat during this mission. The Luftwaffe victor could well have been Uffz. Dцring of 5./JG5, who shot down one P-40 in the early morning of the 1 June 1942 at 0456 CET (0556MT). (Interestingly, this was the second P-40E loss with the 20 GIAP, the first E model being lost on 29 May 1942.)

The P40E engine bearers when on the Isle of White. These seemed to be in very good condition. (Mark Sheppard)

The P-40E crashed on Lake Kod Ozero, a small lake near Pja Ozero in the tundra west of Murmansk. The pilot survived the crash, swam to shore, and walked back to his own lines. He was treated in a hospital, where during an attack by the Luftwaffe on 13 June 1942 he was caught by bomb fragments and lost a foot.

Present Day

Photo looking into the P40E on recovery. Notice the construction number on the pilots back armour.
This was how lend lease (excluding British) were often identified. (Unknown copyright)

After being recovered in 1997, the P-40E was shipped to the UK in 1998 and put on display. At the time this article was written the aircraft was still for sale.

Zahvala

The author would like to acknowledge assistance of the following individuals in preparation of this article:
Stephen Grey of the Fighter Collection and the new owners.
Special thanks to Rune Rautio, Carl-Fredrik Geust, and Valeriy Romanenko for all their help with the Soviet combat records.
Thanks must go to the Peter Monk, Martin Cobb, Steve Vizard, and Rune Rautio for all their help.



Komentarji:

  1. Pessach

    mmm Right.

  2. Daikasa

    Mislim, da je to - napačen način.

  3. Duane

    Čestitam, vaše mnenje bo koristno

  4. Ruadhan

    Good article. Hvala!



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