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Pizarro usmrti zadnjega cesarja Inkov

Pizarro usmrti zadnjega cesarja Inkov


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Atahuallpa, 13. in zadnji cesar Inkov, umre s davitvijo zaradi španskih osvajalcev Francisca Pizarra. Z usmrtitvijo Atahuallpe, zadnjega prosto vladajočega cesarja, je bilo konec 300 let inkovske civilizacije.

Visoko v gorah Andov v Peruju so Inke zgradile bleščeč imperij, ki je vodil 12 milijonov prebivalcev. Čeprav niso imeli pisnega sistema, so imeli razčlenjeno vlado, velika javna dela in sijajen kmetijski sistem. V petih letih pred španskim prihodom je cesarstvo zajela uničujoča nasledstvena vojna. Leta 1532 je Atahuallpina vojska v bitki pri Cuzcu premagala sile njegovega polbrata Huascarja. Atahuallpa je utrjeval svojo oblast, ko sta se pojavila Pizarro in njegovih 180 vojakov.

Francisco Pizarro je bil sin španskega gospoda in je v mladosti delal kot svinjer. Postal je vojak in leta 1502 odšel v Hispaniolo z novim španskim guvernerjem kolonije Novi svet. Pizarro je služil pod španskim osvajalcem Alonsom de Ojedo med njegovo ekspedicijo v Kolumbijo leta 1510 in bil z Vascom Nunezom de Balboo, ko je leta 1513 odkril Tihi ocean. Slišal je legende o velikem bogastvu indijske civilizacije v Južni Ameriki, Pizarro je sklenil zavezništvo z kolega konkvistadorja Diega de Almagra leta 1524 in odplul po zahodni obali Južne Amerike iz Paname. Prva odprava je prodrla le do današnjega Ekvadorja, druga pa je segla dlje, v današnji Peru. Tam so iz prve roke slišali pripovedi o cesarstvu Inkov in pridobili artefakte Inkov. Španci so krstili novo deželo Peru, verjetno po reki Vire.

Ko se je vrnil v Panamo, je Pizarro načrtoval osvajalno odpravo, vendar španski guverner ni želel podpreti sheme. Leta 1528 je Pizarro odplul nazaj v Španijo, da bi prosil za podporo cesarja Charlesa V. Hernan Cortes je cesarju pred kratkim prinesel veliko bogastvo, ko je osvojil Azteško cesarstvo, in Charles je potrdil Pizarrov načrt. Obljubil je tudi, da bo Pizarro, ne Almagro, prejel večino dobička odprave. Leta 1530 se je Pizarro vrnil v Panamo.

Leta 1531 je odplul v Peru in pristal pri Tumbesu. Svojo vojsko je povedel navzgor po gorah Andov in 15. novembra 1532 dosegel inkovsko mesto Cajamarca, kjer je Atahuallpa užival v termalnih vrelcih v pripravah na svoj pohod na Cuzco, prestolnico bratovega kraljestva. Pizarro je povabil Atahuallpa, da se udeleži pogostitve v njegovo čast, cesar pa je to sprejel. Ko je pravkar zmagal v eni največjih bitk v zgodovini Inkov in z vojsko 30.000 moških na razpolago, je Atahuallpa mislil, da se nima nič bati bradatega belega tujca in njegovih 180 mož. Pizarro pa je načrtoval zasedo in postavil topništvo na trgu Cajamarca.

16. novembra je Atahuallpa prispel na zbirališče s spremstvom več tisoč mož, očitno brez orožja. Pizarro je poslal duhovnika, da bi cesarja opozoril, naj sprejme suverenost krščanstva in cesarja Karla V., Atahuallpa pa je to zavrnil in z gnusom vrgel Sveto pismo. Pizarro je takoj ukazal napad. Zaradi napada grozljivega španskega topništva, orožja in konjenice (ki so bili vsi Inki tuji) so pobili na tisoče Inkov, cesarja pa ujeli.

Atahuallpa je ponudil, da napolni sobo z zakladom kot odkupnino za njegovo izpustitev, in Pizarro je to sprejel. Sčasoma so Špancem iz celega cesarstva Inkov prinesli približno 24 ton zlata in srebra. Čeprav je Atahuallpa zagotovil najbogatejšo odkupnino v zgodovini sveta, ga je Pizarro veleizdajno obsodil zaradi zarote za strmoglavljenje Špancev, zaradi umora njegovega polbrata Huascarja in zaradi številnih drugih manjših obtožb. Špansko sodišče je Atahuallpa obsodilo in obsodilo na smrt. 29. avgusta 1533 je bil cesar privezan na kol in mu je ponudil možnost, da ga živega požgejo ali zadavijo, če prestopi v krščanstvo. V upanju, da bo ohranil svoje telo za mumifikacijo, se je Atahuallpa odločil za slednjega, železni ovratnik pa so mu zategnili okoli vratu, dokler ni umrl.

S španskimi okrepitvami, ki so prispele na Cajamarco v začetku tega leta, je Pizarro nato stopil na Cuzco, inkovska prestolnica je brez bojazni padla novembra 1533. Huascarjev brat Manco Capac je bil postavljen za marionetnega cesarja, mesto Quito pa je bilo podrejeno. Pizarro se je uveljavil kot španski guverner ozemlja Inkov in je Diegu Almagru ponudil osvojitev Čila kot pomiritev, ker je zase prevzel bogastvo inkovske civilizacije. Leta 1535 je Pizarro ustanovil mesto Lima na obali, da bi olajšal komunikacijo s Panamo. Naslednje leto je Manco Capac pobegnil iz španskega nadzora in vodil neuspešno vstajo, ki je bila hitro zatrta. To je pomenilo konec odpora Inkov proti španski vladavini.

Diego Almagro se je vrnil iz Čila ogorčen zaradi revščine te države in zahteval svoj delež plena nekdanjega cesarstva Inkov. Zaradi spora je kmalu izbruhnila državljanska vojna in Almagro je leta 1538 zavzel Cuzco. Pizarro je poslal svojega polbrata Hernanda, da si povrne mesto, Almagro pa je bil poražen in usmrčen. 26. junija 1541 so zavezniki Diega el Monza - Almagrovega sina - vdrli v Pizarrovo palačo v Limi in med večerjo ubili konkvistadorja. Diego el Monzo se je razglasil za guvernerja Perua, vendar ga agent španske krone ni hotel priznati in leta 1542 je bil Diego ujet in usmrčen. Spori in spletke med osvajalci Peruja so obstajali, dokler španski podkralj Andres Hurtado de Mendoza ni vzpostavil reda v poznih 1550 -ih.


11c. Inkovski imperij: Sončevi otroci

Ko je leta 1532 španski konkvistador Francisco Pizarro pristal v Peruju, je našel nepredstavljivo bogastvo. Inkovsko cesarstvo je bilo v polnem razcvetu. Ulice morda niso bile tlakovane z zlatom & mdash, toda njihovi templji so bili.

Coricancha ali tempelj zlata se je ponašal z okrasnim vrtom, kjer so bili grude zemlje, koruzne rastline skupaj z listi in koruznimi storži oblikovane iz srebra in zlata. V bližini se je pasla jata 20 zlatih lam in njihovih jagnjet, ki so jih opazovali pastirji iz čistega zlata. Plemiči Inki so se sprehajali na sandalah s srebrnimi podplati, ki so ščitili noge pred trdimi ulicami Cuzca.

Inki so svoj imperij imenovali Tahuantinsuyu ali dežela štirih četrt. Raztezalo se je 2500 milj od Quita v Ekvadorju do onstran Santiaga v Čilu. V njeni domeni so bila bogata obalna naselja, visoke gorske doline, tropski gozdovi, prežeti z dežjem in najbolj suhe puščave. Inki so nadzorovali približno 10 milijonov ljudi, ki so govorili sto različnih jezikov. To je bil takrat največji imperij na svetu. Ko pa je Pizarro usmrtil svojega zadnjega cesarja, Atahualpo, je bil Inkov imperij star le 50 let.

Prava zgodovina Inkov se še vedno piše. Po eni zgodbi so iz jezera Titicaca prišli štirje bratje. Med dolgim ​​potovanjem so izginili vsi razen enega. Manco Capac je preživel, da je zlato palico potopil v zemljo, kjer se srečata Rios Tullamayo in Huantanay. Ustanovil je sveto mesto Cuzco.

Sveto mesto Cuzco

Cuzco se nahaja v gorski dolini 10.000 metrov nad morjem. Oblikoval je središče sveta Inkov. Prvi cesar Pachacuti ga je iz skromne vasi spremenil v veliko mesto v obliki pume. Za uradnega pokrovitelja Inkov je postavil tudi Inti, boga sonca, ki mu je zgradil čudovit tempelj.

Naredil je nekaj drugega & mdash, ki bi lahko razložil nenaden prihod Inkov na oblast. Razširil je kult čaščenja prednikov. Ko je vladar umrl, je njegov sin prejel vse svoje zemeljske moči in mdash, vendar nič od svojega zemeljskega premoženja. Vsa njegova dežela, zgradbe in služabniki so šli v njegovo panako, ali drugi moški sorodniki. Sorodniki so ga uporabili, da so ohranili njegovo mumijo in ohranili njegov politični vpliv. Mrtvi cesarji so ohranili živo prisotnost.

Novi vladar si je moral ustvariti lasten dohodek. Edini način za to je bil zavzeti nova dežela, podrediti več ljudi in razširiti imperij Sonca.


Z višin Machu Picchu se vidi celotna dolina Urabamba v Andih.

Kako je bilo to storjeno? Življenje v tradicionalnih andskih vaseh je bilo krhko. En zakonski par bi drugemu pomagal pri sajenju ali obiranju pridelkov. V zameno bi prejeli pomoč na svojem področju. Inke so to prakso vzajemnosti in dajanja in dajanja & mdash prilagodile svojim potrebam.

Njihova mesta so bila osredotočena na velike trge, kjer so prirejali velike zabave za sosednje poglavarje. Praznovanja so se nadaljevala več dni, včasih tudi mesec dni. Dostojanstvenike so hranili in jim podarili zlato, dragulje in tekstil. Šele takrat bi Inki zahtevali delovno silo, povečali proizvodnjo hrane, zgradili namakalne sheme, na pobočjih terase ali razširili meje cesarstva.

Machu Picchu in imperij

Inki so bili veliki graditelji. Ljubili so kamen & mdash skoraj toliko, kot so častili zlato. Na čarobnem Machu Picchu, obmejni trdnjavi in ​​svetišču, je iz žive skale izrezljana mistična kolona, ​​pritrjeno mesto Sonca. Druga plošča je oblikovana tako, da odmeva nad goro.


Španski voditelj Francisco Pizarro je danes ujel in odkupil zadnjega cesarja Inkov Atahuallpa za 24 ton zlata v vrednosti 267 milijonov dolarjev. Po prejemu odkupnine od ljudi Inkov so konkvistadorji Atahuallpo vseeno zadavili.

Templji in utrdbe v Machu Picchu so bili zgrajeni iz velikih, blazinastih balvanov, od katerih so nekateri tehtali 100 ton ali več. Izdelani brez malte, so spoji med njimi tako tesni, da onemogočajo vstop z nožem. Potrebna je bila velika delovna sila. Obstajajo zapisi o 20 moških, ki delajo na enem samem kamnu, odsekajo, dvigajo in spuščajo, ga polirajo s peskom, vsako uro iz ure v uro.

Mreža avtocest je cesarjem Inkov omogočala nadzor nad njihovim razsejanim cesarstvom. Eden je tekel po hrbtenici Andov, drugi ob obali. Graditelji Inkov so se lahko spopadli z vsem, kar je zahteval zahrbtni teren & mdash strme poti, prerezane ob gorskih straneh, viseči mostovi po strmih grapah ali zahrbtni nasipi, ki prečkajo poplavna območja. Vsak kilometer in pol so gradili potne postaje kot počivališča. Skupine uradnih tekačev so tekle med njimi in prevozile 150 milj na dan. Sporočilo bi lahko poslali v manj kot enem tednu 1200 kilometrov iz Cuzca v Quito.


Inkovsko cesarstvo se je raztezalo 2500 milj od Ekvadorja do južnega Čila, preden so ga leta 1532 uničili španski osvajalci.

Pričakovali so, da bodo vsi prispevali k cesarstvu. Zemljišče je bilo razdeljeno na tri dele. Tretjino so delali za cesarja, tretjino so rezervirali bogovi, tretjino pa so ljudje obdržali zase. Vsi so morali plačati davek kot davek.

Inki niso znali pisati. Zbiralci davkov in birokrati so stvari spremljali s quipu, vozlanimi vrvicami. Različne dolžine, barve, vrste vozlov in položaji so jim omogočile shranjevanje ogromne količine informacij.

Kljub svoji slavi so bili Inki krhek imperij, ki so ga združevale obljube in grožnje. Ko je Pizarro usmrtil zadnjega cesarja, se je hitro zrušil. Katoliški duhovniki, ki so zahtevali zvestobo novemu krščanskemu bogu, so kmalu zamenjali otroke Sonca. Tako kot že tisočletja so se odporni ljudje Andov prilagodili. Od novih gospodarjev so vzeli vse, kar so morali, in se držali čim več svojih starih načinov.


Zlati pohlep: španski osvajalci in usoda zadnjega prostega cesarja Inkov Atahualpa

Vsa zgodovina je mešanica dejstev in legende. V življenju mladega inkovskega cesarja Atahualpe je dejstvo, da so ga zahodno ugrabili in usmrtili španski konkvistadorji, legenda pa pravi, ali je del velike odkupnine, ki so jo njegovi podložniki plačali svojim ujetnikom, še vedno skrita v Andih Gore.

Atahualpa je v 16. stoletju postal gospodar cesarstva Inkov, potem ko je v državljanski vojni premagal svojega brata Huáscarja. Vse je bilo v redu, dokler ni prišel španski raziskovalec Francisco Pizarro.

To je portret Atahualpe, izvlečen iz življenja, pripadnika odreda Pizarro

Pizarro in njegova skupina 160 zaupnih osvajalcev sta dve leti raziskovali zahodno obalo Južne Amerike in iskali govorice o bogatem imperiju v Andih. Novembra 1532 so skupaj z Atahualpo našli mesto Cajamarca. Ob prihodu Pizarra in njegove posadke Atahualpa ni skrbelo, saj ga je zaščitila zvesta vojska tisočih mož. Ni vedel, da se je Pizarro že zavedal močne vojske cesarja Inkov, pa tudi ogromne količine srebra in zlata, ki sta ga nosila Atahualpa in plemstvo Inkov. Pizarro je bil seznanjen tudi s tem, kako je Hernán Cortes ujel azteškega cesarja Montezumo, da bi pridobil ogromno bogastva, in Pizarro je bil pripravljen storiti enako.

Pizarro je svoje težko oborožene osvajalce postavil okoli Cajamarce. Nato je poslal duhovnika, očeta Vicenteja de Valverdeja, na sestanek s plemstvom Inkov. Duhovnik jim je pokazal krščanski breviarij, ki se jim je zdel nepomemben in ga vrgel na tla. Španci so to sprejeli kot svetogršno dejanje s strani Inkov in se zbežali na trg Cajamarca ter pobili inško plemstvo in bojevnike, ko so grmeli topovi. Konkvistadorji na konju so preganjali prestrašene domorodce, ki so poskušali pobegniti. Španci, oblečeni v težke jeklene oklepe, v bitki niso imeli niti ene žrtve. Atahualpa je bil ujet, po bitki med Inki in Španci pa je umrlo na tisoče inkovskih civilistov, vojakov in plemstva.

Pizarro se je srečal z Atahualpo, ki so jo v templju Sonca pozorno spremljali. Atahualpi je bilo dovoljeno govoriti z nekaterimi preživelimi subjekti, saj je domači tolmač vse prevedel v španščino, da bi ga Pizarro razumel. Mladi cesar je spoznal, da si Pizarro in njegovi osvajalci želijo zlato in srebro, zato so hitro oropali templje in druge lokacije v Cajamarci. Španci so Atahualpi povedali, da bo izpuščen za pravo količino zlata in srebra. Atahualpi to ni predstavljalo težav in dal je ogromno ponudbo, ki je osupnila Špance - cesar je izjavil, da bo napolnil sobo dolžine 22 čevljev in širine 17 čevljev z zlatom in srebrom do višine osem čevljev.

Španci so ponudbo izkoristili in jo celo notarizirali. Atahualpa je dal besedo svojim podložnikom in nosači so kmalu dostavili bogastvo zlata in srebra Špancem z vseh lokacij cesarstva Inkov. Ko je Atahualpa čakal, da je dostava odkupnine končana, je njegov imperij padel v pandemonij.

Cesar Atahualpa med bitko pri Cajamarci

Preživeli Inki, ki so na svojega cesarja gledali kot na pol božanskega, ne bi tvegali napadati Špancev, da bi rešili Atahualpo zaradi strahu, da bi ga ubili. Njegov brat Huáscar je bil še živ in je bil zaprt, Atahualpa pa se je bal, da bi pobegnil in postal novi cesar. Atahualpa je hitro odredil smrt svojega brata.

Atahualpa je imel še tri velike vojske v cesarstvu pod njegovimi najboljšimi generali Quisquis, Chalcuchima in Rumiñahui. Izvedeli so, da so njihovega cesarja ujeli Španci, vendar so se odločili, da ne bodo napadli. Žal bi Chalcuchimo prevaral in ujel brat Francisca Pizarra, Hernando. Quisquis in Rumiñahui sta se v naslednjih mesecih lotila boja proti Špancem.

Do leta 1533 so španski osvajalci slišali govorice, da se Rumiñahui, najboljši od vseh generalov Inkov, in njegova velikanska vojska pripravljata na hud boj proti Špancem. Nihče v španskem taborišču ni vedel, kje je general Inkov. Francisco Pizarro je ukrepal po govoricah in poslal ljudi v vse smeri, da bi našli vojsko Inkov, a niso našli ničesar. Španci so bili zdaj zaskrbljeni zaradi napada in so na Atahualpo gledali kot na nevarno breme. V paniki so Atahualpi sodili zaradi izdaje, češ da je Rumiñahui ukazal upor in 26. julija 1533 usmrtil zadnjega svobodnega cesarja cesarstva Inkov.

Pizarro se sreča s cesarjem Inkov Atahualpo, 1532

Atahualpina odkupnina je bila plačana in bila je fenomenalna. Soba je bila, kot je obljubil, napolnjena z zlatom in srebrom, tudi ko so pohlepni osvajalci rušili neprecenljive predmete, da bi se soba hitreje napolnila. Med plenom je bil celo Atahualpin 15-karatni zlati 183-kilogramski prestol, ki ga je Francisco Pizarro prejel kot "darilo".

Ko so vse odkupnine pretopili, je tehtal več kot 13.000 funtov zlata in več kot 26.000 funtov srebra. Po plačilu 20 -odstotnega davka, ki ga je španski kralj uvedel za osvojitev plena, je 160 konkvistadorjev prejelo dele Atahualpine odkupnine glede na njihov položaj. Tudi najnižji vojaški delež bi bil na današnjem trgu vreden več kot 500.000 dolarjev. Francisco Pizarro je poleg svojih "daril" 14 -krat dobil delež svojih kolegov osvajalcev, poroča About Education.

Atahualpa, štirinajsta Inka,

Saga o Inkih in njihovem cesarju Atahualpi je zagotovo tragična. Zgodba živi v zgodovini dejstev, vendar se je njen del ohranil kot legenda. Na podlagi bežnih zgodovinskih dokumentov nekateri menijo, da španski osvajalci niso prejeli vse odkupnine Atahualpe. Po legendi je bila skupina Inkovcev na poti proti Cajamarci z zlatom in srebrom, ko so slišali, da je bil Atahualpa usmrčen. Odgovorni general se je odločil skriti zaklad v neznani jami v Andih.

Domnevno ga je 50 let kasneje odkril Španec po imenu Valverde, vendar je bil spet izgubljen, dokler ga leta 1886 ni našel moški z imenom Barth Blake. Blake je pozneje v dvomljivih okoliščinah umrl in od takrat nihče ni videl izgubljenega zaklada Inkov. Tako se legenda nadaljuje.

Zaseg Atahualpe pri Cajamarci

Je zadnje plačilo Atahualpinega zaklada skrito v Andih? Če je tako, bi to pomenilo, da del njegove zapuščine še vedno obstaja, da ga strokovnjaki odkrijejo in preučijo.

To bi bilo tudi primerno nadomestilo za davno mrtve osvajalce, ki so verjeli, da so ukradli vse, kar je lahko ponudil cesar Inkov.


Atahualpa, zadnji cesar Inkov. Katoliška cerkev ga je po tem, ko je bil primoran, spreobrniti v krščanstvo

Kaj pa to za neko odvratno krščansko vedenje?

Zadnji cesar Inkov Atahualpa naj bi bil usmrčen s sežiganjem na kolcu. Primerna oblika usmrtitve za pogane. Toda kot Vincent de Valle Viridi je dominikanski fratar ponudil Atahualpi pot iz te boleče rešitve. Spreobrnite se v krščanstvo in vse bo v redu. Rekel je.

Torej se je Atahualpa spreobrnil. Namesto tega ga je treba izvesti z davitvijo.

Tukaj igrajo zagovornika hudiča (ne vem nič o dogodku): s tem, da so ga spreobrnili v krščanstvo, preden so ga ubili, so uničili le njegovo smrtno telo, hkrati pa rešili njegovo nesmrtno dušo. Zelo premišljeni, prijazni osvajalci, kajne?

Nimam ljubezni do vere, toda cerkev ga ni usmrtila, usmrtili so ga konkvistadorji, ki sploh niso delovali po dovoljenju španske vlade (v resnici so jim rekli, naj ne gredo).

Navdušen je bil pod versko pretvezo. Isti izgovor, s katerim so opravičevali osvajanje novega sveta in njegovo ropanje. Incanci so ubili in vodili vojno tudi pod versko pretvezo.

Priznam, da je bil moj naslov napačen, vendar je bil ubit v imenu krščanske vere, potem ko se je spreobrnil v krščanstvo. Če je bil ubit z blagoslovom rimskokatoliške cerkve ali ne, ni res pomembno. Vsaj po mojem mnenju.

Perujski tukaj. Dobil je Sveto pismo, ki ga ni razumel in ga zavrgel. To je bilo bogokletno in Pizarro je ukazal, naj Špance napadnejo, ali pa naj bi tako verjeli Nemci.

cepavemu lasju cepate lase

Pizarro je imel dejansko izrecno podporo španske krone. Cortez je bil tisti, ki se je zmotil, čeprav je pozneje dobil podporo.

Nekaj ​​vem o konkvistadorjih in ni čudno, da vem malo o njihovih grozljivih dejanjih, a kljub temu nisem nikoli zares bral o tem dogodku in mi lahko kdo pove, zakaj so ga ubili, čeprav se je spreobrnil v krščanstvo?

Dokler je živel, je bil grožnja njihovi moči. Ljudem je bil živi bog in umor ga je demoraliziral do te mere, da so opustili vsako misel na upor.

Če še niste brali o odkupnini Atahualpe, vam bo to odtrgalo nogavice. Tukaj je vnos wikipedije za začetnike: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ransom_Room (Če kliknete na članek, dobite kontekst. Sličica je šibka.)

O tem, zakaj je bil ubit, obstaja veliko mnenj. Moja teorija, ki je ne podpirajo akademiki ali strokovnjaki. samo moje prepričanje: Pizarro se je od sosednjih kultur na poti v Cuzco morda naučil, kako brutalni in neusmiljeni bi lahko bili Inki. Španci so bili prestrašeni nad obsegom in obsegom inkovskega bogastva in oborožene moči in so si ob misli na pošten boj posrali hlače. Osvoboditev teokracije, kjer je kralj bog, je bila varna igra.


Kako se je končal Inkovski imperij?

Bolezen. Bolezen je bila zelo pomemben dejavnik LED do propada Inkovsko cesarstvo. Ošpice, ki so bile takrat zelo nevarna bolezen, so prispele že pred prihodom Špancev. Govori se, da so to bolezen v Peru prinesli zaradi evropskih trgovcev.

Drugič, ali Inkovski imperij še obstaja? The Inki, ameriško indijansko ljudstvo, je bilo prvotno majhno pleme na južnem visokogorju Perua. V manj kot stoletju, v 1400 -ih, so zgradili enega največjih, najstrožje nadzorovanih imperijev svet je že kdaj poznal. Ceste, stene in namakalna dela, ki jih je zgradil Inki so še vedno v uporabi danes.

Kdaj je torej konec imperija Inkov?

The padec od Inkovsko cesarstvo. Osvajanje Inkovsko cesarstvo Zemljevid. Od prvega leta 1200 Inka, Manco Capac, naseljen v Cuscu, do zadnjega leta 1533 Inka, Atahualpa, je bil usmrčen Inkovska civilizacija je iz skupine naseljencev prerasla v največjo imperij v predkolumbijski Ameriki.

Kako so Inki združili svoj imperij?

The Inka enotno, okrepljeno in dodano njihov imperij večinoma z mirnimi sredstvi (pa tudi z osvajanjem). Tretjič, Inka spodbujal čaščenje njihov boga sonca, ki so mu rekli "Inti". Nadalje so upoštevali Inkan kralj, ki bo "sončni sin".


Vsebina

  • 1526–1529 - Francisco Pizarro in Diego de Almagro vzpostavita prvi stik z Inkovskim cesarstvom v Tumbesu, najsevernejši trdnjavi Inkov vzdolž obale
  • c. 1528-Cesar Inkov Huayna Capac je umrl zaradi črnih koz. Smrt sproži državljansko vojno med njegovimi sinovi: Atahualpo in Huáscarjem
  • 1528–1529 - Pizarro se vrne v Španijo, kjer mu španska kraljica podeli dovoljenje za osvojitev Perua
  • 1531–1532 - Pizarrova tretja pot v Peru. Španci tvorijo vez z domorodci (Huancas, Chankas, Cañaris in Chachapoyas), ki so bili pod zatiranjem cesarstva Inkov, Pizarro pa jih vključuje med svoje čete, da se sooči z Inki. Atahualpa ujamejo Španci.
  • 1533-Atahualpa usmrtijo, potem ko ukaže umor Huáscarja De Almagro prispe Pizarro podredi Cuzca in namesti sedemnajstletnega Manca Inca za novega cesarja Inkov
  • 1535-Pizarro ustanovi mesto Lima De Almagro, ki zapusti današnji Čile
  • 1536 - Gonzalo Pizarro ukrade ženo Manca Inca, Curo Olcollo. Manco se upira in obdaja Cuzco. Juan Pizarro je ubit, general Inka Quizo Yupanqui pa napada Limo
  • 1537 - Almagro od Hernanda in Gonzala Pizarra zaseže Cuzca. Rodrigo Orgóñez odpušča Vitcos in ujame sina Manca Inca, Titu Cusija. Manco pobegne in zbeži v Vilcabambo, ki je postala glavno mesto neoinkovske države
  • 1538 - Hernando Pizarro usmrti Diega de Almagra
  • 1539 - Gonzalo Pizarro napadne in odpusti Vilcabambo Manco Inca pobegne, Francisco Pizarro pa usmrti Mancovo ženo Curo Olcollo
  • 1541 - Diego de Almagro II in drugi privrženci De Almagra ubijo Francisca Pizarra
  • 1544 - Privrženci Diega de Almagra ubijo Manca Inca. Inki ne ustavijo svojega upora
  • 1572-Perujski podkralj Francisco Toledo je napovedal vojno neoinkovski državi Vilcabamba je odpuščen in Túpac Amaru, zadnji cesar Inkov, je ujet in usmrčen v Cuzcu. Neinkovsko glavno mesto Vilcabamba je opuščeno, španski prebivalci pa jih preselijo v novoustanovljeno krščansko mesto San Francisco de la Victoria de Vilcabamba [8]: xiii – xv

Državljanska vojna med Atahualpo in Huascarjem je oslabila cesarstvo tik pred njegovim spopadom s Španci. Zgodovinarji niso prepričani, ali bi združeno Inkovsko cesarstvo dolgoročno lahko premagalo Špance zaradi dejavnikov, kot so visoka smrtnost zaradi bolezni in s tem povezane družbene motnje, ter vrhunska vojaška tehnologija osvajalcev, ki so imeli konje, pse, kovine oklep, meči, topovi in ​​primitivno, a učinkovito strelno orožje. [9] Zdi se, da je bil Atahualpa med ljudmi bolj priljubljen kot njegov brat, vsekakor pa ga je vojska, katere jedro je bilo v nedavno osvojeni severni provinci Quito, bolj cenila.

Na začetku spora je vsak brat obvladoval svoja področja, pri čemer je bil Atahualpa varen na severu, Huáscar pa je nadzoroval glavno mesto Cuzca in veliko ozemlje na jugu, vključno z območjem okoli jezera Titicaca. Ta regija je za Huáscarjeve sile dobavila veliko število vojakov. Po obdobju diplomatskega držanja in tekmovanja za položaj je izbruhnilo odprto vojskovanje. Zdelo se je, da je Huáscar pripravljen hitro pripeljati vojno, saj so mu vojaki, ki so mu bili zvesti, vzeli Atahualpa v zapor, medtem ko se je udeležil festivala v mestu Tumibamba. Atahualpa pa je hitro pobegnil in se vrnil v Quitu. Tam mu je uspelo zbrati približno 30.000 vojakov. Medtem ko je Huáscarju uspelo zbrati približno enako število vojakov, so bili manj izkušeni.

Atahualpa je svoje sile poslal na jug pod poveljstvom dveh svojih vodilnih generalov, Challcuchime in Quisquis, ki sta si priigrala neprekinjeno serijo zmag, ki so jih kmalu pripeljale do samih vrat Cuzca. Prvi dan bitke za Cuzco so sile, zveste Huáscarju, dobile zgodnjo prednost. Toda drugi dan je Huáscar osebno vodil neprimerno "presenečenje" napada, o katerem sta generala Challcuchima in Quisquis dobro poznala. V bitki, ki je sledila, je bil Huáscar ujet in upor je popolnoma propadel. Zmagoviti generali so sporočili na sever charqui glasnik Atahualpi, ki se je preselil proti jugu iz Quiteja v kraljeve izvire izven Cajamarce. Glasnik je prišel z novico o končni zmagi istega dne, ko sta se Pizarro in njegova majhna skupina pustolovcev skupaj z nekaterimi domorodnimi zavezniki spustila iz Andov v mesto Cajamarca.

Francisca Pizarra in njegove brate (Gonzala, Juana in Hernanda) je pritegnila novica o bogatem in čudovitem kraljestvu. Zapuščali so takrat obubožano Ekstremaduro, tako kot mnogi migranti za njimi. [7]: 136

Tam leži Peru s svojim bogastvom
Tu je Panama in njena revščina.
Vsak človek izberi, kaj najbolje postane pogumen Kastilec.

Leta 1529 je Francisco Pizarro od španske monarhije dobil dovoljenje za osvojitev dežele, ki so jo imenovali Peru. [7]: 133

Po mnenju zgodovinarja Raúla Porrasa Barrenechee Peru ni kečuanska ali karibska beseda, ampak indo-španska ali hibridna. Pizarru neznano, ko je lobiral za dovoljenje za odpravo, so njegovega predlaganega sovražnika uničile bolezni, ki so jih na prejšnjih španskih stikih prinesle na ameriške celine.

Ko je Pizarro leta 1532 prišel v Peru, se mu je zdelo, da se močno razlikuje od tistega, ko je bil tam le pet let prej. Med ruševinami mesta Tumbes je poskušal sestaviti situacijo pred seboj. Od dveh mladih lokalnih fantov, ki jih je učil govoriti špansko, da bi mu prevajal, je Pizarro izvedel za državljansko vojno in bolezen, ki je uničevala cesarstvo Inkov. [8]

Po štirih dolgih odpravah je Pizarro ustanovil prvo špansko naselje v severnem Peruju in ga poimenoval San Miguel de Piura. [7]: 153–154

Ko so jih domačini prvič opazili, naj bi to bili Pizarro in njegovi možje Viracocha Cuna ali "bogovi". Domačini so Inkam opisali Pizarrove moške. To so rekli capito je bil visok s polno brado in je bil popolnoma zavit v oblačila. Domačini so opisali moške meče in kako so z njimi ubijali ovce. Moški niso jedli človeškega mesa, ampak ovce, jagnjetino, raco, golobe in jelene ter kuhali meso. Atahualpa se je bal, česa so beli možje sposobni. Če bi bili runa quicachac ali "uničevalci ljudstev", potem bi moral pobegniti. Če bi bili Viracocha Cuna Runa allichac ali "bogovi, ki so dobrotniki ljudi", potem ne bi smel bežati, ampak jih pozdraviti. [ potreben citat ] Poslanci so se vrnili v Tangaralo, Atahualpa pa je poslal Cinquincharo, bojevnika iz Orejona, k Špancem, ki jim je služil kot tolmač.

Po potovanju s Španci se je Cinquinchara vrnil v Atahualpo in se pogovarjal o tem, ali so španski moški bogovi ali ne. Cinquinchara se je odločil, da so moški, ker jih je videl jesti, piti, oblačiti in imeti odnose z ženskami. Videl jih je, da ne delajo čudežev. Cinquinchara je Atahualpi sporočil, da so majhni, približno 170-180 moških, in da so domače ujetnike vezali z "železnimi vrvmi". Ko je Atahualpa vprašal, kaj naj storijo s tujci, je Cinquinchara rekel, da jih je treba ubiti, ker so bili zli tatovi, ki so vzeli vse, kar so hoteli, in supai cuna ali "hudiči". Moškim je priporočil, da jih ujamejo v spalnico in jih požgejo. [10]

Po zmagi in ujetju svojega brata Huáscarja se je Atahualpa postil v kopališčih Inkov zunaj Cajamarce. Pizarro in njegovi možje so 15. novembra 1532 prispeli v to mesto.

Pizarro je poslal Hernanda de Sota v tabor voditelja Inkov. Soto je jahal Atahualpo na svojem konju, žival, ki je Atahualpa še nikoli ni videl. Soto je z enim od svojih mladih tolmačev prebral pripravljen govor Atahualpi in mu povedal, da so prišli kot Božji služabniki, da bi jih naučili resnice o Božji besedi. [11] Rekel je, da govori z njimi, da bi lahko

"postavite temelje soglasja, bratstva in večnega miru, ki bi moral obstajati med nami, tako da nas boste sprejeli pod svojo zaščito in od nas slišali božanski zakon in da se bo vse vaše ljudstvo naučilo in prejelo, saj bo to največji vsem, čast, prednost in odrešenje. "

Poleg tega so voditelja Inkov povabili, da obišče Pizarro v njegovih prostorih ob trgu Cajamarca. Ko je De Soto opazil zanimanje Atahualpe za svojega konja, je v neposredni bližini postavil prikaz "odličnega jahanja". Atahualpa je bil gostoljuben s pogostitvijo. [7]: 166–170 [12]

Atahualpa se je odzval šele po prihodu brata Francisca Pizarra, Hernanda Pizarra. Odgovoril je s tem, kar je slišal od svojih skavtov, rekoč, da Španci ubijajo in zasužnjujejo nešteto število na obali. Pizarro denied the report and Atahualpa, with limited information, reluctantly let the matter go. At the end of their meeting, the men agreed to meet the next day at Cajamarca. [8]

The next morning, on 16 November 1532, Pizarro had arranged an ambuscade around the Cajamarca plaza, where they were to meet. At this point, Pizarro had in total 168 men under his command: 106 on foot and 62 on horses. When Atahualpa arrived with about 6,000 unarmed followers, Friar Vincente de Valverde and the interpreter Felipillo met them and proceeded to "expound the doctrines of the true faith" (requerimiento) and seek his tribute as a vassal of King Charles. The unskilled translator likely contributed to problems in communication. The friar offered Atahualpa the Bible as the authority of what he had just stated. Atahualpa stated, "I will be no man's tributary." [7] : 173–177

Pizarro urged attack, starting the Battle of Cajamarca. The battle began with a shot from a cannon and the battle cry "Santiago!" [12] The Spaniards unleashed volleys of gunfire at the vulnerable mass of Incas and surged forward in a concerted action. Pizarro also used cavalry charges against the Inca forces, which stunned them in combination with gunfire. [7] : 177–179 Many of the guns used by the Spaniards were however hard to use in close combat. The effect was devastating, the shocked Incas offered such feeble resistance that the battle has often been labeled a massacre, with the Inca losing 2,000 dead and Spanish having just 1 soldier wounded.

The majority of Atahualpa's troops were in the Cuzco region along with Quisquis and Challcuchima, the two generals he trusted the most. This was a major disadvantage for the Inca. Their undoing also resulted from a lack of self-confidence, and a desire to make public demonstration of fearlessness and godlike command of situation. [12] The main view is that the Inca were eventually defeated due to inferior weapons, 'open battle' tactics, disease, internal unrest, the bold tactics of the Spanish, and the capture of their emperor. While Spanish armour was very effective against most of the Andean weapons, it was not impenetrable to maces, clubs, or slings. [13] [14] Later, most natives adapted in 'guerrilla fashion' by only shooting at the legs of the conquistadors if they happened to be unarmored. [15] However, ensuing hostilities such as the Mixtón Rebellion, Chichimeca War, and Arauco War would require that the conquistadors ally with friendly tribes in these later expeditions.

Though the historical accounts relating to the circumstances vary, the true Spanish motives for the attack seemed to be a desire for loot and flat-out impatience. The Inca likely did not adequately understand the conquistadors' demands. [16] And, of course, Pizarro knew they did not have the slightest chance against the Inca army unless they captured the Emperor.

By February 1533, Almagro had joined Pizarro in Cajamarca with an additional 150 men with 50 horses. [7] : 186–194

After Atahualpa was captured at the massacre at Cajamarca, he was treated with respect, allowed his wives to join him, and the Spanish soldiers taught him the game of chess. [17] : 215,234 During Atahualpa's captivity, the Spanish, although greatly outnumbered, forced him to order his generals to back down by threatening to kill him if he did not. According to the Spanish envoy's demands, Atahualpa offered to fill a large room with gold and promised twice that amount in silver. While Pizarro ostensibly accepted this offer and allowed the gold to pile up, he had no intention of releasing the Inca he needed Atahualpa's influence over his generals and the people in order to maintain the peace. The treasure began to be delivered from Cuzco on 20 December 1532 and flowed steadily from then on. By 3 May 1533 Pizarro received all the treasure he had requested it was melted, refined, and made into bars. [12] Hernando Pizarro went to gather gold and silver from the temples in Pachacamac in January 1533, and on his return in March, [17] : 237 captured Chalcuchimac in the Jauja Valley. Francisco Pizzaro sent a similar expedition to Cuzco, bringing back many gold plates from the Temple of the Sun.

The question eventually came up of what to do with Atahualpa both Pizarro and Soto were against killing him, but the other Spaniards were loud in their demands for death. False interpretations from the interpreter Felipillo made the Spaniards paranoid. They were told that Atahualpa had ordered secret attacks and his warriors were hidden in the surrounding area. Soto went with a small force to scout for the hidden army, but the trial of Atahualpa was held in his absence. Among the charges were polygamy, incestuous marriage, and idolatry, all frowned upon in Catholicism but common in Inca culture and religion.

The men who were against Atahualpa's conviction and murder argued that he should be judged by King Charles since he was the sovereign prince. Atahualpa agreed to accept baptism to avoid being burned at the stake and in the hopes of one day rejoining his army and killing the Spanish he was baptized as Francisco. On 29 August 1533 Atahualpa was garrotted and died a Christian. He was buried with Christian rites in the church of San Francisco at Cajamarca, but was soon disinterred. His body was taken, probably at his prior request, to its final resting place in Quito. Upon de Soto's return, he was furious he had found no evidence of any secret gathering of Atahualpa's warriors. [12]

Pizarro advanced with his army of 500 Spaniards toward Cuzco, accompanied by Chalcuchimac. The latter was burned alive in the Jauja Valley, accused of secret communication with Quizquiz, and organizing resistance. Manco Inca Yupanqui joined Pizarro after the death of Túpac Huallpa. Pizarro's force entered the heart of the Tawantinsuyu on 15 November 1533. [7] : 191,210,216

Benalcázar, Pizarro's lieutenant and fellow Extremaduran, had already departed from San Miguel with 140 foot soldiers and a few horses on his conquering mission to Ecuador. At the foot of Mount Chimborazo, near the modern city of Riobamba (Ecuador) he met and defeated the forces of the great Inca warrior Rumiñawi with the aid of Cañari tribesmen who served as guides and allies to the conquering Spaniards. Rumiñahui fell back to Quito, and, while in pursuit of the Inca army, Benalcázar was joined by five hundred men led by Guatemalan Governor Pedro de Alvarado. Greedy for gold, Alvarado had set sail for the south without the crown's authorization, landed on the Ecuadorian coast, and marched inland to the Sierra. Finding Quito empty of its treasures, Alvarado soon joined the combined Spanish force. Alvarado agreed to sell his fleet of twelve ships, his forces, plus arms and ammunition, and returned to Guatemala. [7] : 224–227 [17] : 268–284

After Atahualpa's execution, Pizarro installed Atahualpa's brother, Túpac Huallpa, as a puppet Inca ruler, but he soon died unexpectedly, leaving Manco Inca Yupanqui in power. He began his rule as an ally of the Spanish and was respected in the southern regions of the empire, but there was still much unrest in the north near Quito where Atahualpa's generals were amassing troops. Atahualpa's death meant that there was no hostage left to deter these northern armies from attacking the invaders. Led by Atahualpa's generals Rumiñahui, Zope-Zupahua and Quisquis, the native armies were finally defeated, effectively ending any organized rebellion in the north of the empire. [7] : 221–223,226

Manco Inca initially had good relations with Francisco Pizarro and several other Spanish conquistadors. However, in 1535 he was left in Cuzco under the control of Pizarro's brothers, Juan and Gonzalo, who so mistreated Manco Inca that he ultimately rebelled. Under the pretense of recovering a statue of pure gold in the nearby Yucay valley, Manco was able to escape Cuzco. [7] : 235–237

Manco Inca hoped to use the disagreement between Almagro and Pizarro to his advantage and attempted the recapture of Cuzco starting in April 1536. The siege of Cuzco was waged until the following spring, and during that time Manco's armies managed to wipe out four relief columns sent from Lima, but was ultimately unsuccessful in its goal of routing the Spaniards from the city. The Inca leadership did not have the full support of all its subject peoples and furthermore, the degrading state of Inca morale coupled with the superior Spanish siege weapons soon made Manco Inca realize his hope of recapturing Cuzco was failing. Manco Inca eventually withdrew to Tambo. [7] : 239–247

Archaeological evidence of the rebellion incident exists. The remains of about 70 men, women, and adolescents were found in the path of a planned expressway near Lima in 2007. Forensic evidence suggests that the natives were killed by European weapons, probably during the uprising in 1536. [18]

After the Spanish regained control of Cuzco, Manco Inca and his armies retreated to the fortress at Ollantaytambo where he, for a time, successfully launched attacks against Pizarro based at Cuzco and even managed to defeat the Spanish in an open battle. [7] : 247–249

When it became clear that defeat was imminent, Manco Inca retreated further to the mountainous region [7] : 259 of Vilcabamba and established the small Neo-Inca State, where Manco Inca and his successors continued to hold some power for several more decades. His sun, Túpac Amaru, was the last Inca. After deadly confrontations, he was murdered by the Spanish in 1572.

In total, the conquest took about forty years to complete. Many Inca attempts to regain the empire had occurred, but none had been successful. Thus the Spanish conquest was achieved through relentless force, and deception, aided by factors like smallpox and a great communication and cultural divide. The Spaniards destroyed much of the Incan culture and introduced the Spanish culture to the native population.

A struggle for power resulted in a long civil war between Francisco Pizarro and Diego de Almagro in which Almagro was killed. Almagro's loyal followers and his descendants later avenged his death by killing Pizarro in 1541. This was done inside the palace of Francisco Pizarro in a fight to the death by these assassins, most of which were former soldiers of Diego de Almagro who were stripped of title and belongings after his death. [19]

Despite the war, the Spaniards did not neglect the colonizing process. Spanish royal authority on these territories was consolidated by the creation of an Audiencia Real, a type of appellate court. In January 1535, Lima was founded, from which the political and administrative institutions were to be organized. In 1542, the Spanish created the Viceroyalty of New Castile, that shortly after would be called Viceroyalty of Peru. Nevertheless, the Viceroyalty of Peru was not organized until the arrival of a later Viceroy Francisco de Toledo in 1572. Toledo ended the indigenous Neo-Inca State in Vilcabamba, executing the Inca Túpac Amaru. He promoted economic development using commercial monopoly and built up the extraction from the silver mines of Potosí, using slavery based on the Inca institution of forced labor for mandatory public service called mita.

The integration of Spanish culture into Peru was carried out not only by Pizarro and his other captains, but also by the many Spanish who also came to Peru to exploit its riches and inhabit its land. These included many different kinds of immigrants such as Spanish merchants, peasants, artisans, and Spanish women. Another element that the Spanish brought with them were African slaves to work alongside captive Incas for use in labor with things such as agriculture and mining for silver. [20] These people all brought with them their own pieces of Spanish culture to integrate into Peruvian society.

The arrival of the Spanish also had an unexpected impact on the land itself, recent research points out that Spanish conquest of the Inca altered Peru's shoreline. [21] Before the Spaniards arrived, inhabitants of the arid northern Peruvian coast clad massive sand dune–like ridges with a -likely- accidental form of “armor”, millions of discarded mollusk shells, which protected the ridges from erosion for nearly 4700 years prior to the Spanish arrival, and produced a vast corrugated landscape that is visible from space. This incidental landscape protection came to a swift end, however, after diseases brought by Spanish colonists decimated the local population and after colonial officials resettled the survivors inland, without humans to create the protective covering, newly formed beach ridges simply eroded and vanished. [22] According to Archaeologist Torben Rick, parts of the northern coast of Peru may look completely natural and pristine, “but if you rewind the clock a couple of millennia, you see that people were actively shaping this land by creating beach ridge systems". [23]

Effects of the conquest on the people of Peru Edit

The long-term effects of the arrival of the Spanish on the population of South America were simply catastrophic. While this was the case for every group of Native-Americans invaded by Europeans during this time period, the Incan population suffered an exceptionally dramatic and rapid decline following contact. It is estimated that parts of the empire, notably the Central Andes, suffered a population decline ratio of 58:1 during the years of 1520–1571. [24]

The single greatest cause of the decimation of native populations was Old World infectious diseases, carried by colonists and conquistadors. As these were new to the natives, they had no acquired immunity and suffered very high rates of death. More died of disease than any army or armed conflict. [25] As the Inca did not have as strong a writing tradition as the Aztec or Maya, it is difficult for historians to estimate population decline or any events after conquest. But, it is sometimes argued, and equally disputed among scholars. that the Inca began to contract these diseases several years before the Spanish appeared in the region, as it was possibly carried to their empire by traders and travelers. The outbreak, argued to be hemorrhagic smallpox, reached the Andes in 1524. While numbers are unavailable, Spanish records indicate that the population was so devastated by disease that they could hardly resist the foreign forces.

Historians differ as to whether the illness of the 1520s was smallpox a minority of scholars claim that the epidemic was due to an indigenous illness called Carrion's disease. In any case, a 1981 study by N. D. Cook the shows that the Andes suffered from three separate population declines during colonization. The first was of 30–50 percent during the first outbreak of smallpox. When a measles outbreak occurred, there was another decline of 25–30 percent. Finally, when smallpox and measles epidemics occurred together, which occurred from 1585 to 1591, a decline of 30–60 percent occurred. Collectively these declines amounted to a decline of 93 percent from the pre-contact population in the Andes region. [26] Mortality was particularly high among children, ensuring that the impact of the epidemics would extend to the next generation. [4]

Beyond the devastation of the local populations by disease, they suffered considerable enslavement, pillaging and destruction from warfare. The Spanish took thousands of women from the local natives to use as servants and concubines. As Pizarro and his men took over portions of South America, they plundered and enslaved countless people. Some local populations entered into vassalage willingly, to defeat the Inca. Native groups such as the Huanca, Cañari, Chanka and Chachapoya fought alongside the Spanish as they opposed Inca rule. The basic policy of the Spanish towards local populations was that voluntary vassalage would yield safety and coexistence, while continued resistance would result in more deaths and destruction. [27]

Another significant effect on the people in South America was the spread of Christianity. As Pizarro and the Spanish subdued the continent and brought it under their control, they forcefully converted many to Christianity, claiming to have educated them in the ways of the "one true religion." [28] [29] With the depopulation of the local populations along with the capitulation of the Inca Empire, the Spanish missionary work after colonization began was able to continue unimpeded. It took just a generation for the entire continent to be under Christian influence. [6]

Peter Shaffer's play The Royal Hunt of the Sun (1964) dramatizes the conquest of the Incas. In the play, Pizarro, Atahualpa, Valverde and other historical figures appear as characters.

The conquest is also used as a starting point for the Matthew Reilly novel Temple, where the siege of Cusco is used. Many historical figures are mentioned, especially Pizarro who is mentioned as the pursuer of the protagonist.

The Inca are featured in the third Campaign in Age of Empires 3, having a Lost City hidden in the Andes. They are also in the Multiplayer, found primarily in the areas making up Chile and Argentina.

The conquest is parodied in The Simpsons TV series, in the episode "Lost Verizon", written by John Frink. [30]

Pizarro and his fellow conquistadors feature as antagonists in the 1982 animated serial Skrivnostna zlata mesta.

I wish Your Majesty to understand the motive that moves me to make this statement is the peace of my conscience and because of the guilt I share. For we have destroyed by our evil behaviour such a government as was enjoyed by these natives. They were so free of crime and greed, both men and women, that they could leave gold or silver worth a hundred thousand pesos in their open house. So that when they discovered that we were thieves and men who sought to force their wives and daughters to commit sin with them, they despised us. But now things have come to such a pass in offence of God, owing to the bad example we have set them in all things, that these natives from doing no evil have turned into people who can do no good.. I beg God to pardon me, for I am moved to say this, seeing that I am the last to die of the Conquistadors."

When has it ever happened, either in ancient or modern times, that such amazing exploits have been achieved? Over so many climes, across so many seas, over such distances by land, to subdue the unseen and unknown? Whose deeds can be compared with those of Spain? Not even the ancient Greeks and Romans.

When I set out to write for the people of today and of the future, about the conquest and discovery that our Spaniards made here in Peru, I could not but reflect that I was dealing with the greatest matters one could possibly write about in all of creation as far as secular history goes. Where have men ever seen the things they have seen here? And to think that God should have permitted something so great to remain hidden from the world for so long in history, unknown to men, and then let it be found, discovered and won all in our own time!

The houses are more than two hundred paces in length, and very well built, being surrounded by strong walls, three times the height of a man. The roofs are covered with straw and wood, resting on the walls. The interiors are divided into eight rooms, much better built than any we had seen before. Their walls are of very well cut stones and each lodging is surrounded by its masonry wall with doorways, and has its fountain of water in an open court, conveyed from a distance by pipes, for the supply of the house. In front of the plaza, towards the open country, a stone fortress is connected with it by a staircase leading from the square to the fort. Towards the open country there is another small door, with a narrow staircase, all within the outer wall of the plaza. Above the town, on the mountain side, where the houses commence, there is another fort on a hill, the greater part of which is hewn out of the rock. This is larger than the other, and surrounded by three walls, rising spirally.


Warfare and Weapons

A resilient empire, the Inca Empire maintained what was the most powerful military at that time. The commander in chief of the Inca army was the Sapa Inca. The military was made up of soldiers who came from different ethnic groups, and anyone could be drafted into military service at any time. No part of the empire escaped contribution to the military.

Weapons were mainly arrows, clubs, throwers, spears, maces with heads made from bronze or copper, etc. The massive size of the Inca army also worked to their advantage. The Incas fought several battles, and one of the most remarkable ones is the battle they fought with the Mapuches.


Pizarro & the Fall of the Inca Empire

In 1533 CE the Inca Empire was the largest in the world. It extended across western South America from Quito in the north to Santiago in the south. However, the lack of integration of conquered peoples into that empire, combined with a civil war to claim the Inca throne and a devastating epidemic of European-brought diseases, meant that the Incas were ripe for the taking. Francisco Pizarro arrived in Peru with an astonishingly small force of men whose only interest was treasure. With superior weapons and tactics, and valuable assistance from locals keen to rebel, the Spanish swept away the Incas in little more than a generation. The arrival of the visitors to the New World and consequent collapse of the Inca Empire was the greatest humanitarian disaster to ever befall the Americas.

The Inca Empire

The Incas themselves called their empire Tawantinsuyo (or Tahuantinsuyu) meaning 'Land of the Four Quarters' or 'The Four Parts Together'. Cuzco, the capital, was considered the navel of the world, and radiating out were highways and sacred sighting lines (ceques) to each quarter: Chinchaysuyu (north), Antisuyu (east), Collasuyu (south), and Cuntisuyu (west). Spreading across ancient Ecuador, Peru, northern Chile, Bolivia, upland Argentina, and southern Colombia and stretching 5,500 km (3,400 miles) north to south, a mere 40,000 Incas governed a huge territory with some 10 million subjects speaking over 30 different languages.

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The Incas believed they had a divine right to rule over conquered peoples as in their mythology they were brought into existence at Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco) by the sun god Inti. As a consequence, they regarded themselves as the chosen few, the 'Children of the Sun', and the Inca ruler was Inti's representative and embodiment on earth. In practical terms, this meant that all speakers of the Inca language Quechua (or Runasimi) were given privileged status, and this noble class then dominated all the important political, religious, and administrative roles within the empire.

The rise of the Inca Empire had been spectacularly quick. Although Cuzco had become a significant centre some time at the beginning of the Late Intermediate Period (1000-1400 CE), the process of regional unification only began from the late 14th century CE and significant conquest in the 15th century CE. The Empire was still young when it was to meet its greatest challenge.

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Pizarro & the Conquistadores

Francisco Pizarro and his partner Diego de Almagro were both in their mid-50s, from humble backgrounds, and neither had won any renown in their native Spain. Adventurers and treasure-seekers, they led a small group of Spanish adventurers eager to find the golden treasures their compatriots had found in the Aztec world of Mexico a decade earlier. Sailing down the Pacific coast from Panama in two small caravel merchant ships, they searched on in Colombia and the Ecuadorian coast but could not find the gold they so desperately sought. This was Pizarro's third such expedition, and it seemed his very last chance for fame and glory.

Then, in 1528 CE, one Bartolomé Ruiz (the expedition's pilot) captured a raft off the coast which was full of treasure. There might, after all, be something worth exploring deeper in South America. Pizarro used the discovery as a means to secure the right from the Spanish king Charles V to be governor of any new territory discovered with the Crown getting its usual one-fifth of any treasure found. With a force of 168 men, which included 138 veterans, 27 cavalry horses, artillery, and one friar, a Father Valverde, Pizarro headed for the Andes.

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In 1531 CE, making slow and careful progress, he reached and conquered Coaque on the Ecuadorian coast and waited for reinforcements. These arrived the following year and swelled the Spanish force to 260 men of which 62 were cavalry. The force moved on down the coast to Tumbes, pillaging as they went and putting the natives to the sword. Moving on again they began to see the tell-tale signs of a prosperous civilization – storehouses and well-built roads. They formed a new settlement at San Miguel (modern Piura), and by the end of the year 1532 CE Pizarro was ready to make first contact with the rulers of what seemed a huge and wealthy empire.

Trouble in the Empire

When the foreign invaders arrived in Peru the Incas were already beset by some serious internal problems. As we have seen, their massive empire was a politically fragile and loose integration of conquered states whose subservience came from Inca military dominance and the taking of hostages - both of important persons and important religious artefacts - to ensure a continued, if uneasy, compliance to Cuzco's rule. Unpopular taxes were extracted in the form of goods or service (military and general labour), and many communities were forcibly resettled to other parts of the empire or had to welcome new communities of people more loyal to their overlords.

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The Incas also imposed their religion on conquered peoples, even if they allowed the continued worship of some gods provided they were given a lesser status to Inti. The Incas even imposed their own art across the empire as a way to visually impress exactly who was the ruling class. There were some benefits to Inca rule – a more regulated food supply, better roads and communications, the possibility of Inca military protection, and occasional state-sponsored feasts. All in all, though, the lot of a conquered area was such that, in many cases, when a rival power threatened Inca rule, loyalty to preserve the empire was somewhat lacking. Some areas, especially in the northern territories were constantly in rebellion, and an ongoing war in Ecuador necessitated the establishment of a second Inca capital at Quito.

Perhaps more significantly than this unrest, when Pizarro arrived on the scene the Incas were fighting amongst themselves. On the death of the Inca ruler Wayna Qhapaq in 1528 CE, two of his sons, Waskar and Atahualpa, battled in a damaging six-year civil war for control of their father's empire. Atahualpa finally won but the empire was still beset by factions yet to be fully reconciled to his victory.

Finally, if all those factors were not enough to give the Spanish a serious advantage, the Incas were at that time hit by an epidemic of European diseases, such as smallpox, which had spread from central America even faster than the European invaders themselves. Such a disease killed Wayna Qhapaq in 1528 CE and in some places a staggering 65-90% of the population would die from this invisible enemy.

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Pizarro Meets Atahualpa

On Friday, 15th of November, 1532 CE, the Spaniards approached the Inca town of Cajamarca in the highlands of Peru. Pizarro sent word that he wished to meet the Inca king, there enjoying the local springs and basking in his recent victory over Waskar. Atahualpa agreed to finally meet the much-rumoured bearded white men who were known to have been fighting their way from the coast for some time. Confidently surrounded by his 80,000 strong army Atahualpa seems not to have seen any threat from such a small enemy force, and he made Pizarro wait until the next day.

The first formal meeting between Pizarro and Atahualpa involved a few speeches, a drink together while they watched some Spanish horsemanship, and not much else. Both sides went away planning to capture or kill the other party at the first available opportunity. The very next day Pizarro, using the conveniently labyrinth-like architecture of the Inca town to his advantage, set his men in ambush to await Atahualpa's arrival in the main square. When the royal troop arrived, Pizarro fired his small canons, and then his men, wearing armour, attacked on horseback. In the ensuing battle, where firearms were mismatched against spears, arrows, slings, and clubs, 7,000 Incas were killed against zero Spanish losses. Atahualpa was hit a blow on the head and captured alive.

Atahualpa's Ransom & Death

Either held for ransom by Pizarro or even offering a ransom himself, Atahualpa's safe return to his people was promised if a room measuring 6.2 x 4.8 metres were filled with all the treasures the Incas could provide up to a height of 2.5 m. This was done, and the chamber was piled high with gold objects from jewellery to idols. The room was then filled twice again with silver objects. The whole task took eight months, and the value today of the accumulated treasures would have been well over $50 million. Meanwhile, Atahualpa continued to run his empire from captivity, and Pizarro sent exploratory expeditions to Cuzco and Pachacamac while he awaited reinforcements from Panama, enticed by sending a quantity of gold to hint at the wealth on offer. Then, having got his ransom, Pizarro summarily tried and executed Atahualpa anyway, on the 26th of July, 1533 CE. The Inca king was originally sentenced to death by burning at the stake, but after the monarch agreed to be baptised, this was commuted to death by strangulation.

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Some of Pizarro's men thought this was the worst possible response, and Pizarro received criticism from the Spanish king for treating a foreign sovereign so shabbily, but the wily Spanish leader had seen just how subservient the Incas were to their king, even when he was held captive by the enemy. As a living god, Pizarro perhaps knew that only the king's death could bring about the total defeat of the Incas. Indeed, even in death, the Inca king exerted an influence over his people for the severed head of Atahualpa gave birth to the enduring Inkarri legend. For the Incas believed that one day the head would grow a new body and their ruler would return, defeat the Spanish, and restore the natural order of things. Crucially, the period of Atahualpa's captivity had shown the Spanish that there were deep factions in the Inca Empire and these could be exploited to their own advantage.

The Fall of Cuzco

Having cut off the snake's head, the Spanish then set about conquering Cuzco with its vast golden treasures which were reported by Hernando Pizarro following his reconnaissance expedition there. After that, they could deal with the rest of the empire. The first battle was with troops loyal to Atahualpa near Hatun Xauxa, but the Spaniards were helped by the local population delighted to see the back of the Incas. The Spaniards were given supplies from the local Inca storehouses, and Pizarro established his new capital there. Local assistance and the plundering of the Inca storehouses would become a familiar pattern which aided Pizarro for the remainder of his conquest.

The invaders next defeated an army in retreat at Vilcaswaman but did not have everything their own way and even suffered a military defeat when an advance force was attacked by surprise on their way to Cuzco. The next day the Old World visitors resumed their unstoppable march, though, and swept all before them. A brief resistance at Cuzco was overcome, and the city fell into Pizarro's hands with a whimper on 15th of November, 1533 CE. The treasures of the city and the golden wonders of the Coricancha temple were ruthlessly stripped and melted down.

Pizarro's first attempt to install a puppet ruler - Thupa Wallpa, the younger brother of Waskar - failed to restore any sort of political order, and he soon died of illness. A second puppet ruler was installed – Manqo Inka, another son of Wayna Qhapaq. While he ensured the state did not collapse from within, Pizarro and his men left to pacify the rest of the empire and see what other treasures they could find.

Conquering the Empire

The Spanish were severely tested in the northern territories, where armies led by Ruminawi and Quizquiz held out, but these too capitulated from internal strife and their leaders were killed. The Europeans' relentless conquest could not be answered. In this, they were greatly helped by the Inca mode of warfare which was highly ritualised. Such tactics as deceit, ambush, and subterfuge were unknown to them in warfare, as were changing tactics mid-battle and seizing opportunities of weakness in the enemy as they arose. In addition, Inca warriors were highly dependent on their officers, and if these conspicuous individuals fell in battle, a whole army could quickly collapse in panicked retreat. These factors and the superior weaponry of the Europeans meant the Incas had very little chance of defending a huge empire already difficult to manage. The Incas did quickly learn to fight back and deal with cavalry, for example by flooding areas under attack or fighting on rough terrain, but their spears, slings, and clubs could not match bullets, crossbows, swords, and steel armour. The Spaniards also had nearly half the population of the old empire fighting for them as old rivalries and factions re-emerged.

The Spanish soon found out that the vast geographical spread of their new empire and its inherent difficulties in communication and control (even if their predecessors had built an excellent road system) meant that they faced the same management problems as the Incas. Rebellions and defections spread all over, and even Manqo Inka rebelled and formed his own army to try and win real power for himself. Cuzco and the new Spanish stronghold of Cuidad de Los Reyes (Lima) were besieged by two huge Inca armies, but the Spaniards held out until the attackers had to retreat. The Inca armies were largely composed of farmers, and they could not abandon their harvest without starving their communities. The siege was raised again the next year, but once more the Spanish resisted, and when they killed the army leaders in a deliberately targeted attack, resistance to the new order ebbed away. Manqo Inka was forced to flee south where he set up an Inca enclave at Vilcabamba. He and his successors would resist for another four decades. Finally, in 1572 CE, a Spanish force led by Viceroy Toledo captured the Inca king Thupa Amaru, took him back to Cuzco, and executed him. The last Inca ruler was gone and with him any hope of restoring their once great empire.

Zaključek

Atahualpa, following victory in the war with his brother, had killed historians and destroyed the Inca quipu records in what was intended to be a total renewal, what the Incas called a pachakuti or 'turning over of time and space', an epoch-changing event which the Incas believed periodically occurred through the ages. How ironic then, that Atahualpa was to suffer a pachakuti himself and the new rulers would similarly loot, burn, and destroy every vestige of Andean culture they could find. The arrival of the Old World into the New turned it upside down. Nothing would ever be the same again.

The Spanish, after decades of their own internal problems, which included the murder of Pizarro, eventually established a stable colonial government in 1554 CE. For the Andean people, their way of life, which had stretched back millennia despite the Inca interruption, would be challenged again by the new epoch. These were the lucky ones, though, as by 1570 CE 50% of the pre-Columbian Andean population had been wiped out. For those ordinary people who survived the ravages of war and disease, there was to be no respite from a rapacious overlord once again eager to steal their wealth and impose on them a foreign religion.


Poglej si posnetek: Gonzalo Pizarro y la gran rebelión de los encomenderos (Julij 2022).


Komentarji:

  1. Holdin

    Se motite ... posebej narobe

  2. Gaktilar

    Zelo smešno vprašanje

  3. Hawly

    Verjamem, da se motiš. Predlagam, da razpravljam. Pišite mi v PM, govori.

  4. Anmcha

    What curious topic



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