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Glavni dogodki, športni dogodki in Nobelove nagrade 2006 - zgodovina

Glavni dogodki, športni dogodki in Nobelove nagrade 2006 - zgodovina


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Glavni dogodek/ Šport/ Nobelove nagrade/ Pulitzerjeve nagrade/ Akademija/ Priljubljeni filmi/ Priljubljene knjige/ Priljubljene televizijske oddaje/ Priljubljena glasba/ Glavni dogodki leta 2006

    • Hamdan proti Rumsfeld
    • a

Šport

  • MLB 2006: Svetovna serija
    St. Louis Cardinals zmagajo s 4-2 proti Detroit Tigers
    21. oktober ... St. Louis 7 v Detroitu 2
    -Okt 22 ... Louis 1 v Detroitu 3
    -Oct 24 ... Detroit 0 at St. Louis 5
    -Oct 26 ... Detroit 4 at St Louis 5
    -Oct 27 ... Detroit 2 at St Louis 4
  • NFL
    Super Bowl XL
    Pittsburgh Steelers zmagajo z 21: 10 proti Seattle Seahawksu
    -Super Bowl Box rezultat
    Pittsburgh ... 0 7 7 7- 21
    Seattle ...... 3 0 7 0-10
  • Profesionalni golf
    Glavni zmagovalci pri moških
    -Mojstri: Phil Mickelson ...-7 do par
    -ZDA odprto: Geoff Ogilvy ...+5 do par
    -British Open: Tiger Woods ...- 18 do par
    -PGA prvenstvo: Tiger Woods ...- 18 do par
    Glavne zmagovalke žensk
    -Kraft Nabisco Championship: Karrie Webb ...- 9 do par
    -Odprto prvenstvo ZDA: Annika Sorenstam
    -LPGA prvenstvo: Se Ri Pak ...- 8 do par
    -Weetabix British Open British: Sherri Steinhauer ...- 7 proti par

Priljubljene pesmi

1 Slab dan Daniel Powter
2 Sean Paul Temperatura
3 Nelly Furtado feat. Timbaland Promiscuous
4 James Blunt Lepa si
5 Shakira feat. Wyclef Jean Hips Don't Lie
6 Natasha Bedingfield Nepisano
7 Gnarls Barkley Crazy
8 Chamillionaire feat. Krayzie Bone Ridin '
9 Justin Timberlake Sexyback
10 Beyonce feat. Slim Thug Check on It

Priljubljeni filmi

  • The Departed
  • Prestiž
  • 300
  • Pirati s Karibov: Skrinja mrtvaca
  • V za Vendetto
  • Življenje drugih
  • Casino Royale
  • Počitnice
  • Vodnjak
  • Otrok moških
  • Najboljša slika: Crash
  • Najboljša režija: Ang Lee za Brokeback Mountain
  • Najboljši igralec: Phillip Seymour Hoffman za Capote
  • Najboljša igralka: Reese Witherspoon za Hodi po liniji
  • Najboljši stranski igralec: George Clooney za Sirijana
  • Najboljša stranska igralka: Rachel Weisz za Stalni vrtnar

Nagrade Grammy

  • Rekord leta: "Boulevard of Broken Dreams"- Green Day
  • Pesem leta: "Včasih ne zmoreš sam"- U2
  • Album leta: "Kako razstaviti atomsko bombo"- U2
  • Najboljši novi izvajalec: John Legend

Nobelove nagrade

.

  • Mir: Mohammad Yunus in Grameen Bank "za svoja prizadevanja za ustvarjanje gospodarskega in družbenega razvoja od spodaj".
  • Fiziologija ali medicina: Andrew Fire in Craig Mello "za odkritje utišanja genov motenj RNA z dvoverižno RNA".
  • Ekonomske vede: Edmund S. Phelps "za analizo vmesnih kompromisov v makroekonomski politiki".
  • Kemija: Roger D. Kornberg "za svoje študije molekularne osnove evkariontske transkripcije".
  • Fizika: John C. Mather in George F. Smoot "za odkritje oblike črnega telesa in anizotropijo sevanja kozmičnega mikrovalovnega ozadja".
  • Literatura: Orhan Pamuk "ki je v iskanju melanholične duše svojega rodnega mesta odkril nove simbole za spopad in prepletanje kultur".

Pulitzerjeve nagrade

  • Javni servis: Times-Picayune in Sun Herald
  • Nacionalno poročanje: James Risen in Eric Lichtblau, New York Times
  • Mednarodno poročanje: Joseph Kahn in Jim Yardley, New York Times
  • Uredništvo: Rick Attig in Doug Bates, Oregonec
  • Uredniško risanje: Mike Luckovich, Atlanta Journal-Constitution
  • Komentar: Nicholas D. Kristof, New York Times
  • Kritika: Robin Givhan, Washington Post
  • Scenarij: Jim Sheeler, Novice Rockey Mountain
  • Beat Reporting: Dana Priest, Washington Post
  • Pojasnjevalno poročanje: Chicago Tribune, Osebje
  • Preiskovalno poročanje: Susan Schmidt, James Grimaldi in R. Jeffrey Smith, Washington Post
  • Prelomne novice: Osebje Times-Picayune
  • Leposlovje: Geraldine Brooks, Marec
  • Biografija/avtobiografija: Kai Bird in Martin Sherwin, Ameriški Prometej: Triumf in tragedija J. Roberta Oppenheimerja
  • Zgodovina: David Oshinsky, Polio: Ameriška zgodba
  • Poezija: Claudia Emerson, Pozno žena
  • Splošna dokumentarna literatura: Caroline Elkins, Imperial Reckoning: Neizrečena zgodba britanskega Gulaga v Keniji
  • Glasba: Yehudi Wyner, Klavirski koncert: Chiavi in ​​Mano

Glavni dogodki, športni dogodki in Nobelove nagrade 2006 - zgodovina

Novice, dogodki, tehnologija, cene in popularna kultura.

Dogodki 2006
  • Dvanajst rudarjev premoga umre v katastrofi rudnika Sago blizu Buckhannona v Zahodni Virginiji v ZDA.
  • V stampedu med ritualom kamenjanja hudiča zadnji dan na hadžu v Mine, Savdska Arabija, je ubitih 362 muslimanskih romarjev.
  • Več evropskih časopisov ponatisne kontroverzne risanke, ki prikazujejo preroka Mohameda, kar je v naslednjih tednih sprožilo ogorčenje in nemire

Glavni dogodki, športni dogodki in Nobelove nagrade 2006 - zgodovina

Naslove leta 2006 so zaznamovali smrt, škandal in politika: 12 jih je umrlo v katastrofi rudnika Sago. Nekdanji direktorji Enrona so krivi. Smrtna obsodba za Sadama Huseina. Umrl iraški upornik al-Zarqawi. Vojna v Libanonu. Klopotanje jedrske sabre v Iranu, Severna Koreja. Ubit je bil "lovec na krokodile". Nekdanji Beatle v ločitveni bitki. Začetek čezatlantskega terorizma je bil onemogočen. Nekdanji ruski vohun zastrupljen. Pridigar Megacrkve v spolnem škandalu. Demokrati zmagajo vmesno.

S spodnjimi ali desnimi povezavami si oglejte nekatere najbolj priljubljene zgodbe iz zadnjih 12 mesecev. In oddajte svoj glas za glavno zgodbo leta 2006.

Joy se je v treh kratkih urah spremenil v žalost zaradi sorodnikov ducata moških, ujetih v rudniku Sago v Zahodni Virginiji. Nekaj ​​pred polnočjo 4. januarja so družine rudarjev menile, da so moški preživeli svojo preizkušnjo. Enega rudarja so odpeljali v bolnišnico, ko so cerkveni zvonovi slavili za njihovo preživetje. Toda do 3. ure zjutraj, 5. januarja, je uradnik rudnika dejal, da je prišlo do tragične "napačne komunikacije" in da je ostalih 12 mrtvih po 41 urah pod zemljo.

Na stotine tisoč protestnikov se je zbralo v več kot 140 mestih v najmanj 39 državah in zahtevalo, da naj bi 11 do 12 milijonov priseljencev brez dokumentov v državi dobilo priložnost živeti ameriške sanje. Predstavniški dom in senat sta v Washingtonu sprejela zelo različne različice reforme priseljevanja, vendar se je izčrpen predlog zakona izkazal za nedosegljivega pred vmesnimi vmesnimi roki novembra. Namesto tega je Kongres odobril 700-miljsko ograjo vzdolž ene tretjine meje med ZDA in Mehiko, ki jo je Bush podpisal 12 dni pred volitvami.

Paul McCartney in Heather Mills sta povedala, da sta se ločila po štirih letih zakona. Mills, ki ima z McCartneyjem mlado hčerko, naj bi zahteval velik delež premoženja nekdanjega Beatla. Časopisi so objavili domnevne sodne dokumente, ki trdijo, da je McCartney maltretiral Mills Sir Paul se je zaobljubil, da se bo "odločno" zagovarjal. Drugod sta se Britney Spears in Kevin Federline razšla, Angelina Jolie in Brad Pitt sta se v Namibijo rodila, Tom Cruise in Katie Holmes sta imela otroka in se poročila, Madonna pa je s posvojitvijo malavijskega otroka sprožila polemiko.

Po štirih letih preiskav, 16 tednih pričevanja in šestih dneh porote so nekdanji izvršni direktor Enrona Jeffrey Skilling in ustanovitelj Kenneth Lay spoznali za krivega zarote in goljufije. Nekdanji vodstveni delavci so bili obsojeni zaradi zavajanja javnosti glede finančnega zdravja Enrona, čigar propad leta 2001 je simboliziral val goljufij podjetij, ki je preplavil državo. 64 -letni Lay je 5. julija med čakanjem na obsodbo umrl zaradi koronarne bolezni. Skilling je bil 23. oktobra obsojen na 24 let zapora.

Dve 500-kilogramski bombi sta končali lov na Abu Musaba al-Zarqawija, najbolj iskanega vstajnika v Iraku. Na podlagi labirinta obveščevalnih podatkov in namigov je vojska ciljala na "varno hišo" severno od Baqube, v kateri je bival vodja Al Kaide v Iraku. Vojaška letala F-16 letalskih sil so izstrelila bombe, hišo so razpadle. Sunitski militant, rojen v Jordanu, s 25 milijoni ameriških dolarjev na glavi, naj bi imel al-Zarqawi v rokah več tisoč krvi kot vodja skupine, ki stoji za številnimi obglavljevanji, atentati in bombnimi napadi.

Italija je zmagala v enajstmetrovkah s 5: 3 in tako četrtič dvignila svetovno prvenstvo, potem ko je bil Zinedine Zidane senzacionalno izključen zaradi udarca z glavo Marca Materazzija. Francoski kapetan je bil na zadnji tekmi v karieri pred rdečim kartonom pokazan rdeči karton, ki je bil po podaljšku izenačen z 1: 1. Nekaj ​​mesecev kasneje je Materazzi prekinil molk in za Gazzetto dello Sport povedal, da je incident povzročil pripombo na Zidanovo sestro. Materazzi je dejal, da je Zidane, ko mu je ponudil, da mu podari dres Francije, kot odgovor na vztrajno drgnjenje srajce s strani Italijana, odgovoril: "Raje bi imela tvojo sestro."

V nizu sedmih eksplozij je na večernih konicah v indijski finančni prestolnici Mumbai umrlo najmanj 186 ljudi, okoli 700 jih je bilo ranjenih na natrpanih vlakih in postajah. Indija je obtožila pakistansko obveščevalno agencijo in islamistično militantno skupino Lashkar-e-Taiba s sedežem v Pakistanu, vendar Pakistan in skupina zanikata kakršne koli povezave. Novembra je indijska policija v povezavi z napadom obtožila več kot dva ducata ljudi, od tega 13 v priporu.

Izrael je sprožil vrsto bombnih napadov na Libanon, potem ko so sile Hezbolaha vstopile v Izrael, pri čemer so ubili tri vojake in ugrabili še dva, kar je izraelski premier označil za "vojno dejanje". Mesec dni kasneje je začelo veljati premirje in razseljeni civilisti so se začeli vračati domov. Okoli milijon ljudi na vsaki strani meje je bilo razseljenih, so povedali uradniki. V Libanonu je bilo zaradi spora 908 mrtvih in 3.877 ranjenih, v Izraelu pa 159 mrtvih in več kot 1.000 ranjenih, so sporočile oblasti v obeh državah.

Izbruh bakterije E. coli v špinači je ubil najmanj tri ljudi, 199 pa jih je zbolelo v 26 državah. Starejša ženska iz Nebraske, odrasla oseba iz Wisconsina in 2-letni deček iz Idaha sta umrla v izbruhu, za katerega je bilo ugotovljeno, da izvira iz špinače, gojene v treh okrožjih Kalifornije. Zvezni uradniki so dejali, da so ugotovili, da se je prva bolezen zgodila 2. avgusta, in priporočili, naj se potrošniki izogibajo surove špinače. Po vsej državi je listnato zeleno izginilo s polic z živili in solatnih barov, ko so se proizvajalci spominjali pošiljk.

Teroristi so bili v "zadnji fazi" zarote, da bi hkrati razstrelili kar 10 letal, ki so zapustili Veliko Britanijo, v Združene države, ko so se britanske in pakistanske oblasti združile, da bi preprečile napade, so povedali uradniki. Veljalo je, da so načrtovalci načrtovali mešanje športne pijače z gelom podobno snovjo, da bi ustvarili močan eksploziv, ki bi ga lahko vžgali s predvajalnikom MP3 ali mobilnim telefonom. Novice o zapletu so ustvarile potovalni kaos, saj so bili leti odpovedani in potnikom prepovedano prinašati tekočino na krov.

John Mark Karr je bil aretiran na Tajskem v povezavi z umorom JonBeneta Ramseyja, 6-letnega tekmovalca lepotnega tekmovanja, katerega pretepeno in zadavljeno telo so našli pred 10 leti v kleti njenega družinskega doma v Koloradu. Karr, 41, je novinarjem povedal, da je bil z JonBenet tisto noč, ko je umrla, in da je bila njena smrt nesreča. Karr je bil izročen Koloradu, vendar je njegovo priznanje le poglobilo ugibanja o tem, ali je tihi učitelj storil zločin. Skoraj dva tedna kasneje so uradniki opustili svoj primer proti Karru, potem ko ga testi DNK niso povezali s primerom.

Iran je kršil rok Združenih narodov, ki je pozval Islamsko republiko, naj ustavi svoje jedrske dejavnosti ali se sooči s sankcijami. Teheran vztraja, da je njegov program samo v miroljubne namene, predsednik Mahmoud Ahmadinejad pa se je zaobljubil, da ne bo popustil zahodnim interesom. Toda Bushova administracija sumi, da Iran uporablja svoj jedrski program za razvoj orožja, predsednik Bush pa je pozval k svetovni izolaciji Irana, dokler se "ne odreče jedrskim ambicijam". Kitajska in Rusija-obe članici Varnostnega sveta, ki imata veto-nista bili pripravljeni sankcionirati Irana, Moskva pa je nadaljevala z dogovorom o orožju s Teheranom.

Stevea Irwina, navdušenega "Lovca na krokodile", ki je s svojimi pustolovščinami navdušil občinstvo po vsem svetu, je med snemanjem televizijskega programa na Velikem koralnem grebenu ob severovzhodni obali Avstralije ubil bodec, ki mu je prebodel prsni koš. Irwina, 44, za seboj preživljata žena Terri in njuna dva otroka, Bindi Sue in Robert. "Svet je izgubil veliko ikono divjih živali, strastnega naravovarstvenika in enega najponosnejših očetov na planetu," je novinarjem povedal Irwinov menedžer in prijatelj John Stainton. "Umrl je, delal je tisto, kar mu je bilo najbolj všeč."

Močno oborožen voznik tovornjaka se je zabarikadiral v enosobni amiški šoli v Pensilvaniji in ubil pet deklet, preden se je ubil, je sporočila policija. Morilec je svoji ženi povedal, da je pred 20 leti nadlegoval otroke in sanja, da bi to ponovil. V šolsko hišo je prinesel mazivo, vendar ni bilo dokazov, da so bile žrtve spolno napadene. To je bilo tretje smrtonosno strelsko streljanje v državi v enem tednu. V Koloradu je 53-letni moški spolno napadel talce, preden je ubil 16-letnega študenta in nato še sebe. In dijak srednje šole v Wisconsinu je bil osumljen, da je ubil svojega ravnatelja, potem ko so ga disciplinsko kaznovali zaradi nošenja tobaka.

Uradna tiskovna agencija Severne Koreje je poročala, da je država izvedla uspešen podzemni jedrski poskus. Pet dni pozneje je Varnostni svet ZN soglasno glasoval za uvedbo sankcij proti Severni Koreji kot kazen za preizkus. Severna Koreja je resolucijo zavrnila in izstopila iz dvorane Varnostnega sveta. Preizkus je potekal tri mesece po tem, ko je Severna Koreja preizkusila šest izstrelkov, vključno z raketo dolgega dosega Taepodong-2, za katero se verjame, da lahko doseže zahodne ZDA. Raketa Taepodong je po 40 sekundah propadla, vendar so ZDA te preizkuse obsodile kot "provokativne".

Vršac New York Yankeesa Cory Lidle je bil ubit, ko je njegovo letalo trčilo v stolpnico na Manhattnu in zagorelo. V predhodnem poročilu Nacionalnega odbora za varnost prometa je bilo zapisano, da sta rahla vetra in tesen polmer obračanja dejavnika nesreče, ki je ubila tudi inštruktorja letenja Tylerja Stangerja. Preiskovalci niso ugotovili, kdo je letel z letalom v času nesreče. Ena stanovalka stanovanjske hiše je bila hudo opečena, ko je letalo trčilo v njeno stanovanje v 30. nadstropju. Lidle je ravnokar zaključil sezono 2006 z rekordom 12-10.

Velečasni Ted Haggard je bil prisiljen odstopiti z mesta vodje megacrkve v Koloradu, ki jo je ustanovil pred več kot 20 leti, potem ko je preiskovalni odbor dejal, da je kriv za "spolno nemoralno vedenje". V pismu članom svoje cerkve New Life je Haggard priznal "spolno nemoralnost" in se imenoval "prevarant in lažnivec". Priznal je tudi, da je kupil metamfetamin. Škandal je postal javen, ko je Mike Jones, nekdanja prostitutka, novinarjem povedal, da mu je Haggard plačal seks več kot tri leta. Jones je dejal, da je spregovoril zaradi Haggardove podpore amandmaju države, ki prepoveduje istospolne poroke.

Nekdanji iraški voditelj Saddam Hussein in še dva obtoženca sta bila obsojena na smrt zaradi obešanja zaradi brutalnega zatiranja leta 1982 v šiitskem mestu Dujail. Husein je bil usmrčen 30. decembra in je bil naslednji dan pokopan na istem pokopališču kot njegovi sinovi, ki so bili v požaru leta 2003 z ameriškimi silami ubiti. Odkar je bil Husein zrušen kot iraški vodja, je državo pestilo uporniško in sektaško nasilje, nekateri pa jo imenujejo državljanska vojna. Decembrsko poročilo dvostrankarske študijske skupine za Irak je stanje označilo za "resno in se poslabšuje" in priporočilo spremembe ameriške politike.

Demokrati so na vmesnih volitvah v ZDA leta 2006 prvič po ducat letih prevzeli nadzor nad predstavniškim domom in senatom, predsednik Bush in vrhunski demokrati pa so se kljub grozljivi kampanji hitro obljubili, da se bodo razumeli. Rezultate volitev so razumeli kot referendum o Bushu, vojno v Iraku in kongresne škandale. Dan po glasovanju je Bush napovedal, da bo obrambni minister Donald Rumsfeld do konca leta odstopil.

Nekdanji vohun KGB-ja Aleksander Litvinenko je 23. novembra umrl v londonski bolnišnici v velikih količinah polonija-210. 43 -letni Litvinenko je bil dolgoletni kritik ruske vlade, ki jo je krivil za nenadno, usodno bolezen. Ruske oblasti so zanikale kakršno koli vlogo. Sledi radioaktivnega materiala so našli pri Litvinenkovem domu, mestih, kjer je jedel in kjer je imel sestanke tik preden je zbolel, pravijo oblasti. O sledovih so poročali tudi na letalih British Airways, londonskem nogometnem stadionu in britanskem veleposlaništvu v Moskvi. Britanska policija je dejala, da smrt obravnavajo kot umor.


Hillary Rodham Clinton

V prvem desetletju 21. stoletja je bila Hillary Clinton (rojena v Chicagu, 1947) prva nekdanja prva dama, ki je imela veliko volilno funkcijo, januarja 2001 pa je bila izvoljena v kongres kot senatorka iz New Yorka. Bila je prva kandidatka za predsednika ZDA, ki je skoraj zmagala v nominaciji velike politične stranke (kandidaturo je objavila januarja 2007, priznala junija 2008). Leta 2009 je Clinton postala prva nekdanja prva dama v kabinetu v vlogi ameriškega državnega sekretarja za Baracka Obamo, je potrdila januarja 2009.


Vrh 2006

Akademija dosežkov je na 45. letni mednarodni vrh dosežkov v Los Angeles v Kaliforniji pripeljala 300 izjemnih podiplomskih študentov iz 40 držav. Od 1. do 4. junija 2006 je neprimerljivo množica svetovnih voditeljev umetnosti, gospodarstva, industrije, javnih služb in znanosti delila svoje izkušnje in vpogled s študenti delegati Akademije & današnji voditelji, ki so z voditelji izmenjavali ideje jutri.

Gostitelja vrha in člana akademije Steven Spielberg in George Lucas pozdravljata goste v Los Angelesu.

Letošnji vrh & rsquos sta gostila legendarna filmska ustvarjalca George Lucas in Steven Spielberg. Predsednica vrha je bila Catherine B. Reynolds, predsednica in izvršna direktorica Fundacije Catherine B. Reynolds. Vrh je omogočil velikodušen prispevek Fundacije Catherine B. Reynolds.

Člani sveta za podelitev zlatih plošč: predsednik Bill Clinton z Vairo Vike-Freiberga, predsednico Latvije.

Vrha se je udeležilo petdeset prejemnikov nagrade Oscar & rsquos Golden Plate Award in 30 novih častnikov. Med prisotnimi člani Akademije so bili 42. predsednik ZDA, William J. Clinton prestolonaslednik princ Salman iz Bahrajna, predsednica Vaira Vike-Freiberga iz Latvije, predsednik Festus Mogae iz Bocvane, in častni Ehud Barak, nekdanji izraelski premier . Pridružila sta se jim dva nekdanja poveljnika Nata, general Wesley Clark in general Joseph Ralston ter dva prejemnika Nobelove nagrade za mir: nadškof Desmond Tutu in dr. Mohamed ElBaradei, generalni direktor Mednarodne agencije Združenih narodov za atomsko energijo.

Gostitelj vrha George Lucas čestita Wendy Kopp, ustanoviteljici in predsednici Teach for America, za zlato medaljo Akademije za dosežke na mednarodnem vrhu dosežkov leta 2006 v Los Angelesu.

Člani akademije iz vseh treh podružnic vlade ZDA so bili sodnik vrhovnega sodišča Anthony M. Kennedy, direktor nacionalne obveščevalne službe John D. Negroponte in trije člani kabineta predsednika Georgea W. Busha & rsquosa: sekretar za promet Norman Mineta, sekretarka za izobraževanje Margaret Spellings in stanovanj in sekretar za urbani razvoj Alphonso Jackson. Člani kongresa, ki so se udeležili vrha, so bili Edward Markey, Jane Harman in vodja manjšine predstavniškega doma Nancy Pelosi. Drugi ugledni javni uslužbenci so bili: nekdanji vodja senatskih demokratov, častiti Tom Daschle, župan Chicaga, Richard M. Daley in župan Los Angelesa, Antonio Villaraigosa.

Sodnik Anthony M. Kennedy z ženo Mary in župan Los Angelesa Antonio Villaraigosa z ženo Corino.

Poleg gospoda Lucasa in gospoda Spielberga so med uglednimi predstavniki filmske industrije sodelovali še režiserja Peter Jackson in Chris Columbus ter filmski zvezdniki Samuel L. Jackson, Robin Williams, Sally Field, Olivia de Havilland in Dame Julie Andrews. Stari in novi člani Akademije iz sveta glasbe so bili Quincy Jones, Dame Kiri Te Kanawa, Sheryl Crow, Trisha Yearwood, Sonny Rollins in John Williams. Med literarnim kontingentom so bili avtorji Gore Vidal, Joan Didion, Carlos Fuentes in Arthur Golden ter dobitniki Pulitzerjeve nagrade A. Scott Berg in N. Scott Momaday. Na vrhu so nastopili znanstveniki, ki so prejeli Nobelovo nagrado, med njimi so bili dr.Michael Brown, dr.Robert H. Grubbs, dr.John Hall in dr.A. Michael Spence. Športne legende Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, Dorothy Hamill in Sir Roger Bannister so se vrnile na vrh, da bi podelile čast Akademije novim nagrajencem. Poslovni voditelji na vrhu so bili predsednik Telmexa Carlos Slim Hel & uacute, predsednik Research in Motion James Balsillie, ustanovitelj Home Depota Bernard Marcus, ustanovitelj skupine Carlyle David Rubenstein in izvršni direktor JPMorgan Chase Jamie Dimon.

Hollywoodske legende Olivia de Havilland in dama Julie Andrews z legendo L.A. Lakers Kareem Abdul-Jabbar.

Člani akademije, nagrajenci in študentski delegati so bivali v glamuroznem hotelu Regent Beverly Wilshire na enem izmed najbolj znanih križišč v Ameriki in rsquosu, Wilshire Blvd. in Rodeo Drive v osrčju mesta Beverly Hills. Navdušenje se je začelo prvi večer, saj so bili člani Akademije in študentski delegati navdušeni nad dobrodošlico dveh najuspešnejših filmskih ustvarjalcev vseh časov, Georgea Lucasa in Stevena Spielberga. Prvo nagrado vrha je prejela Wendy Kopp, ustanoviteljica in predsednica Teach for America. Član akademije A. Scott Berg, prejemnik Pulitzerjeve nagrade za biografijo, je pripovedoval o zgodnji zgodovini Hollywooda in o tem, kako so priseljenski ustanovitelji filmske industrije uresničili svoje lastne ameriške sanje in postali vodilni dobavitelji teh sanj po vsem svetu.

Prvo jutranje zasedanje vrha leta 2006 je bilo osredotočeno na meje medicine in znanstvenih raziskav. Pionirski nevrokirurg dr. Benjamin S. Carson je pripovedoval o tej svoji odisejadi od geta do operacijske sobe. Hans Keirstead je naredil prepričljivo večpredstavnostno predstavitev svojega revolucionarnega dela, ki uporablja človeške izvorne celice pri zdravljenju poškodb hrbtenjače in multiple skleroze. Michael Brown, prejemnik Nobelove nagrade za medicino, je razpravljal o svojem pionirskem delu pri preučevanju holesterola in njegove vloge pri srčno -žilnih boleznih, ki so vodilni vzrok smrti in invalidnosti v zahodnem svetu.

Članica sveta za nagrade dr. Sally K. Ride, prva Američanka v vesolju, se pogovarja z akademskim zborom.

Dr.Miguel Nicolelis z univerze Duke je predstavil svoje zgodovinske raziskave na vrhu nevroznanosti in robotike, vključno z revolucionarnim prebojem v razvoju nevroprotetičnih naprav za pomoč invalidnim in ohromljenim. Dr. Spencer Wells, direktor Genografskega projekta, je razpravljal o tem mednarodnem podjetju brez primere, ki uporablja molekularno genetiko za sledenje migracijskim potim človeštva od njegovih začetkov. Delil je celo svoje ugotovitve o prednikih predsednice vrha Catherine B. Reynolds in člana akademije dr. Benjamina S. Carsona.

Članica sveta za nagrade Sally Field, prejemnica dveh oskarjev za najboljšo igralko, se sreča z delegati študentov Akademije.

Prva panelna razprava vrha je raziskovala povezave in konflikt med znanostjo in vero. Televizijska novinarka Kathleen Matthews je moderirala razpravo. Francis Collins, direktor projekta National Human Genome, in dr. Benjamin S. Carson sta predstavila svoje poglede kot znanstvenike, katerih delo je podprto z njihovo versko vero. Evolucijski biolog dr. Richard Dawkins in filozof dr. Daniel Dennett sta trdila, da versko prepričanje ni podprto z dokazi ali znanstvenimi metodami. Njihovo izjemno živahno razpravo o njihovih temeljnih prepričanjih lahko slišite v avdio posnetkih na spletni strani Akademije.

Telekomunikacijski magnati Carlos Slim in Emilio Azc & aacuterraga z ženo Sharon in predsednikom Billom Clintonom.

Drugi vrhunski znanstvenik, ki je govoril med vrhom, je bil dr. Robert H. Grubbs, prejemnik Nobelove nagrade za kemijo 2005, ki je razpravljal o svojem preboju v kemijski metatezi, odkritju tako imenovanega katalizatorja & ldquoGrubbs & rdquo, ki obljublja proizvodnjo novih zdravil in novih materialov za industrijo, hkrati pa zmanjšujejo nevarnosti kemičnih odpadkov.

Vodja manjšine predstavniške hiše Nancy Pelosi, ki je prejela nagrado Oscar & rsquos Golden Plate Award, ki jo je podelil član sveta za nagrade, častni Tom Daschle, na mednarodnem vrhu dosežkov leta 2006 v Los Angelesu v Kaliforniji.

Prvo dopoldansko zasedanje se je končalo s predstavitvijo 42. predsednika ZDA Williama J. Clintona. Govoril je o tem, da morajo narodi sveta v prihodnjem stoletju slediti poti mednarodne & ldquointegracije & rdquo in ne & ldquointerpendence & rdquo. Takoj po njegovem nagovoru se je predsednik sestal za dolgo sejo vprašanj in odgovorov s študenti Akademije, ki je označil stopnjo odkritega diskurza, ki je prevladoval na Mednarodnem vrhu dosežkov.

Predsednik Bill Clinton je na vrhu leta 2006 nagovoril svoje kolege člane Akademije in študentske delegate.

Izmenjava idej se je nadaljevala tudi med odmorom za kosilo, ko se je pionir izvornih celic dr. James D. Thomson srečal s študenti medicine in biologi Akademije & rsquos za nadaljnje raziskovanje številnih znanstvenih in etičnih vprašanj, ki so se pojavila na jutranji seji. Večji del popoldanskega zasedanja je bil osredotočen na prizadevanja zasebnikov in javnih ustanov za reševanje najbolj nerešljivih svetovnih problemov. Izumitelj Dean Kamen je opisal svoja prizadevanja, da bi družbam v razvoju zagotovil poceni sisteme za čiščenje vode. Zagovornik varstva potrošnikov Ralph Nader je dolgo govoril o potrebi po reformi ameriškega političnega sistema, da bi preprečili zlorabo pooblastil s posebnimi interesi. Podvodna raziskovalka dr. Sylvia Earle je razpravljala o škodi, ki jo je človeštvo naredilo našemu naravnemu okolju, medtem ko je kongresnik Ed Markey razpravljal o svoji bitki za zaščito okolja s političnim procesom.

S spremembo tempa je Julie Taymor, nagrajena direktorica Broadwaya Levji kralj razpravljala o svojem delu v gledališču, filmu in operi. Čeprav je njena svetovna premiera opere Grendel V zadnjem tednu vaje v operi v Los Angelesu med vrhom si je gospodična Taymor prijazno vzela čas za monumentalni projekt, da bi z delegati študentov Akademije delila zgodbo o svojem ustvarjalnem razvoju.

Nagrade član sveta Arthur Golden, avtor knjige Spomini na gejšo, ki je nagrado Golden Plate podelil Julie Taymor, nagrajeni režiserki Broadwaya Levji kraljna mednarodnem vrhu dosežkov.

Največji živeči pisatelj Mehike in rsquosa Carlos Fuentes je obravnaval politično vlogo avtorja v Latinski Ameriki in tujini. Župan Chicaga Richard M. Daley se je pogovarjal o & ldquoJavno-zasebnem partnerstvu & rdquo z generalnim direktorjem JPMorgan Chase Jamiejem Dimonom. Njihovo spodbudno razpravo o plodnem sodelovanju javnega in zasebnega sektorja je moderiral stari prijatelj Akademije, MSNBC Hardball gostitelj Chris Matthews.

Najprodanejši pisatelj in diplomat Carlos Fuentes, častni gost Akademije 2006, nagovori delegate.

Sodnik vrhovnega sodišča Anthony M. Kennedy je spregovoril o razvijajočem se konceptu mednarodnega pravosodja, nato pa se je pridružil Chrisu Matthewsu in filmskim režiserjem Georgeu Lucasu, Peteru Jacksonu in Chrisu Columbusu za razpravo o & ldquoPomen filmov. ameriške in svetovne kinematografije močno poudaril moč filma, da se poleg razvedrila loteva resnih moralnih vprašanj. Vendar se je oddaljil od razprave o vprašanjih, ki so jih sprožili številni nedavni filmi, saj zadevajo zadeve, ki bi lahko kmalu prišle pred vrhovno sodišče.

& ldquo Gospodar prstanov & rdquo režiser Peter Jackson in njegova žena, scenaristka Fran Walsh, z voditeljem leta 2006 Stevenom Spielbergom.

Tisti večer so zbrani člani Akademije in študentski delegati odpotovali v legendarni filmski studio 20th Century Fox. Tam so na ogromnem zvočnem odru, kjer so nastale nekatere najbolj trpežne filmske klasike, uživali v nepozabnem glasbenem in spominskem večeru z Los Angeles filharmonijo in bleščečo paleto talentov iz sveta glasbe in filmov. George Lucas je govoril o svojih zgodnjih bojih kot filmskem ustvarjalcu in o pomenu namenskega, ustvarjalnega življenja, ki presega dobro znane blagoslove bogastva in površne slavnosti. Ljubljena zvezda Zvok glasbe, Dame Julie Andrews, je delila svoje spomine na snemanje tiste brezčasne klasike prav v studiu 20th Century Fox Studios.

Članica akademije Trisha Yearwood na večerji nastopa z legendarnim dirigentom in skladateljem Johnom Williamsom.

Z oskarjem nagrajeni skladatelj John Williams je vodil Los Angeles Philharmonic v hrbtenici mravljinčenja svoje avtorske glasbe za filme Georgea Lucasa in Stevena Spielberga. Osupljive slike iz Čeljusti, Vojna zvezd, Bližnji srečanji tretje vrste, Raiders of the Lost Ark in ET predvajali na ogromnem filmskem platnu, občinstvo pa je bilo navdušeno nad zvoki Williamsa in rsquosa, ki je mešala glasbo, oživljeno s polno močjo simfoničnega orkestra v živo. Steven Spielberg je nato stopil na oder in občinstvo navdušil s presenetljivo razkritim poročilom o izvoru njegove vseživljenjske ljubezni z gibljivo sliko.

Kolo saksofona in častni gost Akademije 2006 Sonny Rollins nastopa v studiu 20th Century Fox.

Ena izmed najljubših pevk America & rsquos, članica Akademije Trisha Yearwood, je zapela & ldquoHow Do I Live, & rdquo iz filma ConAirv spremstvu Johna Williamsa in L.A. filharmonije. Filharmonija je spremljala tudi dva spektakularno nadarjena študentska delegata Akademije, Sergeja Semishkurja in Larisso Yudina, mlada operna pevca s konservatorija Marijinskega gledališča v Sankt Peterburgu v Rusiji, ki sta zapela razburljiv duet iz Rigoletto.

Legendarni jazz saksofonist Sonny Rollins je izvedel osupljivo solo improvizacijo na ameriško tematiko. Rollinsa je nato na akademijo sprejel veliki košarkarski dvorani slavnih Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, ki je govoril o navdihu, ki ga je kot mladi športnik dobil pri poslušanju nastopa Sonnyja Rollinsa. Po podelitvi nagrad se je Sonnyju Rollinsu na odru pridružil fenomenalen mladi mojster slavnega plesa Savion Glover za spektakularno skupno improvizacijo. Rollins in Glover sta pokazala skoraj telepatsko stopnjo glasbene komunikacije, ki je navdušila občinstvo s svojo neizčrpno ritmično iznajdbo.

Ustvarjalec vojn zvezd & rdquo George Lucas v akademijo vpelje Samuela L. Jacksona, svetovno največjo filmsko zvezdo rsquos.

Ena od živih legend Hollywooda, dvakratna dobitnica oskarja Olivia de Havilland, je milostno sprejela iskrene ovacije celotne skupščine za njeno življenjsko umetnost in osebno integriteto. Priljubljenec sodobnega občinstva, svetovno najboljši filmski zvezdnik Samuel L. Jackson, je prejel drugo nagrado večera.

Članica sveta za nagrade Dame Julie Andrews imenuje damo Kiri Te Kanawa, mednarodno priznano sopranistko.

A legendary star of the world of opera, Dame Kiri Te Kanawa, accompanied by the Los Angeles Philharmonic, thrilled the crowd with her soaring renditions of Ave Maria, O mio babbino caro, and &ldquoClimb Every Mountain.&rdquo In an inspiring conclusion to an evening of matchless musical artistry, Te Kanawa was inducted into the Academy by her fellow Dame Commander of the British Empire, Julie Andrews. The entire assembly then took their seats for an elegant dinner, served in the vast sound stage, transformed for the night into an elegant banquet hall through the magic of Hollywood. Inspiring images of Academy honorees from the last 45 years played on the giant screen while student delegates and Academy members enjoyed a sumptuous meal and shared their thoughts and impressions of an incredibly full day.

Awards Council member Eli Broad, an entrepreneur and philanthropist, presents the Golden Plate Award to David M. Rubenstein, Co-founder and Managing Director of The Carlyle Group, at the International Achievement Summit.

The following morning&rsquos session, back at the Beverly Wilshire, brought even more intense concentration on world affairs. Chris Matthews led a discussion of the challenges of improving the quality of life for the people of the Third World. Participants included: the President of Botswana, His Excellency Festus Mogae UNICEF Director Ann Veneman inventor Dean Kamen and former Assistant Surgeon General Dr. Susan Blumenthal. Students asked deeply probing questions of the panelists, and all present were impressed by the warmth and eloquence of President Mogae, whose country is an island of stability and relative prosperity in Sub-Saharan Africa.

John D. Negroponte, the Director of National Intelligence, receives the Academy&rsquos Golden Plate Award presented by Council member President Vaira Vike-Freiberga of Latvia during the 2006 Achievement Summit in Los Angeles.

The morning&rsquos audience was also charmed by the youthful Crown Prince of Bahrain, His Royal Highness Prince Salman bin Hamad Al-Khalifa, who surprised many in the audience with his candor in discussing the challenges and opportunities facing his country, a progressive oasis in the troubled Middle East.

Legendary novelist and social critic Gore Vidal seated onstage at the 2006 International Achievement Summit.

David Rubenstein, founder and Managing Director of The Carlyle Group, gave a surprisingly humorous account of the many setbacks he encountered on his career path, from serving as a 27-year-old advisor to President Jimmy Carter to creating the world&rsquos leading private equity firm, a power in politics and international finance. In one of the most compelling individual presentations of the Summit, the legendary author and social critic Gore Vidal took the stage. Now in his 80s, the great novelist, essayist and sometime political candidate held the audience spellbound with a witty but lacerating assessment of the state of American culture and democracy. For once, the Academy student delegates were too awe-struck to ask questions of a speaker, but they gave him a powerful ovation, and many of his admirers among the student delegates and Academy honorees clustered around him after he left the stage. The focus on public affairs continued as former NATO Commander and presidential candidate General Wesley Clark joined President Vaira Vike-Freiberga of Latvia to explore the future of the Euro-American alliance. Their discussion was moderated by the Director of the Center for Public Leadership at Harvard&rsquos John F. Kennedy School of Government, former White House advisor David Gergen. Google founder Larry Page, who first attended the International Achievement Summit as a student delegate in 2000, returned once again as a member of the Academy to discuss the challenges of building a massive company and threading the labyrinth of ethical questions that arise in conducting business in the international economy.

Presidential advisor David Gergen moderates a lively discussion of &ldquoPublic-Private Partnerships&rdquo with Mayor Richard Daley and JPMorgan Chase CEO Jamie Dimon.

Before the company broke for lunch, America&rsquos pioneer of integrative medicine, Dr. Andrew Weil, gave the audience a welcome lesson in relaxation. Dr. Weil demonstrated a simple but effective technique of conscious breathing that produced highly beneficial results. The entire party then strolled a few short blocks through the sunny streets of Beverly Hills to a casual luncheon at the world-famous restaurant Spago, founded by Academy member Wolfgang Puck. After lunch, the Academy members traveled to the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA) for another impressive afternoon of symposium speakers and panel discussions.

Award-winning novelist Joan Didion spoke movingly of her odyssey from the heights of success as a novelist and screenwriter to the depths of tragedy and personal loss so vividly expressed in her latest book, The Year of Magical Thinking. America&rsquos first woman in space, Dr. Sally Ride, recalled her historic achievement in space travel and her present campaign to encourage young women and girls to pursue the study of math and science.

Golden Plate Awards Council member President Festus G. Mogae of Botswana greets President William J. Clinton.

The same afternoon, the Academy was privileged to hear a unique discussion of &ldquoGlobal Cooperation in the Fight Against Terrorism.&rdquo The speakers included: Director of National Intelligence John D. Negroponte former Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak Congresswoman Jane Harman, the ranking Democrat on the House Intelligence Committee General Joseph Ralston, former NATO Commander and the recipient of the 2005 Nobel Prize for Peace, Director General of the UN International Atomic Energy Agency, Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei. The discussion was moderated by David Gergen.

Congresswoman Jane Harman and Mohamed ElBaradei, recipient of Nobel Peace Prize and Academy honoree.

The Academy&rsquos international student delegates afforded themselves of this once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to press the panelists with some of the most difficult questions surrounding these fateful issues. Only in the atmosphere of the International Achievement Summit could public figures participate in so free a discussion of vital questions, without fear that their remarks would be exploited by the news media.

&ldquoFly! Fly!&rdquo Archbishop Desmond Tutu exhorts the Academy delegates during an inspiring symposium presentation.

The vibrant young speaker of the California State Assembly, Fabian Núñez, spoke of the challenges facing America&rsquos most populous state, the fifth-largest economy in the world. Speaker Núñez then joined Transportation Secretary Norman Mineta, former Senate Democratic leader Tom Daschle, House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi and Michael Deaver, a former advisor to President Ronald Reagan, for a discussion of leadership and politics, led by David Gergen. Over the course of the Summit, the Academy also heard from Housing and Urban Development Secretary Alphonso Jackson and from the dynamic Mayor of Los Angeles, Antonio Villaraigosa.

JPMorgan Chase CEO Jamie Dimon receives the Golden Plate Award from the Mayor of Chicago, Richard M. Daley.

The afternoon session closed with an inspiring address by Archbishop Desmond Tutu. This spiritual leader of the movement for human equality in his own South Africa, took as his text the African fable of the eagle raised among chickens, who must discover his power of flight. &ldquoFly! Fly!&rdquo he exhorted the students, urging them to make full use of their own undiscovered powers.

Home Depot co-founder Bernard Marcus receives the Golden Plate from former Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak.

After the afternoon session, the students were treated to a private tour of the most talked-about art exhibit of the year. Five works by the great Austrian painter Gustav Klimt, stolen by the Nazis during World War II, had at last been returned by the Austrian government to their rightful owner. Maria Altmann, the sole survivor of the cultured Viennese family that had commissioned these works at the beginning of the 20th century, now resides in Los Angeles she graciously lent the paintings to LACMA for this special exhibit. Among the paintings were two portraits of Mrs. Altmann&rsquos aunt, Adele Bloch-Bauer, among the most famous works of Viennese Art Nouveau. Only a week after the Summit, it was reported that the Neue Galerie in New York City had purchased one of the portraits for a reported $135 million, the highest sum ever paid for a work of art.

Archbishop Desmond M. Tutu and music impresario Quincy Jones before the 2006 Banquet of the Golden Plate.

The International Achievement Summit culminated on Saturday night with the spectacular Banquet of the Golden Plate, held in the Grand Ballroom of the Regent Beverly Wilshire, magnificently decorated for the occasion. In a moving ceremony, the Class of 2006 was inducted into the Academy of Achievement by distinguished past honorees of the Academy. The Hosts of the Summit, Catherine B. Reynolds, George Lucas and Steven Spielberg, welcomed Academy members, student delegates and many distinguished guests to the evening, and accepted a proclamation of recognition from the City of Beverly Hills.

Robin Williams performs a spontaneous &ldquoAcademy rap&rdquo with Sheryl Crow at the 2006 Banquet of the Golden Plate.

Following a superb dinner, a delighted audience greeted award-winning singer and songwriter Sheryl Crow to the stage. Accompanied by her longtime collaborators, she performed a powerful acoustic set of her most famous songs, &ldquoIf It Makes You Happy,&rdquo &ldquoA Change Would Do You Good,&rdquo &ldquoThe First Cut Is the Deepest,&rdquo &ldquoAll I Wanna Do,&rdquo &ldquoSoak up the Sun,&rdquo and &ldquoEvery Day is a Winding Road.&rdquo From the first few notes, the audience members rose to their feet, led by Archbishop Desmond Tutu, and the Banquet became an uninhibited dance party. During Miss Crow&rsquos last number, Academy member Robin Williams jumped onto the stage and improvised a spontaneous rap, hilariously recapping the Academy activities of the previous days, while Sheryl Crow and the band kept the crowd dancing. Student delegates rushed the stage, and even usually reserved friends of the Academy such as David Gergen were seen swaying arm in arm behind the band. On this celebratory note, the evening&rsquos program concluded. The following day, the Academy&rsquos out-of-town guests and student delegates returned to their homes and schools, still warmed and inspired by memories of their visit to Los Angeles and the International Achievement Summit.

American Academy of Achievement Board Chairman Wayne Reynolds and Summit Host Chairman Catherine B. Reynolds enjoy Sheryl Crow&rsquos performance with enthusiastic student delegates at the 2006 Banquet ceremonies.


Albert Lasker Medical Research Award

Dr. Leland “Lee” Hartwell (1998)

Hartwell was one of three scientists to share the 1998 award. They were honored for discovering a universal mechanism that controls cell division in all eukaryotic organisms (organisms whose cells contain a nucleus), from yeast to frogs to humans. Hartwell also provided evidence that cells have “checkpoints” for detecting and repairing errors that might occur during cell division. His findings on normal cell division laid the groundwork for further research on how this process goes awry in cancer cells.

The Lasker Awards are among the most respected science prizes in the world. Since 1945, the Lasker Foundation has recognized the contributions of scientists, physicians and public servants who have made major advances in the understanding, diagnosis, treatment, cure and prevention of human disease. Lasker Awards often presage recognition by the Nobel committee, so they have become popularly known as “America's Nobels."


‘The Quarter’ shows masterly hand of Nobel laureate Naguib Mahfouz

The collection of short stories, published posthumously, gently lays bare the foibles of the denizens of a neighborhood in old Cairo.

I visited Cairo in 2006 to write a story about the legacy of Nobel Prize in Literature laureate Naguib Mahfouz, who had recently died. The tribute that stood out to me was given by the manager of a cafe in which Mahfouz had gathered with other writers. He said, “Naguib Mahfouz gave the Nobel people the honor by accepting their award, not the other way around.”

Now the accuracy of that statement is reinforced by the publication in English of “The Quarter,” a collection of 18 stories that were found among Mahfouz’s papers. The slim book of short stories was first published in Arabic last year as “The Whisper of Stars.”

Taken together, the collection of narratives adds up to a vivid and emotionally expansive expression of life and people in Gamaliya, the quarter of old Cairo where Mahfouz grew up and set some of his most famous works.

Mahfouz was a master at developing diverse characters, including the tyrannical patriarch of the family, al-Sayyid Ahmad Abd al-Jawad from his “Cairo Trilogy” and the petty clerk obsessed with becoming a minister in “Respected Sir,” Othman Bayyumi.

In the quarter there is no deep probing of individuals. Rather it is the quarter residents in total – the quarter itself that is actually the character. In the work, Mahfouz displays his versatility as a writer who can be stimulating, poignant, and touching in stories that are at times little more than briefs.

Inheritance, fairness, and the billionaire class

The quarter people are at once gritty and other worldly, believing in healers, saints, and even demons that inhabit the cellar of an old fort. Authorities are disdained. Rumors dominate. The quarter "has its own hidden tongue, although no one knows to whom it belongs," writes Mahfouz. "It can whisper misgivings and reveal secrets."

My favorite story is “Your Lot in Life,” in which the official in charge, who is nameless and known simply as the Head of the Quarter comments on a new and unprecedented affliction, saying the area “never has its fill when it comes to generating disasters.” This time it's a crying epidemic that begins when a pastry seller bursts into tears while wielding his rolling pin and bawls so hard his family must take him home still crying. Then a shopper with a basketful of pickled vegetables suddenly begins weeping violently. “The stories kept multiplying and becoming more elaborate,” Mahfouz writes. “There were many victims, both men and women.” Eventually the Health Inspector arrives and goes from house to house to search for the cause. Yet he is afflicted too. The end this time, however, is happy as he is cured in a musician's house by rhythm, drum beats, clapping, and singing. All the weepers are transformed and burst into laughter from the musician's poetics.

A particularly moving story is “Tawhida,” about memories of a young girl who lived with the narrator's family, in whom “happiness, beauty and magic all came together.” Many years later, the two have a chance encounter in Alexandria and the narrator does not recognize her since her face has become “gaunt, pale and wrinkled” due to old age. But then "When I heard that sweet voice again, the past came rushing back like a perfume bottle smashing to the ground" and nostalgia fills the narrator's heart.

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Compared by some to Balzac and Dickens, Mahfouz was credited by the Nobel committee with creating “an Arabian narrative art that applies to all of mankind.” His 34 novels are remarkably varied, ranging from ancient Egyptian themes at the start of his career to “Children of Gebelawi,” an allegory on human history to political novels in the 1960s that used symbolism to highlight the souring of the Egyptian revolution. His 13 short-story collections are also multifaceted. For example, “The Time and the Place,” a selection translated into English, contains “Zaabalawi,” which beautifully evokes Sufism (Islamic mysticism) and "The Norwegian Rat,” about how regimes use an external threat to consolidate their rule and exploitation.

It remains a mystery exactly when the stories in “The Quarter” were written although Mahfouz scholar Roger Allen, who translated them, sees similarities to another work published by the laureate in 1994. The stories were found with a note attached, saying "to be published in 1994" which never happened, perhaps because of the extremists’ attack on Mahfouz that year. It is also unclear whether the stories represent a complete work or are part of a larger work that was not finished. What is certain is that “The Quarter” stories, belated as they are in coming to light, offer further compelling testimony to the diversity of their author's creative genius.


30 pivotal moments in Apple’s history

Editor&rsquos Note: You&rsquove read our timeline of Apple&rsquos first 30 years. To put those events in perspective, our sister publication Macworld UK tapped Apple Confidential 2.0 author Owen W. Linzmayer to pick the 30 most pivotal events in each of Apple&rsquos 30 years of existence. This article is reprinted from Macworld UK &rsquos April 2006 issue.

1976: Jobs and Woz Found Apple

On April Fools&rsquo Day, Apple Computer Company is founded in a residential garage by Steve Jobs and Stephen Wozniak, both college drop-outs. Fearing financial ruin, the third co-founder&mdashRonald Wayne&mdashrelinquishes his 10 percent stake in the partnership for only $800 less than two weeks later.

Honorable Mention Markkula Writes Business Plan: In November, chip industry veteran Mike Markkula helps Jobs write a business plan, predicting sales of $500 million in 10 years.

1977: Apple II Introduced

In contrast to the $666 Apple I, a kit computer with limited appeal, the $1,298 Apple II is the first personal computer designed for the mass market, thanks to its attractive low-slung case that was complete with standard keyboard, power supply, and color graphics capability.

Honorable Mention Scott Named President: Markkula&rsquos former Fairchild Semiconductor co-worker Michael Scott brings professional management and corporate infrastructure to Apple.

1978: Apple Disk II Introduced

The Apple Disk II external drive stores 110K on 5.25-inch floppy disks. At $495, Woz&rsquos creation is half as expensive as competitive floppy drives, and much more reliable than cassette tape storage systems.

Honorable Mention Apple III Project Starts: Anxious for a follow-up hit to the popular Apple II, Apple launches the ill-fated Apple III project with engineer Wendell Sander at the helm.

1979: Apple Visits Xerox PARC

Engineers from Apple get a peek at the future of computing when they visit the labs of their Silicon Valley neighbor. Lisa and Mac projects soon adopt graphical user interfaces.

Honorable Mention Personal Software Releases VisiCalc: The world&rsquos first spreadsheet runs exclusively on the Apple II, sending Apple&rsquos hardware sales through the roof.

1980: Apple Goes Public

In the largest IPO since Ford went public in 1956, Apple debuts on the stock market with a valuation of $1.8 billion. Of Apple&rsquos 1,000 employees, more than 40 became instant millionaires thanks to their stock options.

Honorable Mention Apple III Ships: Priced from $4,340 to $7,800, the Apple III is supposed to be the firm&rsquos flagship business computer, but instead flops badly due to reliability issues.

1981: IBM Introduces the PC

IBM introduces its $1,565 personal computer. Though it sports unimpressive technical specifications, the masses don&rsquot care, and within two years IBM&rsquos market share eclipses that of Apple.

Honorable Mention Apple&rsquos First Shakeup: Following the &ldquoBlack Wednesday&rdquo firing of 40 employees, Markkula replaces Scott as president, Jobs becomes chairman, and Woz takes a leave of absence.

1982: Microsoft Begins Mac Development

Microsoft begins developing mouse-based applications for Apple&rsquos secret Mac project, but also begins work on a graphical user interface (Windows) for the IBM PC and its clones.

Honorable Mention Raskin Resigns: Recognizing that Jobs has wrested control of the Macintosh project away from him, Jef Raskin resigns.

1983: Sculley Named President, CEO

John Sculley, president of Pepsi-Cola, succumbs to Jobs&rsquo promise of a &ldquochance to change the world&rdquo as president and CEO of Apple.

Honorable Mention Lisa Introduced: The $9,995 Lisa is the world&rsquos first commercial computer with a mouse and GUI, but it bombs due to high cost, slow speed, and incompatibility.

1984: Original Mac Introduced

The much-anticipated Macintosh, &ldquothe computer for the rest of us,&rdquo finally ships. It comes with 128K of memory and a price tag of $2,495.

Honorable Mention &lsquo1984&rsquo Commercial Airs: Against the advice of its board, Apple announces the Macintosh by airing the Ridley Scott-directed &lsquo1984&rsquo commercial during the Super Bowl.

1985: Jobs Resigns From Apple

After losing a boardroom struggle with Sculley, Jobs resigns from Apple, taking a loyal band of employees that would start NeXT.

Honorable Mention Microsoft Granted Mac License: In exchange for delaying a Windows version of Excel, Apple grants Microsoft a license to use some Macintosh technology.

1986: Desktop Publishing Takes Off

Combined with Aldus PageMaker, the Mac Plus and LaserWriter Plus allow printers, graphic artists, and publishers to create professional documents for a small fraction of the cost of traditional equipment.

Honorable Mention Apple IIGS Introduced: Recognizing that Apple II sales still exceeded Mac revenue, execs OK the release of the $999 Apple IIGS, with many Mac-like features, including ADB, QuickDraw, and GUI.

1987: HyperCard Released

Apple releases Bill Atkinson&rsquos HyperCard at Macworld Expo Boston. The free program combines a simple programming environment and graphical database, allowing mere mortals to create useful &ldquostacks.&rdquo

Honorable Mention Newton Project Starts: Eager to reinvent personal computing yet again, Apple undertakes hardware engineer Steve Sakoman&rsquos proposal to create a portable device with wireless networking and handwriting recognition.

1988: Apple Sues Microsoft

After watching its Macintosh products steadily lose market share to Wintel clones, Apple finally sues Microsoft, claiming Windows 2.03 infringes on Lisa/Mac audiovisual copyrights.

Honorable Mention Next Computer Introduced: Apple&rsquos sole hardware release of 1988, the Mac IIx, pales in comparison to Jobs&rsquo Next Computer, a 12-inch cube running a Unix-derived operating system.

1989: Judge Guts Apple&rsquos Microsoft Suit

Apple&rsquos hope of obtaining legal redress is squashed as a judge throws out all but 10 claims against Microsoft. Executives squabble over how to boost the Mac&rsquos sliding market share.

Honorable Mention Mac Portable Ships: Apple unveils the $5,799 Macintosh Portable, a 16-pound &ldquono compromise&rdquo product with active-matrix LCD, full keyboard, trackball, sound output, and optional hard disk.

1990: First &ldquoLow Cost&rdquo Macs Debut

Responding to criticism that its products were overpriced, Apple releases a trio of &ldquolow cost&rdquo models: the US$999 Mac Classic, $2,400 Mac LC, and $3,800 Mac IIsi. Despite artificially imposed technical limitations, they sell so well that Apple&rsquos margins fall, frightening investors.

Honorable Mention Apple Invests in ARM: Apple pays US$2.5 million for 43 percent of ARM, maker of the CPU in the Newton. By the end of the decade, Apple would sell these shares for $792 million, covering all Newton losses, and keeping the company afloat during its darkest days.

1991: First PowerBooks Ship

Recovering from the Mac Portable embarrassment, Apple does laptops right with the release of the PowerBook 100, 140, and 170, all fully-functioning Macs in attractive, lightweight designs. Apple becomes the standard bearer in the portable market.

Honorable Mention Apple Partners With IBM: Making amends with its old nemesis, Apple announces a major partnership with IBM to produce a multimedia engine, an operating system, and computers based upon Motorola&rsquos RISC-based processor, the PowerPC.

1992: Microsoft Releases Windows 3.1

After years of playing catch-up with the Macintosh&rsquos ease of use, Microsoft&rsquos Windows 3.1 is widely seen as good enough. Apple&rsquos 15 percent market share begins eroding even faster.

Honorable Mention Ive Joins Apple: 25-year-old Londoner Jonathan Ive joins Apple&rsquos Industrial Design Group to work on the MessagePad 110. Within six years, he&rsquoll rise to become the creative force behind the iMac, a product that arguably resuscitates Apple.

1993: Newton MessagePad Ships

The $699 MessagePad establishes the personal digital assistant (PDA) market, but its lousy handwriting recognition disappoints many, ending the tenure of Sculley, Newton&rsquos chief proponent.

Honorable Mention Apple&rsquos Microsoft Suit Dismissed: Apple loses all hope of estopping the Windows juggernaut when its copyright infringement lawsuit against Microsoft is finally dismissed.

1994: First Power Macs Ship

A decade after the 8MHz Mac 128K shipped, Apple makes a bold technological leap to a completely new architecture with PowerPC-based models starting at 60MHz, while maintaining backwards compatibility.

Honorable Mention First Mac License Granted: Desperate to boost market share, Apple finally agrees to allow third-party vendors to create legit Mac clones.

1995: Microsoft Releases Windows 95

Differences between the Mac&rsquos user interface and Windows are erased in the public&rsquos mind with Microsoft&rsquos $200-million launch of Windows 95.

Honorable Mention First Mac Clone Ships: Power Computing, the first Mac licensee, ships the first Mac clone. It&rsquos faster and cheaper than anything Apple offers.

1996: Next Purchase Announced

Newly-installed CEO Gilbert Amelio shocks Mac users by killing Copland operating system project in favor of buying Next Software from long-exiled Steve Jobs.

Honorable Mention Amelio Obtains Financing: Following a $740 million quarterly loss, Apple has only five week&rsquos cash on hand. Amelio pulls off miraculous debt issue, keeping the ailing company alive.

1997: Jobs Named Interim CEO

Officially brought on as an advisor following Next purchase, Jobs subtly orchestrates the removal of Amelio, then assumes the role of interim CEO.

Honorable Mention Apple Ships Mac OS 8: To placate the faithful as they wait for a next-generation operating system, Apple releases Mac OS 8.0 it features PowerPC-native Finder, contextual menus, Personal Web Sharing, and other new technologies.

1998: iMac Introduced

Dubbed &ldquothe Internet-age computer for the rest of us,&rdquo the original Bondi blue iMac announces to the world that Apple is still a force to be reckoned with. The $1,299 consumer computer becomes the fastest Mac model ever.

Honorable Mention Mac OS X Strategy Revealed: At the Worldwide Developers&rsquo Conference, Jobs tells developers that Mac OS 8.5 and Rhapsody are only stepping stones to Mac OS X, a truly advanced operating system that would maintain backwards compatibility.

1999: AirPort Debuts on iBook

Apple gives its portable line-up the iMac treatment, releasing the consumer-oriented iBook featuring an optional AirPort Card that helps kick off an industry-wide Wi-Fi craze.

Honorable Mention Mac OS 9 Ships: Mac OS 9 is the last major update to the &ldquoold&rdquo Mac operating system, setting the stage for OS X with features such as multiple users, Keychain, automatic updating, encryption, Internet File Sharing, and Network Browser.

2000: Jobs Becomes CEO

Finally confident that Apple&rsquos turnaround is no fluke, Jobs agrees to accept CEO role, splitting his time between Cupertino and Emeryville, where he&rsquos also CEO of Pixar.

Honorable Mention Power Mac G4 Cube Released: The Cube&rsquos cool industrial design receives a warm reception, but sales turn out to be disappointing.

2001: First iPod Ships

Nobody realizes it at the time, but the tiny $399 iPod with its 5GB hard drive capable of holding 1,000 MP3s will soon transform not only Apple, but also the entire music industry.

Honorable Mention Mac OS X Ships: After years of waiting, Mac users finally get memory protection, preemptive multi-tasking, symmetric multiprocessing, and more, but the initial release of Mac OS X isn&rsquot quite ready for the masses.

2002: Jaguar Unleashed

Mac OS X 10.2, code-named Jaguar, is ready for prime time, with many improved features, including Mail, iChat, Address Book, Inkwell, QuickTime 6 with MPEG-4, improved Universal Access, enhanced Finder, Sherlock 3, Quartz Extreme, and Rendezvous.

Honorable Mention Mac OS X-Only Booting Announced: Apple drives a nail into Mac OS 9 when it announces that starting January 2003 all new Macs will be boot into Mac OS X only, though users can still run older programs in Classic mode.

2003: iTunes Music Store Opens

Building on its iPod success, Apple opens the iTunes Music Store with over 200,000 tracks available for 99 cents each.

Honorable Mention Apple Delivers Year of the Laptop: Jobs unveils the world&rsquos first laptop with a 17-inch display, as well as a 12-inch PowerBook that&rsquos the smallest notebook Apple has ever made.

2004: iPod Gets Miniaturized

Reversing a trend towards iPods with increasing capacity, Apple introduces the iPod mini with a 4GB hard drive in a physically smaller aluminum body available in an assortment of colors.

Honorable Mention iMac is Flattened: The iMac G5 features a stunning new design that integrates all components into the flat panel display that&rsquos just two inches thick.

2005: Move to Intel Announced

After more than 20 years of Macs based upon Motorola processors, Apple announces that future Macs will use CPUs from Intel.

Honorable Mention Video Arrives in iPod: Hoping to do for video what it did for audio, Apple adds the ability to play movies on new iPods.

[ Owen W. Linzmayer is the San Francisco-based author of Apple Confidential 2.0: The Definitive History of the World&rsquos Most Colorful Company (No Starch Press, 2004). ]


Make COVID 19 Vaccine A Global Common Good See details and Pledge

Make COVID 19 Vaccine A Global Common Good | Pledge Now

113 World Leaders including 19 Nobel Laureates, 36 former Chief of State and Governments, Political Leaders, Artistes, International NGOs and Institutions have signed a call initiated by Yunus Centre to declare COVID-19 Vaccines as a global common good.

The unified appeal is urging action from governments, foundations, philanthropists and social businesses to come forward to produce and/or distribute the vaccines all over the world for free. We invite all social, political, and health entities to re-affirm our collective responsibility for the protection of ALL vulnerable persons without any discrimination whatsoever.

The COVID-19 pandemic is clearly exposing the strength and weaknesses of healthcare systems in every country and highlights the obstacles and inequities in gaining access to healthcare. The effectiveness of the upcoming vaccination campaign will depend on its universality.

The signatories are pleading to all world leaders including the Secretary-General of the United Nations, Director General of the World Health Organization, religious leaders, social and moral leaders, leaders of research laboratories and pharmaceutical companies and the media to join hands and ensure that in the case of a Covid-19 vaccine, we have a global consensus that it must be deployed as a global common good.


Bottom Note

Monaco is always buzzing and active throughout the year. Monaco loves sporting activities! In this article, we have tried to cover all of the renowned sporting events of Monaco. While attending sports events, you can visit various famous places like Monte-Carlo, Jardin Exotique, Palais du Prince, Musée Oceanographique, Cathédrale de Monaco, and Les Jardins Saint-Martin.

A special mention goes to the budding industry of online gambling. Monaco has witnessed a sudden upsurge in online casinos in the recent decade and attracted considerable gambling enthusiasts. You can also play casino online in your spare time.


Poglej si posnetek: TURISTIČKI ROTOR TURIZAM PLUS EMISIJA BR. 13 (Julij 2022).


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