Podcasti zgodovine

Phaistosov disk (stran B)

Phaistosov disk (stran B)


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.


Phaistosov disk -Arvaniti v Grčiji

Pesem (wb: ki jo je avtor članka dešifriral) je napisana na eni strani diska, znanega kot Phaistosova. Disk, ki je trenutno ohranjen v arheološkem muzeju Heraklion na Kreti, je 3.7.1908 odkril italijanski arheolog Luigi Premier med izkopavanji v stari palači Phaistos, za katero se ocenjuje, da je bila v uporabi okoli leta 1850-1600 pr. Disk iz keramične gline ima premer 158-165 in širino 16-21 milimetrov, in glede na to, kje so ga našli, se domneva, da se je ohranil v arhivu palače.

Phaistos je eno od pomembnejših mest minojske Krete v drugem tisočletju pred našim štetjem in trenutno služi kot idealno arheološko središče. Njegovo ime ni bilo pojasnjeno, vendar velja za predgrško in mislim, da se nanaša na ime boga Ifestos Ιfaistos, Ήφαιστος, na katerem je bila izpisana začetna črka I (H). Zgodovinar Diodor Siqelioti (5,78) meni za svojega ustanovitelja Minosa, ki ga Homer omenja v Iliadi (pesem 3, vrstica 648) in Odisej (pesem 3, vrstica 296). Po arheologiji se minojsko obdobje začne 2.600 pr. in prvi Phaistos je bil zgrajen okoli leta 2000 pr. s suhim kamnom …

Palačo je uničil potres okoli leta 1730 pr. Čudežno je, da je preživel požar, potem ko so ga pekli pri visokih temperaturah. Raziskovalci navajajo, da velja za prvi tipografski spomenik, ker je bilo besedilo vtisnjeno na dveh mehkih argilovih ploščah in pritrjeno skupaj. Še pomembnejši pa so tip pisanja in simboli v njem. Kar zadeva namen sestave ali imena izdelovalca, ostaja arheološka skrivnost.

Dejstvo je, da ta tema ni pritegnila veliko raziskav, vendar prevladujoče mišljenje, da simbolov, prikazanih na disku, niso našli drugje, ni pravilno in predstavil bom starodavne podatke, ki se nanašajo tudi na dva simbola diska Phaistos, prvi je kovanec iz Kerkyre, imenovan tudi otok Epir, na katerem je prikazan simbol, ki se štirikrat pojavi na disku Phaistos.

Druga razstava se nanaša na čar, ki se v latinščini imenuje Abraxas, v središču napisa, ki ga ima Abraxas, pa je prikazan simbol, ki se dvakrat pojavi na disku Phaistos. Povezave starodavne Kerkyre z jezikom Arvanitov in na splošno Albancev je mogoče zaslediti globoko v zgodovini tega otoka, saj vemo, da so pred namestitvijo grških kolonistov iz Eritreje, Eubeje v 8. ali 9. stoletju, v Kerkyri živeli Iliri . Drugi čar, telo človeka s petelinovo glavo, fantastična figura, ki jo današnji kristjani označujejo za satansko in prekletstvo, na kateri je v grščini napisano arvanitsko ime ΒΡΑCA (ΒΡΑΣΑ, Vrasa), kar pomeni morilec/krvnik, do Arvanita izvor figure.

V raziskavah za več informacij o figuri s petelinovo glavo in imenom ΤΥΔΥΣ (TYDHYS) je prikazano na ščitu, v grščini je znan kot Tidhej (Τυδεύς). Znano je, da je bil Tidhej (Τυδεύς) sin Oineja (Οινέα), kralja Etolije (Αιτωλίας), območja na jonski obali. Zakaj si je prislužil oznako Vrasa (Βράσα) ali Vrases (wb-in Alb.), Najdemo v Apollodoriju v naslednjem:

"Ko je Tydeus zrasel v pogumnega človeka, je bil izgnan zaradi umora, kot nekateri pravijo, Akantusa, Enejevega brata, a po mnenju avtorja Alkmeonida so bile njegove žrtve sinovi Melasa, ki so spletkarili proti Eneju, njihova imena so bili Telefoni , Euryalus, Hyperlaus, Antiochus, Eumedes, Sternops, Xanthippus, Sthenelaus, a kot bo imel Pherecydes, je umoril svojega lastnega brata Olefinasa. Ko ga je Agrius sodil, je pobegnil v Argos in prišel k Adrastu ... «(Knjižnica, I. viii. 5-6)

Ker so me kovanci iz Kerkyre s simbolom krave, ki daje mleko teletu, simbol, ki ga najdemo v večini kovancev iz tako imenovanih grških kolonij Apollonia in Epidam, poznejše Dyrre, me je navdušilo srebro dvostater iz Karista (Κάρυστο), Eubeja, ki prikazuje isto temo.

Delovni naslov/Umetnik: Vaza v obliki petelina
Oddelek: grška in rimska umetnost
Kultura/obdobje/lokacija:
HB/TOA Datum koda: 04
Delovni datum: druga polovica 7. stoletja pr.
fotografija mma, digitalna datoteka
retuširano s filmom in mediji (jnc) 3_4_10

Ker vemo, da se še danes v Karistu govori arvanitsko in če vzamemo petelina, ki je prikazan na drugi strani obeh kovancev, kot etnični simbol prebivalstva Karista, bi bilo logično sklepati, da tudi če je prikazana abeceda na steklenici s črnilom v obliki petelina ni starodavna abeceda Karista, lahko bi bila primerna za jezik tega starodavnega mesta. Steklenička s črnilom Viterbo, značilna za tehnologijo "buccheri", značilna po sijoči črni barvi z drobnimi ločnicami, je bila najdena v Viterbiju v Tirreniji in je datirana v VII pr.n.št., danes pa je razstavljena v newyorškem Metropolitanskem muzeju umetnosti.

Besedilo na disku Phaistos, ki je napisano helikoidno s simbolično sliko, ki se začne na sredini na obeh straneh in konča zunaj, grafično podobno kot danes, to je pisanje od leve proti desni. Trdnost te domneve dokazuje šest simbolov, ki vključujejo ljudi, ki gledajo v desno. Za vtiskovanje je bilo uporabljenih 46 različnih stiskalnic/žig različnih simbolov, skupaj 241 znamk, od tega 123, kot pravim, od začetne stopnje in 118 drugih.

Teh 46 simbolov ali številk, vsak s svojo izgovorjavo in zvokom, ni zadostovalo za prenos arvanitskega jezika. Ustvarjalec abecede je s štirimi od teh simbolov lahko dopolnil še 7 drugih, tako da je obrnil njihov žig ali grafiko njihove figure. Simboli iz prvotne tabele, ki jo imenujem abeceda diska Phaistos, ki sem jih navedel, ko sem jih dešifriral na eni strani, in nato dodal stolpec, ki prikazuje, kolikokrat so se simboli prikazali.

Ker sem spoznal, da je Phaistosov disk v arvanitskem jeziku, sem razmislil o različnih znanih abecedah tega jezika. Med mnogimi od njih sem našel tisto, ki ima tudi 53 črk, podobno kot pri disku Phaistos, ki je v Epiru znan z imenom “Alfabeti i Dhaskal Thodh. Ta abeceda je najbolj primerna za razlago arvanitskega in na splošno južnoalbanskega narečja. V zahodnoevropski bibliografiji je naveden pod imenom "Alphabeti i Elbasanit". Iz knjige "Das Buch der Shrift", avtorja Avstrijca Carla Faulmanna, bom spodaj vključil kopijo tabele abecede, označeno kot "Schrift von Elbassan".

Identificiran je kot "Alfabeti i Elbasanit", ker so ga našli, bolje rečeno ohranjenega, v Elbasanu. Johann Georg von Hahn, ugledni raziskovalec jezika, tradicije in geografije iz 19. stoletja, v svoji knjigi "Albanesische Studien" posveča celoten članek o tej abecedi.


Phaistosov disk

The Phaistosov disk je artefakt iz bronaste dobe. Disk je premera približno 15 centimetrov (5,9 palca) in je izdelan iz gline. Pokrita je s številnimi simboli. Prihaja iz civilizacije Minoe na grškem otoku Kreta, verjetno iz 2. tisočletja pr.

Simboli pokrivajo obe strani diska. Prikazujejo vsakdanje stvari. Vtisnjeni so bili na disk, pritisnjeni v glino, ko je bila še mehka. Tečejo po spirali. Ta plošča je prvo znano "tiskano" delo v zgodovini v smislu, da je bilo na voljo več likov in risb za večkratno uporabo. Je edini tovrstni artefakt. O disku, njegovem namenu in če prikazani znaki dejansko predstavljajo pisanje, je bilo postavljenih veliko vprašanj.

Skupaj je na disku 242 žetonov, vzetih iz niza 45 edinstvenih znakov. Razvrščenih je v 61 skupin, ločenih s črtami. Skupine so dolge od dve do sedem znamk. Ker je "besedilo" zelo kratko in je disk edinstven, verjetno ne bo dešifriran. [1]


Je Phaistosov disk ponaredek?

Phaistosov disk je eden izmed bolj enigmatičnih in bizarnih artefaktov na področju starodavnih sistemov pisanja. Na Kreti jo je leta 1908 našel arheolog Luigi Pernier in jo arheološko povezal z minojsko civilizacijo (iz okoli 1850 – 1600 pr. N. Št.), Ostaja popolnoma nešifrirana in nima očitne povezave niti z minojsko (linearno A) pisavo niti s katerim koli druga znana pisava, dešifrirana ali kako drugače. Ameriški umetnostni zgodovinar / trgovec z umetnostmi Jerome Eisenberg, strokovnjak za ponaredke, je izrazito trdil, da je bil Disk v resnici izdelana prevara, ki jo je izdelal Pernier sam, kar je Eisenberg objavil v svoji reviji Minerva ( Eisenberg 2008).

Na noben način nisem strokovnjak za minojsko pisanje, vendar se moj znanstveni poudarek močno nanaša na preučevanje starodavnih pisav ter antropologijo in arheologijo pismenosti. Uporabljam Yves Duhoux ’ smešno z naslovom ‘Kako ne bi dešifriral Phaistosovega diska ’ pri svojem tečaju o antropologiji pismenosti (Duhoux 2000). Poleg tega je stoletje štipendiranja na Phaistosovem disku legendarno prežeto z ročicami, goljufijami in zvijačami, in ker me za psevdoarheologijo več kot zanima, me gradivo, povezano s Phaistosom, nenehno zanima. Iskreno povedano, bi bilo veliko stvari precej poenostavljenih, če bi le zanikali pristnost diska ’s –, vendar to ni navadna vaja, in pomen artefakta zahteva, da trditev natančno preučimo.


Phaistos Disk, stran A. Vir: Wikimedia Commons.

Preden pridemo do trditev Eisenberg, potrebujemo nekaj konteksta. Torej, prvič, kaj vemo o PD?
– Gre za žgan glineni disk, premera približno 16 cm in debeline 1-2 cm.
– Najdeni so bili na mestu minojske palače v Phaistosu na jugu Krete.
– Zdi se, da je bil namenoma (previdno) odpuščen, da se ustvari trajni zapis, medtem ko so bili drugi minojski dokumenti sproženi po naključju (npr. Pri požigu stavb).
– Glifi so na obeh straneh vtisnjeni z različnimi udarci ali žigi, ki niso izrezljani/vrezani v glino.
– Ima skupaj 241 znakov, sestavljenih iz 45 različnih znakov / glifov. Vendar je bil skupni ‘signator ’ (vsi znaki v sistemu) verjetno večji, saj se nekateri redki znaki skoraj zagotovo ne pojavljajo v tem besedilu.
– Besedilo ‘text ’ je razdeljeno na 61 odsekov z največ 5 znaki na kos.
– Predhodni dve dejstvi nakazujeta, da je šlo morda za zloglasni sistem pisanja, ki je zapisoval zloge in ne posameznih fonemov, saj ima preveč edinstvenih znakov, da bi bil abeceda, a premalo, da bi bil logografski (besedni znaki) ali kako drugo sistema. Vendar to ne izključuje možnosti, da sploh ni šlo za fonetsko pisanje (npr. Če je šlo za koledar ali igro).
– Ker so znaki na sredini rahlo stisnjeni, se zdi, da so bili napisani od zunaj, spiralno navznoter.
– Sodeč po prekrivanju nekaterih znakov, je bilo žigosano/napisano od desne proti levi, kar kaže, da je bilo tako mišljeno za branje.
– Nobena uporabna podobnost glifov s tistimi v drugih pisnih sistemih v Sredozemlju ali drugje, čeprav je bila ugotovljena v tesni povezavi z linearno A (minojsko) tablico.
– Njegov datum je določen izključno iz njegovega arheološkega konteksta, in čeprav je zgodnje drugo tisočletje najverjetnejše obdobje, se lahko pojavi šele leta 1400 pr.

Zdaj pa k papirju Eisenberg ’. Prva stvar, ki jo je treba omeniti, je, da to ni recenzirano akademsko prizorišče, avtor pa je ustanovitelj, urednik in založnik revije. Boljša analogija bi bila, če bi o tem razmišljali kot o uredniškem mnenju. Prav tako ni rezultat nobene nove raziskave, ki jo je izvedel Eisenberg ali kdo drug. Kot je razvidno iz komentarjev, dr Eisenberg to trdi že skoraj desetletje in ni novih dokazov, ki bi dokazovali verjetnost, da je šlo za ponaredek. Pernier, bager z artefaktom, je označen kot ponarejevalec, ne na podlagi posebnih dokazov, ampak so mu preprosto pripisali motive (upravičeno ali napačno), ki bi ga lahko pripeljali do ponarejanja dokumenta. Torej nimamo ničesar podobnega razodetjem v zgodnjih petdesetih letih, ki so razkrili prevaro Piltdown na podlagi fizikalne ali kemijske analize, prav tako nimamo spektakularnih video dokazov, ki bi razkrili, da je Fujimura Shinichi na svojih mestih zasadil lažna odkritja v japonski prevaraciji iz paleolitika. leta 2000 (Hudson 2005). Gre za zelo posreden primer. Kljub temu je treba resno preveriti, tako ker je na videz verjeten, kot tudi zato, ker je bil Eisenberg v zadnjih nekaj desetletjih odgovoren za številne druge (veliko bolj trdne) epizode utaje.

Izhodišče za Eisenbergovo trditev o Phaistosovi ‘hoax ’ je edinstvenost artefakta, tako samega predmeta kot pisave na njem. Ker ni bilo najdenih nobenih drugih primerov te oblike pisanja, je presenetljivo (namenjen besedi), da bi njen ustvarjalec naredil 45 različnih pečatov, ki bi jih vtisnili v glino, namesto da bi po potrebi preprosto zarezali znake. Prav tako niso bili najdeni nobeni dejanski žigi/pečati, ki bi spominjali na znake, kar kaže, da je bil ta zgodnji primerek ‘ premične vrste ’ uporabljen za ustvarjanje samo enega artefakta, nato pa je bil postopek v celoti opuščen. V svojem priljubljenem Pištole, klice in jeklo, evolucijski biogeograf Jared Diamond (1997: 239-259) trdi, da je bil PD res zelo zgoden in izjemen primer premičnega tipa, ki pa ga Minojci niso mogli izkoristiti, ker v drugih pogledih njihovi družbi primanjkuje tehnologije in organizacije. strokovno znanje za nadaljnji razvoj. Eisenbergova perspektiva je drugačna – trdi, da edinstvenost medija z artefaktom nakazuje, da je to prevara, ki jo je Pernier zasnoval, da bi zaintrigiral in mistificiral druge učenjake ter povečal svojo pomembnost, pa tudi Phaistosovo v zvezi svojim tekmecem (zlasti Arthurju Evansu).

PD je edinstven artefakt in zelo kratko besedilo, zaradi česar je dobesedno nemogoče dešifrirati, če ne najdemo več primerov pisnega sistema. Toda Johna Chadwicka, katerega kariera je temeljila na njegovem delu z Michaelom Ventrisom pri dešifriranju mikenske linearne črke B (Chadwick 1990), so prizadeli domnevni dešifriralci Phaistosa in je domnevno prejel eno novo rešitev na mesec, obstaja precej temeljit seznam domnevnih dešifriranj v ta članek na Wikipediji. V bistvu je bila vsaka na daleč verjetna pisana tradicija uveljavljena kot vpliv, za sam disk pa so trdili, da je v jezikih od grškega do egipčanskega do baskovskega do atlantskega (.). Druga možnost je bila predlagana igralna deska, koledarski dokument ali nekakšno mistično besedilo. Če ne najdemo več dokumentov v istem scenariju, nihče ne bo mogel dokončno rešiti zadeve. Če bi bilo potrjeno, da je to prevara, bi lahko vsi prenehali iskati. Eisenberg dejansko nakazuje, da nesmiselnost iskanja deloma temelji na Pernierjevi iznajdljivosti pri ustvarjanju take skrivnosti.

Bistvo Eisenbergovega argumenta pa je v fizikalnih lastnostih artefakta: dejstvu, da je bil zelo previdno, namerno izstreljen, in da ima zelo čisto odrezan rob v primerjavi z drugimi minojskimi glinenimi ploščami, in tukaj, najde napako pri Pernierju. Ker se v tem pogledu tako razlikuje od drugih minojskih glinenih artefaktov, to pošlje Eisenbergu rdečo zastavo, ki nakazuje, da je njegova edinstvenost lahko posledica Pernierjevega nepoznavanja teh dejstev. Protiargument temu pa bi bil, da so minojske glinene plošče s črko Line A vsi gospodarski dokumenti, ki niso namenjeni dolgoročnemu arhiviranju, vendar je PD, četudi starodaven, skoraj zagotovo zelo drugačne besedilne zvrsti in pisavske tradicije od teh besedila. To ne ovrže mnenja, da gre morda za prevaro, vendar tudi ne pomeni pomembne potrditve. Na primer, če je disk igralna plošča, koledar ali bogoslužni napis, bi imeli njegovi izdelovalci dober razlog, da v času izdelave opečejo glino, in potencialno dober razlog, da bi tako čisto odrezali robove. Preprosto ni bilo isto besedilo kot obilni glineni gospodarski dokumenti. Odgovoriti moramo na vprašanje, “ Ali bi se Minojci lahko odločili, da bodo nekatere oblike informacij trajno ohranili, drugih pa ne? ”

Ena od možnih rešitev skrivnosti je v njenem datiranju. Artefakt še nikoli ni bil podvržen kakršni koli radiometrični datiranju in res večino prejšnjega stoletja ni mogel datirati datuma, razen v arheološkem kontekstu, kot je bilo obravnavano zgoraj. Vendar termoluminiscenčno datiranje arheologom omogoča, da nedestruktivno določijo datum, ko je bila glina opečena, in če bi na disku uporabili TL datiranje, bi lahko ugotovili, ali gre res za starodavno izdelavo. Vendar pa ta preizkus ni dovoljen v muzeju, ki ga ima (v Heraklionu na Kreti), ker si Eisenberg trdi, da si "noben grški učenjak ali politik ne bi upal pomagati"#8216 uničiti ’ takega nacionalnega zaklada ”. Na žalost je res, da so muzeji redko odprti za tovrstno poizvedovanje, tudi od velikih znanstvenikov. Arheologija je pogosto povezana z nacionalističnim žarom in institucionalnim ponosom, če pa ne bo opravil standardnega, dobro sprejetega testa, bo od zdaj naprej preučevanje diska spremljalo zdaj, ko je bila trditev tako javno objavljena. Tako menim, da je Eisenbergova javna trditev dragocena spodbuda in upam, da bo izzvala vprašanje termoluminiscenčnega datiranja. Prav tako bi bilo zelo informativno, tudi če se PD izkaže za starodavnega, saj bi lahko TL ugotovil, ali gre za artefakt iz zgodnjega drugega tisočletja (1800-1600 pr. N. Št.) Ali več v območju 1400 pr.

Konec koncev je to sugestivno in ne bi bil ravno presenečen, če bi preverili trditev Eisenberga in če bi se PD izkazalo za ponaredek, vendar se ne morem strinjati, da je zadeva zdaj rešena. Ker pismenost ni zgolj ‘on/off ’ pojav –, se moramo soočiti z možnostjo različnih besedilnih zvrsti, različnih medijev in različnih namenov za pisanje – ne moremo ’t uporabljati ekonomskih dokumentov Linear A za dokazovanje nenormalnosti diska. Zmenek iz neodvisnega laboratorija bi veliko pripomogel k razrešitvi mojih dvomov. To bi še vedno pustilo vprašanje, kako je bilo to storjeno in kdo – se spomni, da ni neposrednih dokazov proti Pernierju. Vseeno se veselim, da bo ta trditev v naslednjih nekaj letih deležna večje pozornosti.


Phaistosov disk

The Phaistosov disk je artefakt iz bronaste dobe. Disk je premera približno 15 centimetrov (5.9 in#160in) in je izdelan iz gline. Pokrita je s številnimi simboli. Prihaja iz civilizacije Minoa na grškem otoku Kreta, verjetno iz 2. tisočletja pr.

Simboli pokrivajo obe strani diska. Prikazujejo vsakdanje stvari. Vtisnjeni so bili na disk, pritisnjeni v glino, ko je bila še mehka. Tečejo po spirali. Ta plošča je prvo znano "tiskano" delo v zgodovini v smislu, da je bil nabor likov in risb za večkratno uporabo. Je edini tovrstni artefakt. O disku, njegovem namenu in če prikazani znaki dejansko predstavljajo pisanje, je bilo postavljenih veliko vprašanj.

Skupaj je na disku 242 žetonov, vzetih iz niza 45 edinstvenih znakov. Razvrščenih je v 61 skupin, ločenih s črtami. Skupine so dolge od dve do sedem znamk. Ker je "besedilo" zelo kratko in je disk edinstven, verjetno ne bo dešifriran. Ώ ]


Phaistosov disk (stran B) - zgodovina

Kazalo za skeniranje glavnih strani knjige:
Phaistosov disk:
Hieroglifska grščina z evklidskimi dimenzijami
- & quotLost Proof & quot paralelnih črt & quot -
avtor Andis Kaulins, Copyright & copy 1980

KAZALO

Stran iv. Lingvistične raziskave, Jacob Grimm, Deutsche Grammatik
Stran v. Naslovna stran & quotThe Phaistosov disk: hijeroglifska grščina. & quot
Stran vi. Začetna točka in smer branja diska - stran A
Stran vii. Začetna točka in smer branja diska - stran B
Stran viii. Znanost in um, James Clerk Maxwell
Stran ix. Kazalo v knjigi brez uvodnih strani

Stran 1. Uvod, Pernierjeva ugotovitev diska, Pomen
Stran 4. Prve študije Phaistosove plošče drugih
Stran 7. Nedavne študije drugih, povzetek članka Stefana Hillerja
Stran 7. M. Papež na preizkusu dešifriranja
Stran 7. J.J. Oglejte si metode dešifriranja
Stran 8. E.J.W. Brivec o dešifriranju Phaistosovega diska
Stran 9. Paul J. Muenzer o pomanjkljivostih prejšnjih prizadevanj za dešifriranje
Stran 10. G. Neumann o težavah, ki so nastale pri prizadevanjih za dešifriranje
Stran 11. Duhoux ugotavlja osnovna dejstva o Phaistosovem disku, vključno s smerjo pisanja - od desne proti levi - in branjem od zunaj navznoter
Stran 12. D. Sch & uumlrr o zlogovni naravi pisanja
Stran 12. P. Meriggi o povezavi strani A s stranjo B
Stran 13. V. Georgiev o podobnostih s hieroglifskimi hetitskimi simboli
Stran 14. Tabela preteklih prizadevanj za dešifriranje

Stran 16. Začetki novega dešifriranja Andisa Kaulinsa
Stran 22. Je bil scenarij zložen ali ideografski?
Stran 23. Kakšen je bil jezik diska Phaistos?
Stran 25. Test - porazdelitev začetnih črk in zlogov po jezikih
Stran 29. Dodelitev skladenjskih vrednosti - proces
Stran 36. Porazdelitev in pogostost simbolov - umestitev v položaj

Stran 38. Nastala zloženka po modelu Michaela Ventrisa in Linear B
Stran 39. Podobni simboli in uporabljena Koberjeva metoda
Stran 40. Narava in pomen diska - različni premisleki
Stran 44. M. Palmaitis o indoevropskem in baltskem - uporaba Baltika kot pomočnika
Stran 45. Dešifriranje diska Andisa Kaulinsa - po posameznih simbolih
Vsak simbol se analizira za grške in baltske primerjave

Stran 75. Prepis in branje diska kot zelo starogrški
Stran 77. Tabela prepisa - stran A
Stran 80. Tabela prepisa - stran B

Disk je matematična lema o vzporednih črtah,
zagotovo izvira iz uporabe astronomije v geodetske namene,
kjer je zbliževanje zemljepisnih dolžin proti polom problem geodetske raziskave.

POJDI DO
Stran iv


Phaistosov disk (stran B) - zgodovina

c0 do c9 = 20 do 29

d0 do d9 = 30 do 39

e0 do e5 = 40 do 45

Kontekst zgodovine in njene pasti.

Klasični učenjaki so po naravi konzervativni. Pogosto jih je vodila njihova arheologija sonauke. Razumevanje jezika se mora ujemati z zgodovinskimi dejstvi, kot jih razumemo. To je površen argument. Tu je zapeljiva past: kakšno je pravilno razumevanje zgodovine, ki ga razkriva arheologija?

Najpomembnejšo past, v katero lahko pade znanstvenik, je tisti, ki ga je promoviral Sir Arthur Evans, oseba, ki ima največ zaslug za odkritje davno izginile minojske civilizacije - "minojsko", ki jo je Evans skoval v zvezi z mitskim kraljem Minosom iz Knososa . Čeprav pronicljiv do stopnje sijaja, je Sir Arthur v bistvu postal dedič in vladar sodobne manifestacije cesarstva kralja Minosa s svojo vilo Ariadne in rekonstruirano palačo v Knossosu, obnova pa je polna polemik.

Res je, da je bila arheološka znanost šele v začetku 19. stoletja v povojih, ko je pretekla civilizacija s središčem v Knossosu na otoku Kreta prvič prišla na dan po stoletjih pokopavanja v temni zemlji. Glede na trenutne razmere bi bilo pričakovati nekaj nenamernih odločitev in neskladnosti. Vendar pa je pasta, na katero je Evans razmišljal, celo do njegovih zadnjih dni, njegovo lastno zanimanje za zaščito civilizacije, ki jo je v bistvu odkril. V pravnem svetu bi morali njegove argumente ublažiti zaradi navzkrižja interesov: ne bi in očitno ne bi mogel priznati možnosti, da bi bili Mikenjani gospodarji Knososa in cesarstva v njegovih zadnjih dneh.

Kako se to odraža na jeziku in njegovem dešifriranju? Zaradi naložbe v moč Evans ni mogel dovoliti možnosti, da bi Mikeni, podložniki njihovih minojskih gospodarjev, vladali svojim gospodarjem. Moč, ki jo je imel Arthur Evans v svetu klasičnega učenja, je mnogim jezikoslovcem dolgo preprečevala možnost, da bi linearno B brali kot mikensko in ne minojsko.

Pri tem je pomembno, da ne pademo nazaj v isto past, če domnevamo, da morajo biti hieroglifi Phaistosove glinene plošče mikenski - lahko dodam, statistično neverjetna predpostavka. To seveda ne pomeni, da je nemogoče, da je zapis na disku (če je pisanje) predhodnik mikenske grščine. Ker je datum diska 1700 - 1600 pr. je dobrih 400 let prej od višine mikenske vladavine nad celino in zagotovo nad otoškimi mesti na Kreti, je malo verjetno, da bi artefakt tako spretne obrti odražal kulturo še nerealiziranega in še vedno podrejenega ljudstva.

Ne glede na jezikovni odnos do tega, ali bi disk lahko brali kot indoevropski (povezan z mikenskimi ali hetitskimi) ali kot minojski (najverjetneje takrat semitski), ne glede na izbiro je treba postaviti vprašanje civilizacijskega konteksta zadovoljivi odgovori. Linear B tako v svojem dešifriranju kot v kasnejšem branju krepi kontekst, ki je na splošno sprejet: mikensko govoreče ljudstvo, podrejeno svojim minojskim gospodarjem, je v 14. in 13. stoletju postopoma začelo prevzemati oblast, najprej na celini in nato na samem otoku Kreta, ki je postal gospodar Minojcev. To je bil vrhunec mikenske civilizacije, ki je bila nekoliko kratka, saj so njihove mestne trdnjave okoli leta 1200 pred našim štetjem uničile njihove velike trdnjave, del večjega družbenega pretresa in uničenja po Egejskem morju, Anatoliji in Palestini. Zlom ljudi, ki so ga v egipčanskih zapisih pogosto imenovali Morski ljudje, ustavili pa so jih Egipčani okoli leta 1190 pr. s floto in vojsko Ramzesa III.

Glede na stanje vseh dokazov v tem trenutku je težko izpodbijati to sliko v njeni širši shemi. Iz arheologije, študija jezika, preživele literature in tega, kako razumemo minojsko in mikensko religijo, je slika videti skladna. Morska sila, katere oblast je na otoku Kreta, ima oblast nad okoliškimi otoki Egejskega morja in vzhodnega Sredozemlja, njen vpliv pa se razteza tudi na južno celino grškega polotoka. Prebivalci s Kavkaza, Mikenjani (poimenovani po svojem glavnem citidelu), govorijo jezik, ki ga pozneje poznamo iz njihovih zapisov v Linearnem B. Linearno B je priredba starejšega zlogovnega pisma, ki se je uporabljalo v času Minoja vladarji in jih našli v njihovih mestih. Mikenski jezik, ki sta ga Michael Ventris in John Chadwick dešifrirala iz Linearnega B, je grško narečje s sledmi eolskega in arkadijskega narečja in očitno pred tradicionalnim prihodom Dorcev. Dorsko narečje najdemo ob zahodni obali polotoka, kjer obdaja gorato in razgibano notranjost, kjer je živelo arkadijsko narečje. Sledi tega arkadijskega in najstarejšega narečja, eolskega na severovzhodnem polotoku (Beotia) in severovzhodnih otokih okoli Lezbosa in celinske Anatolije v bližini izkopavanja Troje (Illios), so v skladu z mikenskim linearnim B. Kaj to pove v kontekstu? Pleme, tradicionalno Ahejci ali Danaoi, se je preselilo, prav tako vsa grška plemena iz območja Kavkaza, ki mejijo na stepe visokih azijskih travnikov v Egejsko celino in otoke, ki mejijo na Illios na Anatoliji. Nomadski in tujci uveljavljene kulture Minojcev, so se ti Ahejci naselili na obrobju minojske oblasti. Ahajci so jih pritegnili s privlačnostjo bogate in zelo prefinjene civilizacije, zato so živeli v podrejenosti svojim gospodarjem, postopoma so postajali močnejši, dokler se zaradi nekaterih travm (morda zaradi ogromnega izbruha vulkana na Teri - danes Santorini) ne začne mrk minojske oblasti. Več kot dve stoletji je prehod najprej potekal na celini, kjer so začeli trdnjave Mikene, gorska trdnjava in Tirinž, močno pristanišče, utrditi nadzor nad ravnico Argive. To je bil začetek konca Minojcev na celini in le vprašanje časa je, kdaj bodo osvojili njihov otoški sedež oblasti, Knossos.

Sčasoma bom dodal nekaj referenc, ki bodo zgornjemu opisu dale več podrobnosti. Ta slika razvijajoče se in upadajoče kulture danes na splošno ni sporna, razen v nekaterih podrobnostih, vendar ne toliko v celotni shemi. To je slika, ki izhaja iz rezultatov številnih različnih disciplin v zadnjih 150 letih od prvih odkritij Ninive v Iraku, mest Hetitov v Turčiji, grških trdnjav Mikene, Tirinsa in Pilosa na grškem polotoku, Knososa in Phaistos na Kreti, zdaj pa še mnogi drugi. Slika v veliki meri ostaja dosledna.

Močan argument proti minojskemu izvoru diska pa je simbol 06 (a6), ženska figura, katere krilato krilo in gole prsi so v minojskem slogu, vendar tudi najmanjši in najbolj občutljivi minojski tjulnjevski obroči prikazujejo žensko postavo z ozkim ' osi pas «. Visoka izdelava diska kot celote in še vedno zelo ne-minojska predstavitev ženske figure, saj je svečenica zelo pomembna v minojski kulturi, vse kaže na izvor, ki ni minojski.

Še zadnja opomba o simbolih v zgornji tabeli:

Če simboli predstavljajo jezik

in če je jezik semitski,

nato (z veliko verjetnostjo) simbol 29

Simbol 29 (c9) se ponavlja s prvim simbolom zaporednih skupin na strani A, kot na seznamu. (Seveda ima a7 v naslednjem obroču skoraj podoben odnos - ni čeden postopek, dokler ni resnično ugotovljen. Ena stvar je jasna, vendar je v tej nizu simbolov zelo tesna struktura.)

d5, c0, c4, c4, c9 *
b8, b4, b6 *
a1, d3, c9 *
d3, d9, d2, d6, a6 *
a1, c7, a9, a2 *
a8, a7, d6, c9 *
b3, a8, c9 *
a7, e5, c9 *
a8, a7, d6, c9, c2 *

Razlika med c9 in a7 je v tem, da se a7 pojavlja na številnih mestih, medtem ko se c9 uporablja le v tem kontekstu. Moje štetje za uporabo a7 na strani A je 15 -krat, le 4 od teh so prvi simbol v predponi 'in' (branje besede od desne proti levi, kot je običajno v semitskih jezikih). The symbol c9 is only used in this context on both A and B sides (or , as in two instances on Side A, in the second position which could still allow its use as an enclitic prefix). If the language is Indo-European and is read from left to right, c9 would be a suffix symbol as in a grammatical case ending.

Could the disk be Carian from the Cyclades, Rhodes or Miletus?

I leave this page with a quote from the linguist Cyrus Gorden:

"In summary, the Eteocretan texts are Northwest Semitic with strong Aramaic affinities. There is every reason to accept the long-held view that Minoan is the parent language of Eteocretan. The widely distributed votive texts in Linear A are in the same Semitic language that we may safely regard as the official language of Minoan civilization." 1

1 Cyrus H. Gorden, Forgotten Scripts. Their Ongoing Discovery and Decipherment. str. 143. Dorset Press, New York, 1987.


The Phaistos Disc: A 3,800-Year-Old Archaeological Mystery

Image Credit: Flickr / Ann Wuyts.

Tako imenovani Phaistos disc is a circular clay artifact recovered from the Minoan palace of Phaistos on the island of Crete in 1908, by archaeologist Luigi Pernier.

Most scholars agree that the disc dates to the middle or late Minoan Bronze Age (second millennium BC).

The enigmatic artifact bears an indecipherable message.

It features 241 tokens, made of 45 distinct signs, which were made by pressing hieroglyphic “seals” into a disc of soft clay, in a clockwise sequence spiraling toward the center of the disc.

As noted by researchers, there is evidence of ‘corrections’ made on the surface of the disc.

Palace complex at Phaistos. Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons.

The Phaistos dis is imprinted on both sides. The disc measures 15 centimeters in diameter.

The exact purpose, meanings as well as its original geographical place of manufacture, remain a mystery, reason why the Phaistos disc is one of the most famous archeological mysteries on Earth.

The artifact is housed at archaeological museum of Heraklion, and most scholars argue that given its indecipherable message, it was crafted by a mysterious people, written in a lost language.

The side B of the disc of Phaistos, as displayed in the Archaeological Museum of Heraklion after the 2014 renovation. Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons.

Professional archaeologists and code breakers have attempted to solve the mystery behind it by deciphering its message. And while many attempts were made to reveal its message, the Phaistos Disc has still not given up its secrets.

In fact, many scholars aren’t even sure where the strange symbols etched on its surface are even a script.

Nonetheless, most attempted decipherments have come to the conclusion it probably is either a syllabary, an alphabet ali logography.

Most experts lean towards a syllabary, based on the proportion of 45 symbols in a text of 241 tokens typical for that type of script.

A Side view of the Phaistos Disk. Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons.

Because of the countless mysteries surrounding the artifact, many scholars have proposed in the past that the disc is a forgery and a hoax.

Despite these suggestions, archeologists generally accept the disc as a genuine, archaeological artifact.

This assumption has been supported by the discovery of another artifact, the so-called Arkalochori Axe which bears similar but not identical glyphs on its surface.

Jared Diamond, author of ‘Guns, Germs, and Steel’ argues that the Phaistos Disc is an example of a technological advancement that didn’t become widespread in ancient time, because it was produced at the wrong time in history, and contrasts with the Gutenberg’s printing press.

Several researchers including German typesetter and linguist Herbert Brekle tako dobro, kot Benjamin Schwartz believe the Phaistos Disc is an early document of movable type printing as it meets the essential criterion of typographic printing.

Yves Duhoux a Belgian classical philologist, linguist, and mycologist dates the disc to between 1850 BC and 1600 BC, based on Luigi Pernier’s report, which suggests that the Phaistos Disc was in a Middle Minoan undisturbed context.

Jeppesen (1963) puts the Disk to after 1400 BC.

Louis Godart argues that in an archaeological context, the Phaistos Disc may be anywhere in Middle or Late Minoan times

Most scholars argue that in order to understand the secrets of the Phaistos Disk, “a thermoluminescence test for the Phaistos Disc is imperative. It will either confirm that new finds are worth hunting for, or it will stop scholars from wasting their effort.”


Ancient World Blog

Ladies and Gentlemen, thank you for attending my presentation and thank you to the organizers and staff of this conference for making it possible for me to be here. We are in the halls of the arts, the sciences and antiquity at Burlington House, and today we may see history being made – in the field of communications. The Phaistos Disk is after all a communication and storage device.

In the modern era we all have our mobile cell phones, CDs and DVDs, and many of us take them for granted, but technology was not always so easy to understand. In the early days of telecommunications, for example, Albert Einstein explained radio by saying:

TO BE OR NOT TO BE. REAL or FAKE?

That is the Shakespearean question being posed here today.

Dr. Jerome Eisenberg has observed – correctly in my view – that the symbols on the Phaistos Disk were compiled piecemeal in part from other ancient sources. Strinjam se. The only question is, was this done in the modern era, or 3 to 4 thousand years ago? Dr. Eisenberg has concluded that it was a modern forger, an archaeologist, who did it. But I think, to the contrary, that it was the ancient Greeks themselves who did it. And we have evidence for this conclusion.

Gaius Julius Hyginus (ca. 64 BC – AD 17), who lived at the time of Christ, passed on many Greek tales in unadulterated form in his Fabulae , of which Number 277 deals with "Ancient Inventors". He writes as follows:

The ancient record therefore confirms that the initial Greek letters, which constitute the origins of writing in Western Europe, were in fact a conglomeration of inputs, just as Dr. Eisenberg claims for the Phaistos Disk [we use Disk and Disc interchangeably here for the sake of the search engines since both terms are used]. Accordingly, this characteristic is no proof that the Phaistos Disk is not genuine. Quite the contrary, it is exactly what we would expect from ancient Greek letters, based on the historical record. The first Greek letters viz. symbols (or signs) were in fact taken from numerous ancient sources.

One of the inventors of Greek letters mentioned by Hyginus has a clear connection to Crete: Palamedes, son of Nauplius and Clymene, the daughter of Catreus, king of Crete, son of the first king of Crete, Minos, and grandfather of Menelaus, the Greek husband of Helen of Troy. Catreus was thus the grandfather of Palamedes.

Grandfather Catreus had numerous children. His two daughters he is said to have given to a merchant mariner, Nauplius, to be married off in foreign lands. This mariner instead took Clymene for himself and sailed off into the sunset. Where did they ultimately settle? Clymene in ancient Greek sources is also called Asia, which some allege is how the continent Asia got its name, thus pointing to a possible geographic Asian destiny. Indeed, Herodotus is puzzled by Ancient Greek usage of women's names to describe large areas such as Asia or Europe. But the answer – royal settlement - is clear.

It is her son Palamedes who subsequently surfaces as the greatest inventor in the history of Greece, for Palamedes not only allegedly invented eleven of the Greek letters, but it is also said that he invented counting, currency, weights and measures, military ranks, dice, pessoi (a type of chess), and made improvements in winemaking.

Amazing enough, but all of this could very well be true in the ancient era if the inventions of Palamedes were obtained by technology transfer from a foreign land, for Mercury (viz. Hermes) the bringer of letters, has the same meaning as "merchant". These inventions were brought to Greece from a distant land by traveling merchants.

As we have discovered, this land is Elam, the land – we claim here - where Clymene and Nauplius ultimately settled. It is the land in which letters were first stamped onto clay, just as on the Phaistos Disk, but long before it. An existing technology was thus imported into ancient Crete. We will discuss this in detail subsequently.

The second major argument raised by Dr. Eisenberg against the Phaistos Disk is the lack of corroborative texts. When Dr. Eisenberg initially asked me to present a paper at this conference, I declined, saying it was a losing proposition for me, since no probative proof of authenticity would be possible without corroborative texts. To my knowledge then, there were no such texts available, so it was pointless to come.

At Dr. Eisenberg's friendly insistence, I finally agreed to present a paper merely presenting my point of view that the Phaistos Disk was quite genuine, and giving my reasons for so believing. But in the course of research for this paper, a remarkable thing happened. I discovered two texts that contained symbols with a great deal of similarity to a number of symbols on the Phaistos Disk. These texts were from Elam and were written in Old Elamite Script. Could they be connected?

Indeed, when I applied the syllabic values for the Phaistos Disc that I had obtained 30 years previously, I was able to read those Old Elamite Scripts without difficulty. They were written in Ancient Greek language, and the author was presumably Palamedes, the son of Clymene, and the inventor of Greek letters.

The 1980 Decipherment of the Phaistos Disc by Andis Kaulins

In English, that Greek text could be read as follows:

  • Foreseen (are) -as given - standing straight lines (perpendiculars)
  • to be constructed (drawn). - To the side - of either such line segment
  • extend - a partner line - running - alongside. - The Problem (LEMMA):
  • Consider - whether these - Parallel Lines - extended - stay - Parallels.
  • Consider -whether these - Parallels - extended converge (diverge).
  • The synthetic - added line - would foresee - a medial (uncertain) - termination.
  • Extended (beyond bounds) - a fixed (converging) - termination.
  • Next to - the categorized - just constructed lines - and flat to
  • the side walls' - diameter - inscribe - a closed arc - and make it so that
  • the new line - curve - in its course - the side walls - diagonally - joins.
  • Tie together - yoked - the branched lines.
  • Connect - the standing straight lines - and branched lines.
  • Run a line so that - the newly created
  • geodetic lines - are met - and the branched lines - pair is yoked.
  • The promised -solution - is given.

If the parallel lines B, D and C [see Figure 5 ]
are extended to f and g [and beyond but short of infinity],
then the resulting angle x varies, [nearing 180 or 0 degrees]
depending on where line f and g is drawn.
Hence, the termination is uncertain.

As the parallels B, D and C are extended
beyond bounds (i.e. to infinity, or infinite ends),
then the angle x [measured from the center of the circle
to the lines drawn to the ends of the extensions
of the parallel lines B and C]
will get smaller and smaller towards D
as the lines B, D and C are extended,
thus suggesting a converging termination.

Figure 5 shows the resulting geometric figure. [13]

". [In the figure above] line AB is perpendicular to CD. If we permit it to rotate about A counterclockwise, it will intersect CD at various points to the right of B until it reaches a limiting position EF, when it becomes parallel to CD. Continuing the rotation, it will start to intersect CD to the left of B. Euclid assumed that there is only one position for the line, namely EF, when it would be parallel to CD. Lobachevsky assumed that there were two such positions, represented by A1B1 and C1D1, and further, that all lines falling within the angle θ, while not parallel to CD, would never meet it, no matter how far extended.

Now this is an assumption, and there is no sense in arguing from the diagram that it is evident that if A1B1 or C1D1 were intersected sufficiently far, they would eventually intersect CD. If, as Professor Cohen has pointed out, we rely wholly on our intuition of space, which is finite, there will always be an angle θ which grows smaller as our space is extended, but which never vanishes, and all lines falling within θ will fail to intersect the given line. [The reference is to Morris Raphael Cohen, Reason and Nature, p. 137.]"

Mainstream Archaeology and the Evaluation of Evidence

"The presence of so many fakes and hoaxes in archaeology is a function of the fact that your average archaeologist is virtually untrained in decipherment work or in the critical analysis of evidence. Archaeologists claim to have the expertise to interpret ancient texts and artifacts but in fact they generally do not have that competence. Archaeologists are for the most part diggers rather than decipherers or interpreters, who in their written allegedly scholarly work in fact often rely gullibly and uncritically on secondary sources (so-called authorities) within their own ranks, rather than engaging in independent critical thought or inquiry. The world's great decipherers have generally not been mainstream archaeologists. What the archaeologists should be doing and what they are good at is to examine the evidence of the actual PHYSICAL disk by modern dating methods to see if its age can be confirmed or amended, but exactly that is what they have not been doing. Hence, it is thus not surprising that persons such as [Dr. Eisenberg] challenge the genuineness of the Disk, an undertaking which is welcome to this writer, since it may help to force the archaeological community to get their act together and do what they are supposed to do and what they are good at doing.

At the root of the problem is also the hunger for power and authority, combined with wishful thinking. People tend to believe what serves their interests, what they want to believe and not necessarily what the evidence indicates to actually be true. Neutral objective fact-finding is thus not always present in science. One needs merely to read Breaking the Maya Code [22] by Michael D. Coe, Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at Yale University, for a moving account of how one self-serving and woefully erring academic authority torpedoed the correct Maya decipherment efforts of his opponents for nearly 40 years, and was even knighted for his folly to boot."

A critical and much disputed question over the years has been the direction of the writing of the Disc, and similar technical questions, such as which side was written first, etc. Hiller notes further in his article that great progress in this area has been made in recent years. Although it had long been suggested that the direction of the writing on the Disc was from right to left (and hence from the outer rim inwards), H. J. Hacker and E. Schellen in "Ein neues Argument for die rechtsläufige Leserichtung des Diskos von Phaistos", Kadmos , 10, 1971, pp. 20-27, challenged the old assumption with new arguments and thus forced the opposing side to establish its position on a sounder basis. This culminated in the works of J. Fauccounau, "La sens de L'ecriture du Disque de Phaistos", Kadmos , 14, 1975, pp. 94-96, J. P. Olivier, "Le Disque de Phaistos, Edition Photographique, BCH 99, 1975, pp. 5-34, A. Bradshaw, "The Imprinting of the Phaistos Disc", Kadmos 15, 1976, and Yves Duhoux, Le Disque de Phaestos. Archaeologie. Epigraphie. Edition critique. Index. (Louvain, Éditions Peeters, 1977).

Based on careful analysis of the original Disc itself, Duhoux determined, among other things: 1) that the Disc was likely written with a ready-made "model" at hand 2) that Side A was smoothened and flattened by hand and that Side B was smoothened and flattened as a result of the pressure applied on Side A 3) that the clay had begun to dry during the writing process, on the basis of which the order in which the sides were stamped can be determined: namely, Side A first and Side B second 4) that the spiral lines were drawn from the outside inwards 5) that the symbols were stamped from the outside inwards 6) that the separating lines were added after the symbols had been stamped: and, 7) that the writing runs from right to left."

Corroborative Elamite Script for the Phaistos Disc

"I am happy to see you have tackled this fun topic and that you thereby are keeping the Phaistos Disk in the public eye. The idea that the Phaistos Disk is a forgery is not new to me and there is no question that the lack of additional Minoan scripts using these symbols is a serious problem, not only in terms of the question of the genuineness of the Disk but also in terms of validation of any alleged decipherment of the Phaistos Disk."

[German] "Seinem Herrn Inshushinak, dem Menschenbildner (?), 2. habe ich Shilhak-Inshushinak, 3. der Statthalter von Susa, 4. der König des Landes Elam, 5. der Shempishhukische, 6. eine Säule (?) aus Kupfer (und) Zedernholz geweiht."

[Our English translation of that error-filled conversion] "For his master Inshushinak, the sculptor of human forms (?), I, Shilhak-Inshushinak, Administrator of Susa, King of Elam, has dedicated the Shempishhukische, an obelisk (or column) (?) of copper and cedar wood."


The Ancient Greek text in Figure 14 (i.e. Figures 8 and 9 ) reads in English:

It is now also possible to decipher the Old Elamite Script at Figure 12, as follows:


The Ancient Greek text in Figure 15 (i.e. Figure 12 ) reads in English:

Perhaps Nitokris was the true "Helen of Troy" [or Clymene] of ancient Greek legend.

"At this point it should be noted that the Khuzestan Plain (which with the Zagros foothills comprised the ancient land of Elam) represents a geographical extension of the great Mesopotamian alluvial plain. Mesopotamia, literally the "land between the two rivers," the Tigris and the Euphrates, has traditionally been regarded as a trough slowly filling with alluvial soil carried down from the Anatolia and Zagros mountains. (Elam was, and is, watered by the Karun River, a tributary of the Tigris.).

The surface gradients and underlying gravel deposits in the Susa region were advantageous in the early stages of the development of irrigation, since they permit an adequate flow during the winter growing season with relatively short and easily maintained canals. In addition, the pebbly soils in the upper portion of the Susa plain or Susiana as it was called in ancient times, receive natural subirrigation from underground springs , while rainfall from the mountains is carried out onto the plain some distance by numerous winter and spring freshets. This is one reason why the upper portion of the Susiana plains abounds in rich natural pasture land if not overgrazed and wild narcissi still flourish here. [emphasis added]

This and other evidence . suggests that man, having learned wheat and barley cultivation and sheep herding in the foothills and mountain valleys, made the vital transition from dry farming to irrigation agriculture on the Elamite or Susianian plain around Susa and that it was here, rather than in Mesopotamia proper - which after all lies only fifty miles to the west of Susa - that civilization as we know it truly began. [It is hoped such a flat assertion might arouse controversy. Elam and Susa have been so under-publicized it was still possible last year for . The March of Archaeology by C. W. Ceram to be published with only one mention of Susa or Elam, and that in the index.]

Many archeologists believe the earliest settlers of Mesopotamia came from Elam, where the villagers were of similar Sumerian-Semitic stock. But the origin of the Sumerians remains unestablished and we have only the Bible's " And as men migrated in the east, they found a plain in the land of Shinar and settled there." Certainly, the " land between the two rivers " offered many attractions to the mountaineers and newly-settled plainsmen near Susa with its fish and fowl, easily-worked alluvial soil, many date palms to supplement a cereal diet and the annual flooding that always brought a fresh top dressing of silt."

The geographic placement of Troy toward Persia is also suggested by other evidence.

"Tyndareus Τυνδαρεύς (or Tyndareos Τυνδάρεως ) was a Spartan king. husband of Leda and [step]father of Helen. . Tyndareus' wife, Leda, was seduced by Zeus . disguised . as a swan. She laid two eggs, each producing two children . from one egg, Pollux and Helen were the children of Zeus from the other, Castor and Clytemnestra were the children of Tyndareus.

When Thyestes seized control in Mycenae, two exiled princes, Agamemnon and Menelaus came to Sparta. Tyndareus received them. Agamemnon married Clytemnestra. Helen . had many more suitors for she was the most beautiful woman in the world.

When it was time for [Helen] to marry, many . kings and princes came to seek her hand. Tyndareus [would not] send any of the suitors away for fear of . giving grounds for a quarrel. Odysseus proposed that, before the decision was made, all the suitors should swear a most solemn oath to defend the chosen husband against whoever should quarrel with the chosen one. This stratagem succeeded and Helen and Menelaus were married . Eventually, Tyndareus resigned in favor of his son-in-law and Menelaus became king of Sparta.

Some years later, Paris , a Trojan prince came to Sparta to marry Helen, whom he had been promised by Aphrodite. Helen fell in love with him and left willingly, (although it is also suggested that he may have simply kidnapped her, with neither theory being conclusively proven) leaving behind Menelaus and Hermione, their nine-year-old daughter.

Menelaus' attempts to retrieve Helen . caused the Trojan War. " [emphasis added]

"Sais or Sa el-Hagar was an ancient Egyptian town in the Western Nile Delta on the Canopic branch of the Nile."

A statue of Queen Napirasu, unique for its time, composed of 3760 pounds of bronze and copper, was found in Susa, and is today a part of the Iran collection in the Louvre. In that statue we thus see either Helen of Troy or Clymene as the life-size statue of Queen Napirasu ( Figure 17 ): [54]


The Louvre labels this statue as being:[56]

"Queen Napirasu, wife of King Untash-Napirisha [Nauplius could be the family name], circa 1340-1300 BC, Statue found at the Tell of the Acropolis, Susa, Iran, Bronze and copper, H.1.29 m L. 0.73 m, Jacques de Morgan excavations, 1903."

The Louvre writes further in more detail:[55]

"This statue is of Queen Napirasu, wife of Untash-Napirisha, who ruled in the Middle Elamite period as one of the greatest Igihalkid kings. Under this dynasty, a great Elamite empire flourished, taking advantage of the decline of neighboring Mesopotamia. Untash-Napirisha founded the city of Al-Untash-Napirisha and filled it with monuments decorated with statues, which are remarkable proof of the standard of Elamite metalworking techniques.

Queen Napirasu, Untash-Napirisha's wife, is shown standing. The figure is life-size, but the head and the left arm are damaged. She is wearing a short-sleeved gown covered in the sort of embroidery usually found on such garments. She has four bracelets on her right wrist and a ring on her left ring finger. Although her hands are crossed on her stomach, she is not in the pose usually associated with worship. The inscription on the front of the skirt is in Elamite, reflecting the kingdom's linguistic identity. This inscription gives the queen's name and titles, invokes the protection of the gods, describes the ritual offerings made to them, and calls down their curse on anyone bold enough to desecrate her likeness. The statue is placed under the protection of the god Beltiya and three deities associated with the Igihalkid Dynasty - the god Inshushinak, the god Napirisha, and his consort Kiririsha. These three deities are also depicted on the stele of Untash-Napirisha, also in the Louvre (Sb3973).

This statue of Queen Napirasu is a rare surviving likeness of a member of the royal court during the Middle Elamite period. The sheer amount of metal used - some 1,750 kg for a single work - reflects the wealth of the Elamite kingdom during Untash-Napirisha's reign. The dimensions and the finesse of the statue also reflect the skill of the Elamite metalworkers. The work must have been cast in two successive parts: a lost-wax cast for the copper and tin shell, followed by a full cast alloy of bronze and tin for the core, rather than the more usual refractory clay. The two parts are held together with pins and splints. The sides would have originally been covered with gold or silver.

The reign of the Igihalkid king, Untash-Napirisha, witnessed the launch of a major construction program. The king ordered the restoration of a large number of temples and also built a new religious capital, Al-Untash-Napirisha (sometimes simply known as Al-Untash), on the site of modern-day Chogha Zanbil. The aim was to unite the different religions practiced in his kingdom in one place. Monuments throughout the city were decorated with numerous sculptures commissioned by the king, including this statue of his wife, which was discovered in Susa but was probably moved there from Al-Untash.

Documentation [for the above citation]:

Amiet Pierre, Suse 6000 ans d'histoire, Paris, Éditions de la Réunion des musées nationaux, 1988, pp. 98-99 fig. 57.

Benoit A. , "Les Civilisations du Proche-Orient ancien", in Manuels de l'École du Louvre Art et archéologie, Paris, École du Louvre, 2003, pp 358-359 fig. 180.

Meyers Peter, "The casting process of the statue of queen Napir-Asu in the Louvre", extrait de : Journal of Roman Archaeology, supplementary series, n 39, Portsmouth, 2000, pp.11-18."


APPENDIX 1 – A HISTORY OF ELAM

Excerpted from Khodadad Rezakhani, Elam , History of Iran [57]

APPENDIX 2 – GENETICS:
THE mtDNA HAPLOTYPES OF EASTERN CRETE

American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Volume 137 Issue 2, Pages 213 - 223
Published Online: 23 May 2008
Copyright © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company

"Middle Eastern and European mtDNA lineages characterize populations from eastern Crete"
Laisel Martinez 1, Sheyla Mirabal 1, Javier R. Luis 2, Rene J. Herrera 1 *
-1 Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, Florida, USA 33199
-2 Departamento de Xenética, Facultade de Bioloxia, Universidade de Vigo, Galicia, Spain 15887
email: Rene J. Herrera ([email protected])
*Correspondence to Rene J. Herrera, Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, University Park, Room OE304, Miami, FL 33199, USA
Laisel Martinez and Sheyla Mirabal contributed equally to the manuscript.

Keywords
Minoan refugium • phylogenetic relationships •maternal lineage

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Received: 17 November 2007, Accepted: 28 March 2008, Digital Object Identifier (DOI) 10.1002/ajpa.20857

APPENDIX 3 – GENETICS:
Y-chromosome DNA in Crete, Greece & the Levant

Annals of Human Genetics
Volume 72 Issue 2, Pages 205 - 214
Published Online: 5 Feb 2008
Journal compilation © 2008 University College London

"Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic"
R. J. King 1 , S. S. Özcan 2 , T. Carter 3 , E. Kalfoğlu 2 , S. Atasoy 2 , C. Triantaphyllidis 4 , A. Kouvatsi 4 , A. A. Lin 5, C-E. T. Chow 5 , L. A. Zhivotovsky 6 , M. Michalodimitrakis 7 and P. A. Underhill 5,*
-1 Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 401 Quarry Road, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-5722
-2 Institute of Forensic Sciences, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey
-3 Department of Anthropology, McMaster University, Chester New Hall 524, 1280 Main Street West Hamilton, L8S 4L9, Ontario, Canada
-4 Department of Genetics, Development and Molecular Biology, School of Biology, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
-5 Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305-5120
-6 N. I. Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 3 Gubkin Street, Moscow, 119991, Russia
-7 Department of Forensic Science, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece
*Corresponding author: Peter A. Underhill, Department of Genetics, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305-5120, Fax: 650 725 1534. Phone: 650 723-5805. E-mail: [email protected]
Copyright 2008 The Authors Journal compilation � University College London

Keywords
Y-chromosome diversity • Neolithic Greece • Crete • bread wheat • maritime migration • Bronze Age

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Received: 29 September 2007, Accepted: 7 October 2007, Digital Object Identifier (DOI)10.1111/j.1469-1809.2007.00414.x

Excerpts from the Text of the foregoing Article

Which Y-DNA Haplogroup best defines the connection between Crete, Mycenae, Greece and Elam in Iran?

It is "J2 - The Phoenician Gene" -- in a dispersion most likely be sea (maritime).

Time of origin: 18500 (+/- 3500) thousand years ago.
Place of origin: Mesopotamia (Iraq, Syria, Turkey & Iran), or the Levant (Syria, Lebanon, Israel & Jordan) or Anatolia (Turkey) or Zagros mountains (Iran)
Ancestor: J, Defining mutations: M172
Typical members: Iraqis 29.7%, Lebanese 29.5%, Syrians 29%, Sephardic Jews 29%, Kurds 28.4%, Turks 27.9%, Georgians 26.7%, Iranians 23.3%, Ashkenazi Jews 23.2%, Greeks 22.8%, Tajiks 18.4%, Italians 19.3%, North Indians 7.8% viz. 19.8%, Pakistanis 14.7%, South Arabia (Oman, Yemen, UAE) 9.7%.

FOOTNOTES to the ARTICLE by ANDIS KAULINS

[1] J.D. (Doctor of Jurisprudence) Stanford University. Former Lecturer in Anglo-American Law, Legal Research and Legal Writing, University of Trier Law School. Co-author of the Routledge & Langenscheidt German-English, English-German Dictionary of Business, Commerce and Finance (3rd ed. 2007). Author of the following: The Phaistos Disc: Hieroglyphic Greek with Euclidean Dimensions (Darmstadt, 1980) , Stars Stones and Scholars : The Decipherment of the Megaliths , Trafford, 2003 & 2006 Waren die Pharaonen Legastheniker? (Were the Pharaohs Dyslexic?) , Dyslexia Journal , 1998 Zum Ursprung des Horus-Glaubens im vordynastischen Ägypten (The Origin of the Cult of Horus in Predynastic Egypt) , Efodon Synesis, 2005 Sternensteine - Darstellungen frühgeschichtlicher Astronomie am Beispiel der Externsteine (Star Stones -Prehistoric Astronomy and the Extern Stones) , Forschungskreis Walther Machalett für Vor und Frühgeschichte, 2005 Die Himmelsscheibe von Nebra: Beweisführung und Deutung (The Sky Disk of Nebra: Evidence and Interpretation) , Efodon Synesis, 2005 Der Bodenhimmel der Oesterholzer Mark um die Spitze der "Externsteinpyramide" (A Megalithic Sky Map at Oesterholz) , Efodon Synesis, 2006 Das Tanum System - ein alteuropäisches Vermessungssystem? (The Tanum System – Ancient Land Survey in Europe) , Forschungskreis Externsteine, 2007 Der Osnabrücker Bodenhimmel (The Hermetic Planisphere at Osnabrück) , Forschungskreis Externsteine, 2008.

[2] Andis Kaulins, The Phaistos Disc: Hieroglyphic Greek with Euclidean Dimensions: The 'Lost Proof' of Parallel Lines , Darmstadt, 1980, p. 18.

[11] The Phaistos Disk In Ancient Greek, Syllabic Script , LexiLine.com , http://www.lexiline.com/lexiline/lexi164.htm .

[14] Gay Robins & Charles Shute, The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus: an ancient Egyptian text , British Museum Press, London, 1987, reprinted 1990, 1998. A. Henry Rhind was a Scottish lawyer who first acquired the papyrus in the 1850's . See http://www.amazon.co.uk/Rhind-Mathematical-Papyrus-Ancient-Egyptian/dp/0714109444. See also http://www.jstor.org/pss/2299251.

[16] Nikolai Lobachevsky , Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikolai_Ivanovich_Lobachevsky.

[17] Edward Kasner and James Roy Newman, Mathematics and the Imagination ( with drawings by Rufus Isaacs), New York, Simon & Schuster, 1940/1967, pp. 136-137 (this drawing is our adaptation) http://www.amazon.com/Mathematics-Imagination-Edward-Kasner/dp/0486417034 .

[19] See D. E. Joyce, Euclid's Elements http://aleph0.clarku.edu/

[21] Criminal case 482/04, the State of Israel v. Oded Golan and others. one of the biggest forgery scandals ever in the history of archaeology . [MSN] Israel http://msn-list.te.verweg.com/2008-April/009736.html.

[22] Michael D. Coe, Breaking the Maya Code , London, Thames &Hudson, 1992, ISBN 0500050619 http://www.amazon.com/Breaking-Maya-Code-Michael-Coe/dp/0500281335.

[23] J. J. Gelb (assisted by R. M. Whiting), Methods of Decipherment , Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society , 1975, No. 2, pp. 97-104, quoted in Andis Kaulins, The Phaistos Disc: Hieroglyphic Greek with Euclidean Dimensions: The 'Lost Proof' of Parallel Lines , Darmstadt, 1980, pp. 8-11.

[26] Harald Haarmann, Universalgeschichte der Schrift , Campus Verlag: Frankfurt and New York, 1991, Sonderausgabe 1998, Parkland Verlag, Cologne, p. 374, providing the reading (in German): " Seinem Herrn Inshushinak, dem Menschenbildner (?), 2. habe ich Shilhak-Inshushinak, 3. der Statthalter von Susa, 4. der König des Landes Elam, 5. der Shempishhukische, 6. eine Säule (?) aus Kupfer (und) Zedernholz geweiht. "


Poglej si posnetek: Phaistos Disk made by Pythagoras? (Maj 2022).


Komentarji:

  1. Karmel

    Bravo, mislim, da je to veličastna ideja

  2. Mohammed

    Nimaš prav. Pogovorimo se o tem.

  3. Salim

    Rekel je samozavestno, moje mnenje je potem očitno. Ali niste poskušali iskati Google.com?

  4. Eatun

    Nimate prav. Prepričan sem. Lahko to dokažem. Napišite v PM.

  5. Hanly

    Žal mi je, ampak po mojem mnenju se delajo napake. Moramo razpravljati. Pišite mi na PM, se pogovori s tabo.

  6. Zuluran

    Opravičujem se, vendar mi ne pride. Are there other variants?



Napišite sporočilo