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Arheologi na Švedskem so odkrili dva pokopa ladje Viking

Arheologi na Švedskem so odkrili dva pokopa ladje Viking


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Arheologi na Švedskem so napovedali odkritje dveh ladijskih pokopov, ki bi lahko dodali neprecenljive podatke v vikinško preteklost v državi. V državi skoraj petdeset let ni bilo najdenih pokopov ladij Viking, zdaj pa sta bila v enem osupljivem zamahu najdena dva!

Izjemno najdbo so naredili švedski arheologi, ki sodelujejo z Arkeologerno, ki po navedbah Daily Maila deluje v imenu švedskih zgodovinskih muzejev. Redko odkritje je bilo izvedeno v občini Gamal Uppsala.

Okostje moškega, pokopanega s konjem in psom, so našli na enem od pokopališč ladje Viking. ( Arkeologerna)

To je bilo nekoč eno najpomembnejših verskih in obrednih krajev v vsem svetu Vikingov in kjer so nekoč po krščanskih piscih norveškim bogovom darovali človeške žrtve. Nekoč je bil tu velik poganski tempelj, kasneje pa so kristjani na njegovem mestu zgradili cerkev.

Najdbe so bile najdene v bližini starega župnišča v Uppsali, kjer je bil član lokalnega krščanskega duhovščine, ki je poleg cerkve. Pred začetkom nove gradnje so arheologi preiskovali območje. Lani jeseni so tam odkrili nekaj arheološkega pomena. Strokovnjaki so se vrnili letos poleti in junija letos sta odkrila dva pokopa čolna.

Pokopi ladij Viking

Pokop čolna ali grob na čolnu je vključeval mrtve posameznike z visokim položajem, pokopane na ladji polne velikosti. Običajno so jih pokopali z veliko dragocenega grobnega blaga. Kot je poročal Newsweek, je del ekipe, ki je našla grobove, Anton Seiler. To pomeni, da so pokopi ladij zelo redki in v zgodovini države jih je bilo najdenih le deset, čeprav jih je bilo več najdenih v sosednji Norveški, najnovejši pa v bližini Osla.

  • Na Švedskem so odkrili več kot 80 lukenj iz bronaste dobe. Zakaj so se ljudje zbrali tam pred 3000 leti?
  • Norveški arheologi so našli svetišče vikinškega kralja, ki dela čudeže
  • Vikingi na Irskem: sledi bojevnikov, ki niso zakopani samo pod zemljo, so v DNK

Ena izmed pokopaliških ladij Vikinga ali grobov čolnov, najdenih na Švedskem. ( Arkeologerna)

Ta vrsta pokopa je povezana z dobo Vikingov (9 th do 11 th stoletje našega štetja) in tudi prej skrivnostna velandska kultura. Na podlagi analize nagrobnega blaga na eni od ladij so pokopi iz obdobja Vikingov. Eden od pogrebov čolnov je bil najden popoln in nemoten. Zaradi tega ima velik arheološki pomen. Drugi pokop je bil poškodovan pri gradnji vikarija pred mnogimi desetletji.

Zadnje počivališče vikinškega bojevnika?

V nedotaknjenem pokopu so preiskovalci našli okostje moškega, ki so ga postavili na krmo plovila. Odkritih je bilo tudi nekaj živalskih kosti, za katere je bilo predhodno ugotovljeno, da pripadajo konju in psu.

Arheologi delajo na okostju konja, najdenega na pokopališču ladje Viking. ( Arkeologerna)

Verjetno so bile te živali namerno pokopane s človekom, da bi ga spremljale na poti v posmrtno življenje. V tem grobu so našli tudi ščit, meč in sulico, ki nakazujejo, da je bil mrtev nekoč bojevnik.

Morda je bila v nepoškodovanem ali popolnem pokopu pokopana še ena oseba. Po navedbah Geek.com "… je bil v grobu najden tudi bogato okrašen glavnik, ki naj bi pripadal moškemu". To ni bilo nenavadno pri pokopih čolnov iz obdobja Vikingov. Moža sta bila po vsej verjetnosti povezana.

Na enem izmed pokopališč ladij Viking so našli ščit in glavnik. ( Arkeologerna)

Ali bo pokopališče ladje Viking prineslo nova spoznanja?

Od dejanskih čolnov je danes ostalo le malo, ker je njihov les skozi stoletja propadal. Arheologom je uspelo pridobiti le nekaj železnih zakovic in drobcev lesa. Na poškodovani ali manj nepoškodovani ladji niso našli človeških ostankov, kljub temu, da je bila verjetno "večja od obeh, dolga približno 7 čevljev", poroča Geek.com.

Strokovnjaki menijo, da bo nadaljnja študija pokopov ladij Viking prinesla vpogled v kulturo Vikingov. ( Arkeologerna)

Po navedbah The Local bodo "deli najdbe na ogled v muzeju Gamla Uppsala in Stockholmskem švedskem zgodovinskem muzeju". Ekipa arheologov nadaljuje delo na tem mestu do konca poletja. Na artefaktih in drugih najdbah bodo izvedeni znanstveni testi in upamo, da bodo prinesli nov vpogled v Vikinge.


Pogrebne ladje Vikingov odkrite v "senzacionalni" arheološki najdbi

Arheologi so v švedski občini Uppsala odkrili dve pokopališki ladji Viking.

Tovrstna najdba je v državi redka. Po mnenju raziskovalcev je bilo v skandinavskem narodu doslej izvedenih le približno deset tovrstnih odkritij.

"To je edinstveno izkopavanje, zadnja pogrebna ladja je bila pregledana pred 50 leti," je za The Local povedal arheolog Anton Seiler, ki sodeluje z več švedskimi muzeji.

Dve posodi & mdashwhich Saeiler opisuje kot "senzacionalno" najdbo & mdash, ki sta jo izkopali v bližini vikalije v vasi Gamla Uppsala lansko jesen.

Tovrstni pokopi, kjer so posameznike nameščali v čolne polne velikosti, niso bili na voljo običajnemu prebivalstvu. Menijo, da so rezervirani za posameznike z visokim statusom.

"Gre za majhno skupino ljudi, ki so bili pokopani na ta način," je dejal Seiler. "Lahko sumite, da so bili ugledni ljudje v takratni družbi, saj so pokopavalne ladje na splošno zelo redke."

Arheologi so našli le ostanke enega posameznika. Vendar, kot je običajno pri drugih pokopaliških ladjah v regiji, je bila ta oseba počivana poleg več predmetov, vključno z orožjem, ščiti in glavnikom, ki so jih morda dali v posmrtno življenje. Ekipa je našla tudi ostanke živali, vključno s konjem in psom.

Čeprav ostaja nejasno, kdaj je bil to pokop, večina nagrobnih ladij tega tipa izvira iz vikinške dobe (793 in ndash 1066 n.št.) skandinavske zgodovine ali obdobja tik pred njo, ki je znano kot Vendelsko obdobje (500-793 n. Š.)

V zadnjih mesecih so raziskovalci odkrili še eno ladjo, povezano s pokopom v skandinavski regiji.

Arheologi z Norveškega inštituta za raziskave kulturne dediščine (NIKU) so v napredni novi radarski tehniki, ki prodira v zemljo, v okrožju Oslashstfold na jugovzhodu Norveške odkrili ogromno 66-metrsko vikinško ladjo.

Radarski podatki, ki jih je zbrala ekipa NIKU, so pokazali, da je bila ladja nekoč vgrajena v velik grob, ki ga je kmetijska dejavnost sčasoma postopoma uničila. Presenetljivo je bilo videti, da je ladja preživela popolnoma nedotaknjena, kljub temu, da je le 20 centimetrov pod zgornjo plastjo tal.

"Ta najdba je neverjetno vznemirljiva, saj poznamo le tri dobro ohranjene najdbe vikinških ladij na Norveškem, ki so bile [vse] že dolgo izkopane," je dejal Knut Paasche, vodja oddelka za digitalno arheologijo pri NIKU in strokovnjak za vikinške ladje. v izjavi.


Na Švedskem odkrit 'senzacionalni' pokop ladje Viking-Age (fotografija)

Enega izmed mož, najverjetneje visokega bojevnika ali celo vladarja, so pokopali s konjem in psom. Kot je razvidno iz njegove lobanje, je umrl zaradi grozljive rane na glavi.

V bližini vasi Gamla Uppsala, ki je eno najpomembnejših starodavnih vikinških in poganskih najdišč na Švedskem, so odkrili dve nepogoreli pokopališki ladji iz obdobja Vikingov.

& ldquoTo je edinstveno izkopavanje, zadnja pokopališka ladja je bila pregledana pred 50 leti & rdquo, je za nacionalno radiotelevizijo povedal zmagoslavni Anton Seiler, arheolog v Nacionalnih zgodovinskih muzejih (SHMM) SVT, ki je najdbo opisal kot & ldquosensation & rdquo.

Razlog za njegovo veselje je, da je nepoškodovanih ladijskih pokopov malo. Po mnenju raziskovalcev je bilo v skandinavskem narodu doslej izvedenih le približno deset tovrstnih odkritij. Zadnje odkritje je bilo izvedeno leta 1973, pred skoraj pol stoletja.

Pokopi na ladjah, kjer so ljudje počivali v plovilih polne velikosti, so bili na voljo samo za visoke pripadnike bojevniške aristokracije, ne pa za navadne ljudi.

& ldquoNa ta način so pokopali samo edinstvene ljudi & rdquo, je pojasnil Seiler. & ldquo Lahko sumite, da so bili najbolj ugledni člani sodobne družbe, saj so pokopavalne ladje na splošno zelo redke & rdquo.

Moškega v enem od grobov so spočili z množico predmetov, kot so orožje, ščiti in glavnik. Vendar pa so bili najdeni tudi ostanki živali, vključno s konjem in psom. Živali, ki očitno pripadajo človeku, so bile postavljene na čelo čolna, lastnik pa na krmi.

Na videz nepoškodovano telo pa se je izkazalo, da ima v glavi veliko luknjo. Šok arheologov je pomešal z navdušenjem.

Ni som med sp & aumlnning f & oumlljt nyheterna om de nya b & aringtgravarna in Gamla Uppsala har s & aring klart inte missat SVT: s fina reportaža fr & aringn utgr & aumlvningen. https://t.co/mkXKpXE8kl

& mdash Gamla Uppsala Museum (@Gamla_Uppsala) 10. julij 2019 г.

& LdquoOn je bil ubit & rdquo, je predlagala osteologinja Caroline Arcini. & ldquo Prepričan sem, da je rano povzročil meč. Preseneča pa me, da ne najdemo manjkajočega lobanje & rdquo.

Ena od hipotez je, da je moški čudežno preživel grozljivo rano. Vendar pa je po Arciniju smrt najverjetneje rezultat.

Trenutno arheološka ekipa v polnem teku analizira in interpretira najdbe, da bi osvetlila več. & ldquo Če se nadaljuje & rdquo, je obljubil Arcini.

Čeprav natančna starost grobov ostaja nejasna, večina pokopaliških ladij tega tipa izvira iz vikinške dobe (793 in ndash1066 n. Št.) Ali iz obdobja tik pred njo, znanega kot Vendelsko obdobje (500-793 n. Št.).

V začetku letošnjega leta je bilo v Skandinaviji izvedeno še eno veliko odkritje, povezano z zgodnjo nordijsko pokopavalno prakso, ko so arheologi z Norveškega inštituta za raziskave kulturne dediščine (NIKU) našli veliko vikinško ladjo z napredno novo radarsko tehniko, ki prodira v zemljo, v okrožju Oslashstfold, jugovzhodni Norveški.

Že v 4. stoletju in naprej je bila Gamla Uppsala ključno versko, gospodarsko in politično središče norveškega sveta. Najstarejši skandinavski pisni viri ga imenujejo rezidenca slavne dinastije Yngling. Stoletja je služil kot kraj za vse Švede (približno nordijski generalni zbor). Ko je Švedska postala krščanski narod, je Gamla Uppsala postala švedska nadškofija.

#GamlaUppsala, starodavna Uppsala, le nekaj kilometrov severno od središča Uppsale. Tu so grobovi starodavnih kraljev, ostanki iz obdobja Vikingov in velike stenske poslikave v srednji kamniti cerkvi #GamlaUppsalaKyrka. #HistoricalSweden pic.twitter.com/i9bMrudkTS

& mdash Wenbing Wang (@WenbingWang) 3. julija 2019 г.

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Raziskovalci, ki so izkopavali pokop norveške ladje Viking, so našli ostanke elitne družbe

Letos poleti so se norveški arheologi lotili ambicioznega, zapletenega podviga, ki je bil v državi nazadnje poskušan pred več kot 100 leti: popolno izkopavanje pokopa ladje Viking.

Maja je norveška vlada namenila približno 1,5 milijona USD za izkopavanje ladje Gjellestad in časovno občutljiv projekt, saj leseno konstrukcijo plovila ogrožajo hudi glivični napadi. Potem ko so arheologi postavili trgovino v velikem šotoru na kmetiji na jugovzhodu Norveške, so začeli z mukotrpno počasnim postopkom kopanja, je avgusta za norveško televizijo NRK poročal Christian Nicolai Bj ørke.

Zdaj, ko se bodo izkopavanja nadaljevala do decembra, nove raziskave še naprej osvetljujejo zgodovino pokopališča. V študiji, objavljeni ta teden v reviji Antika, so raziskovalci z norveškega inštituta za raziskave kulturne dediščine (NIKU) razkrili, da vikinška ladja ni pokopana sama. V skladu z izjavo NIKU je radar, ki prodira v zemljo (GPR), identificiral slavnostno dvorano, kmečko hišo, tempelj in sledi 13 dodatnih bližnjih grobnic ter vse najdbe, ki kažejo, da je mesto nekoč služilo kot ključni prostor za zbiranje, pogostitev, vladanje in pokop.

Raziskovalci, ki so uporabljali GPR, so jeseni 2018. odkrili 60 čevljev dolgo plovilo, skrito le 20 centimetrov pod površino kmetijskega polja. Pokop ladje je verjetno služil kot zadnje počivališče za močnega vikinškega kralja ali kraljico, ki je umrla več kot je pred tisoč leti poročal Andrew Curry za National Geographic ob uri.

Zemljevid rezultatov skeniranja GPR v bližini Jell Mound razkriva številne različne strukture, ki obkrožajo pokop ladje. (NIKU) Raziskovalci so jeseni 2018. z radarjem, ki prodira v zemljo, raziskovali polja v bližini Jell Mound na jugovzhodu Norveške. (NIKU) V študiji so raziskovalci pokazali, kako so se v regiji Gjellestad razvila pokopališča iz vikinških časov. Ko je bila vikinška ladja pokopana v bližini Jell Mound okoli leta 800 n.št., je bila gladina morja precej višja, kar pomeni, da so bila grobišča veliko bližje morski obali, kot se zdijo danes. (NIKU)

Najnovejše najdbe ekipe kažejo, da je bilo mesto Gjellestad aktivno v ključnem obdobju skandinavske zgodovine: med političnim nemirom po razpadu rimskega cesarstva v petem stoletju našega štetja in vzponom Vikingov na Norveškem v začetku devetega stoletja .

Arheologi so zakopano plovilo našli pod ravnimi kmetijskimi zemljišči v bližini Jell Mound, druge največje zemeljske pogrebne gomile v Skandinaviji. Ladja Viking je bila pokopana okoli leta 800 AD, medtem ko je Jell Mound iz začetka pozne nordijske železne dobe (približno 550 do 1050 AD).

“ Predlagamo, da najdišče izvira iz navadnega pokopališča, ki je bilo pozneje spremenjeno v pokopališče visokega statusa, ki ga predstavljajo monumentalni nagrobniki, dvorane in pokop ladij, ” pišejo raziskovalci v študiji.

V izjavi vodilni avtor Lars Gustavsen dodaja, “ Zdi se, da je mesto pripadalo vrhunskemu vrhu železnodobne elite na tem območju in bi bilo osrednja točka za izvajanje političnega in družbenega nadzora v regiji . ”

Nekateri na novo odkriti grobovi, podrobno opisani v študiji NIKU, merijo 98 čevljev, poroča Mindy Weisberger za Živa znanost. Arheologi so z GPR identificirali dva velika okrogla gomila, sedem manjših gomil, ki se nahajajo nekoliko severneje, in štiri pravokotne “ naselje. ” Ena največjih zgradb spominja na druge znane vikinške gostilne.

Obsežna mreža pokopališč in mestnih zbiralnic v Gjellestadu skupaj kaže, da je bogata družba v regiji prebivala več generacij. Še več, graditelji ladijskih pokopov iz obdobja Vikingov so si želeli potrditi svoj politični vpliv z ustvarjanjem ladijskega pokopa na vrhu stoletnih gomil — “končnega izraza statusa, bogastva in povezanosti v Skandinaviji v železni dobi, &# 8221 glede na papir.

Kot pravi Gustavsen Živa znanost, “ Verjamemo, da je bila vključitev ladijskega pokopa na verjetno že obstoječe pokopališče —in dolgoživo — nagrobnik poskus povezovanja z že obstoječo strukturo moči. ”

Delno nedotaknjen pokop ladje Gjellestad je eden redkih, za katere je znano, da so preživeli do danes. Zgodovinski zapisi kažejo, da so preiskovalci izkopali del ladje v 19. stoletju, pravi Gustavsen za CNN Harry Clarke-Ezzidio. Takrat domačini, ki se niso zavedali pomena plovila, so požgali številne njegove lesene ostanke, za seboj pa so pustili le del lesenega ogrodja ladje.

Sredi 20. stoletja so kmetje nenamerno namestili drenažno cev na vrh ladje. Cev je puščala zrak v leseno konstrukcijo in omogočala razmnoževanje uničujočih gliv, je septembra poročal Bj ørke za NRK. Zdaj vlada hiti končati izkopavanja, preden lahko ladja še naprej gnije.

“To je edinstvena priložnost, škoda, da je od nje ostalo tako malo, ” Gustavsen pove za CNN. “ Kaj moramo storiti je, da uporabljamo sodobno tehnologijo in jo uporabljamo zelo previdno. S tem upamo, da bomo lahko s te ladje nekaj posneli in povedali o vrsti ladje. ”


Švedski arheologi najdejo dve pokopališki ladji Viking s človeškimi ostanki

Arheologi so v bližini vasi Gamla Uppsala na Švedskem našli dve pokopališki ladji Viking. To "senzacionalno" odkritje je bilo po nesreči odkrito, ko so bili delavci na lokaciji, ki so se pripravljali na gradnjo prizidka pri cerkvi. Odkritje pogrebnih ladij je precej redko, saj je bilo v državi prej najdenih le deset drugih.

Čolni v polni velikosti so bili uporabljeni kot pogrebne ladje za pomembne ljudi z visokimi socialnimi standardi in so bili občasno pokopani z darili in številnimi drugimi predmeti. Ena od dveh pogrebnih ladij je bila še vedno nedotaknjena, na krmi čolna pa je bil človek, ki je bil pokopan s svojim psom in konjem. Odkrili so tudi meč, ščit, sulico, okrašen glavnik in železno opremo (najverjetneje za konjsko opremo).

Pogrebna ladja Viking (ne odkrita na Švedskem)

Zdi se, da je druga ladja, ki je bila pri gradnji kleti vikarija večinoma poškodovana, večja, saj meri približno 23 čevljev. Poleg tega so odkrili čolnske zakovice iz železa in lesa iz desk.

Pogrebne ladje so večinoma uporabljali v času Vikingov (od 800 do 1050 n. Št.), Čeprav je bila pogostejša praksa, da so pokojnika kremirali. Ladje so uporabljali za ljudi, ki so imeli veliko spoštovanja in visokega statusa. Anton Seiler, ki je arheolog pri Arkeologerni, je dejal: »Gre za majhno skupino ljudi, ki so bili tako pokopani. Lahko sumite, da so bili ugledni ljudje v takratni družbi, saj so pokopavalne ladje na splošno zelo redke. " Dodal je: "To je edinstveno izkopavanje, zadnja pogrebna ladja je bila pregledana pred 50 leti."

Še ena pokopališka ladja Viking (ne odkrita na Švedskem)

Nekaj ​​odkritega bodo razstavili v muzeju Gamla Uppsala in Stockholmskem švedskem zgodovinskem muzeju. Tu si lahko ogledate slike, ki so jih arheologi odkrili na Švedskem.

Marca letos je bila približno 100 km južno od Osla na Norveškem odkrita druga pokopališka ladja Viking. Arheologi z Norveškega inštituta za raziskave kulturne dediščine so z naprednim radarjem, ki prodira v zemljo, našli 66 metrov dolgo ladjo. Opazili so tudi okroglo obliko vdolbine okoli posode, ki bi lahko kazala, da je bil nekoč tam nasip, preden so ga odstranili.


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Pokopi čolnov Salme Viking. ali, Salme. 'Prvi Vikingi ':

Ladje Salme so dve klinker zgrajeni [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clinker_(boat_building)] ladji skandinavskega izvora, odkriti v letih 2008 in 2010 v bližini Salme [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Vas Salme_Parish] na otoku Saaremaa [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saaremaa], Estonija [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Estonia]. Obe ladji sta bili tu v času nordijske železne dobe okrog 700–750 n. Št. Uporabljeni za pokopavanje ladij [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron_Age_Scandinavia] in sta vsebovali posmrtne ostanke več kot 40 bojevnikov, ubitih v bitki, pa tudi številne orožja in drugih artefaktov. }
[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salme_ships]

Dve izjemni ladji lahko pokažeta, da je vikinška nevihta nastajala že dolgo pred napadom na Anglijo in celino

Po mnenju zgodovinarjev se je doba vikingov začela 8. junija 793 n.št. na otoškem samostanu ob obali severne Anglije. Sodobna kronika je zabeležila trenutek s kratkim vnosom: "Poškodbe poganskih ljudi so nesrečno uničile Božjo cerkev v Lindisfarnu z ropanjem in pokolom." "Poganski možje" so bili Vikingi, ostri bojevniki, ki so odpluli iz Skandinavije in se na plenu v Evropi in širše borili z elegantnimi, hitro jadralnimi ladjami. V stoletjih, ki so sledila, so jih plovila Vikingov odnesla globoko v Rusijo in celo na jug do Carigrada, Sicilije in morda celo severne Afrike. Organizirali so flotile, ki so sposobne prenašati bojevnike na velike razdalje, in z bliskovitimi napadi terorizirali angleško, irsko in francosko obalo. Raziskovalna potovanja proti zahodu so jih popeljala vse do Severne Amerike.

Eksplozija Vikingov po Evropi in Aziji ter v Ameriko je bila posledica prave kombinacije orodij, tehnologije, pustolovščine in grozljivosti. Postali so znani kot neustavljiva sila, ki lahko napada in trguje na štirih celinah, vendar je naše razumevanje tega, kar je pripeljalo do junijskega dne na Lindisfarnu, presenetljivo tresoče. Nedavno odkritje na oddaljenem baltskem otoku to začenja spreminjati. Dve ladji, napolnjeni z umorjenimi bojevniki, odkritimi na estonskem otoku Saaremaa, bi lahko arheologom in zgodovinarjem pomagali razumeti, kako so se vojne ladje Vikingov razvile iz kratkih, veslanih plovil do jadrnic, od koder so prišli prvi bojevniki, in kako se je razvila njihova bojna taktika. "Vsi se strinjamo, da so ti pokopi skandinavskega izvora," pravi Marge Konsa, arheologinja z univerze v Tartuju. "To je naš prvi okus iz obdobja Vikingov."

Med njima sta v čolnih ostanki več deset moških. Sedem jih je naključno ležalo v manjšem od dveh čolnov, ki smo ga našli prvi. V bližini, v večjem plovilu, je bilo 33 moških pokopanih v ličnem kupu, zloženem kot les, skupaj z orožjem in živalmi. Zdi se, da je to na hitro urejeno množično grobnico, zadnje počivališče skandinavskih bojevnikov, umorjenih v nesrečnem napadu na Saaremao, ali pa so jih nasprotniki morda položili na oddaljeno plažo. Arheologi menijo, da so moški umrli v bitki med 700 in 750, morda skoraj celo stoletje pred uradno začetkom Vikinške dobe. To obdobje so znanstveniki imenovali Vendelsko obdobje, prehodni čas, ki prej ni bil znan po daljnosežnih potovanjih-ali celo po jadrih. Oba čolna pričata o velikih tehnoloških preobrazbah v Baltiku v osmem stoletju.

Leta 2008 so delavci, ki so kopali jarke za električne kable v majhnem otoškem mestu Salme, odkrili človeške kosti in različne čudne predmete, ki so jih brezskrbno naložili ob jarek. Lokalne oblasti so sprva domnevale, da so posmrtni ostanki vojaka iz druge svetovne vojne, ki ni imel sreče, dokler ni prišla Konsa in med artefakti prepoznala konico kopja in izrezljane koščke, kar je jasen znak, da so posmrtni ostanki pripadali nekomu iz precej starejšega spopada. Konsa je skupaj z majhno ekipo kopala nekoliko globlje in kmalu našla sledi trupa čolna. Skoraj ves les plovila je zgnilo, za seboj pa so ostala le razbarvanja v tleh. Toda 275 železnih zakovic, ki držijo čoln skupaj, je ostalo na mestu, kar je raziskovalcem omogočilo, da rekonstruirajo obrise 38-metrskega plovila.

Kmalu je Konsa spoznala, da je našla nekaj edinstvenega za ta kraj in obdobje. "To ni ribiški čoln, ampak vojni čoln," pravi Konsa. "Je precej hiter in ozek, pa tudi precej lahek." Na podlagi radiokarbonskega datiranja drobnih drobcev čolna, Konsa ocenjuje, da je bilo plovilo zgrajeno med 650 in 700, morda pa je bilo popravljeno in popravljeno desetletja, preden je končalo svojo pot. Ni imel jadra in bi ga za kratek odsek veslali po baltski obali ali med otoki, da bi potovali od Skandinavije do lovišč pomorščakov vzhodneje. Konsa je od kosti, najdenih v čolnu, sestavila ostanke sedmih moških, starih med 18 in 45 let. Med ostanki je našla tudi nože, bruse in kostni glavnik. Plovilo je bila izjemna najdba - prvi tak čoln, ki so ga kdaj našli v Estoniji, skupaj s truplami njegove ubite posadke. }
[https://www.archaeology.org/issues/95-1307/features/941-vikings-saaremaa-estonia-salme-vendel-oseberg]

{ Starost Vikingov se je začela prej, kot je bilo predvideno - Odkritje pokopališč ladje Salme, Estonija:

Arheologi v Estoniji so naredili senzacionalno odkritje: množično grobnico, v kateri sta dva pogreba vikinških ladij. Zgodovino o Vikingu je treba znova napisati. Ladje Salme sta dve ladji, izdelani iz klinkerja iz obdobja pred vikingi, ki sta bili odkriti leta 2008 v bližini vasi Salme v Saaremai v Estoniji. Obe ladji sta bili uporabljeni za pokop ladij okoli 750. leta n. Št. In sta vsebovali posmrtne ostanke več kot 40 bojevnikov, ki so bili ubiti v bitki, ter številno orožje in druge artefakte.

Ladje so odkrili leta 2008 med odstranjevanjem zemlje za gradnjo infrastrukture. Na mestu od leta 2008. deluje arheološka odprava. Možno je, da bo med prihodnjimi izkopavanji odkrita vsaj še ena ladja. Ladje so bile v bližini starodavne obale, približno 1,5 m nad gladino vode. Lokacija je oddaljena 230 m od sodobne obale in 4 metre nad sodobnim vodostajem.

Ladje Obe ladji Salme sta izdelani iz klinkerja. Ena od ladij je dolga 11,5 m in široka 2 m, druga več kot 17 m dolga in 3 m široka. Človeški ostanki Na obeh ladjah so odkrili skeletne ostanke najmanj 42 posameznikov. Večina jih je pripadala moškim 30-40 let, ki so bili ubiti v bitki. Manjša ladja je vsebovala skeletne ostanke 7 posameznikov. V veliki ladji je bilo v štirih plasteh pokopanih najmanj 36 posameznikov. Več o tem odkritju preberite v Wikipediji.

Veliko odkritje pomeni, da se je vikinška doba začela prej in verjela, zgodovino pa je treba znova napisati.

{Izotopsko preverjanje pogrebov ladijskih ladij Salme v predvikingški dobi v Estoniji:

Pokopi na ladjah so dobro znana arheologija skandinavske dobe vikingov, vendar je odkritje 41 posameznikov, pokopanih na dveh ladjah v Estoniji, iz obdobja pred vikingov in je prvo te vrste v Evropi. Obe posadki sta nasilni konec doživeli okoli 750. leta našega štetja in bili pokopani z različnim bogato okrašenim orožjem, orodjem, igralnimi kosi in živalskimi kostmi. Bogato grobno blago nakazuje, da je bila to diplomatska delegacija, zaščitena s kohorto elitnih bojevnikov. Oboroženi so bili s skandinavskimi meči, po možnosti iz regije Stockholm-M¨ alaren, analiza stabilnih izotopov pa je v skladu s tem verjetno domovino posadke. }
[http://www.academia.edu/27175469/Isotopic_provenancing_of_the_Salme_ship_burials_in_Pre-Viking_Age_Estonia]

{Ostanki čolna iz salme - edinstvena arheozološka najdba:

V severni Evropi so bili pokopi čolnov pogosti tako na zahodni kot na vzhodni obali Finske, v različnih regijah Švedske, na obali Norveške, na otokih Åland, na danskih otokih in na Jutlandiji, pa tudi na Islandiji, v Veliki Britaniji in na južni obali Bretanje. V času Vikingov se je ta oblika pokopa še bolj razširila in znano je, da so pokopi čolnov potekali tudi zunaj Skandinavije.

Dokler leta 2008 niso našli prvega čolna Salme, v Estoniji niso našli sledi pogrebov čolnov. Prvi čoln Salme sega v konec 7. - v začetek 8. stoletja, in ker v Estoniji prej takšnega materiala niso našli, je edine vzporednice v arheozoološkem materialu mogoče najti v podobnih ugotovitvah iz sosednjih držav. držav.

Prvi čoln Salme vsebuje veliko količino živalskih kosti: več kot 700 razločnih kostnih fragmentov. Po vrstah čoln vsebuje goveje kosti (skupaj 328), kosti ovac, koz in prašičev (skupno število ovčjih in kozjih kosti znaša 326), pa tudi kosti severnega kozolca in evroazijskega vrabca . The animals were placed into the boat in bigger or smaller pieces, and not as a whole.

From nearly all the Vendel era and Viking Age boat burials in Sweden, horse and dog bones have always been found in the boats. The first Salme boats completely lacks both – and it is the dog bones that usually form a very regular element in the boat burials’ findings. This is also one of the main differences that separates the boat complex found in Salme from all the other boat burials researched in everywhere else. In addition, it is also quite surprising that the remains found in Estonia nearly don’t contain any bones from the head area (except for a skull of a billy and a fang of a sow).

Although there have been many findings from the Vendel and Viking era in the Scandinavian countries, the Salme boat burial is not just a new dot on the distribution map, but a completely unique finding that stands out both by the number of people laid to rest in those boats and by the unique content of the boats in the general.

In the autumn of 2008, more objects and bones were found a couple of dozens of meters away. During the excavation of 2010, another vessel was found in the said spot – a vessel significantly bigger than the first Salme boat, and also filled with human bones, objects and animal bones. The second Salme boat has so far revealed the bones of at least two dogs, but no horse bones as yet.

Both of the excavations were undertaken by a joint team of the University of Tallinn and the University of Tartu and were follow by further investigations at Salme in 2011 and 2012. }
[http://researchinestonia.eu/2014/02/salme-boat-remains-a-unique-arheozoological-finding/]

In 2008, workmen digging trenches for electrical cables in the Estonian island town of Salme uncovered human bones and a variety of objects that they piled next to their trench.

At first the bones were thought to be from a soldier killed in World War II, but archaeologists realized that the objects dated to the Viking period.

A small team of archaeologists working under Marge Konsa, an archaeologist at the University of Tartu, started excavating and soon found the hull of a ship. . Nearly all of the ship's timber had rotted away, leaving behind only discolorations in the soil. But 275 of the iron rivets remained in place, allowing the archaeologists to reconstruct the outlines of the 38-foot-long craft.

Eventually, two ships filled with the bodies of warriors were uncovered. These are unusual in that no ship burials have been found this far east, and they differ from the normal ship burials in the fact that they contain so many bodies.

In fact, the burials appear to have been a rushed job with just the bodies being covered with sand.

"It is an amazing find," says John Ljungkvist, an expert in Iron Age burials at Uppsala University in Sweden. "It seems like a post-battlefield burial, but carries a lot of elements of a boat burial. They don't have the time or the logistics to do a regular boat burial, and instead have to make a mass grave."

It appears that the ships were then abandoned on the beach. Peets and Konsa think a heavy fall or winter storm might have washed up enough sand and gravel to partially fill in and cover the crafts.

Over time, the coastline receded, leaving the boat grave c. 200 metres from the beach and c. 4 metres above the waterline. }
[http://viking.archeurope.info/index.php?page=salme-ship-burials]

{Site of the ancient Salme ship:

In 2008, two wrecks of ancient ships were discovered in the ground in Salme rural municipality which changed the course of naval history. This is the oldest ship wreck found in Estonia that dates back to the 8th century. The ship was discovered with the skeletal remains of seven people, two swords, a couple of spear heads, about ten knives, gaming pieces and some dice.

According to archaeologists, this find is unique in the entire Europe because never before has anyone discovered a so-called warrior burial dating from that period and containing so many fallen warriors.

The ancient ships were covered with soil after research was completed. Today, a row of concrete benches indicating the size of the ships and an information board stand at the site. }
[https://www.visitestonia.com/en/site-of-the-ancient-salme-ship]

"Estonia: Salme Ship Burials"

Revealing a grim cargo of elite Viking warriors

Warriors cut down in battle on the Estonian island of Saaremaa were buried aboard their ship – the earliest known Viking vessel to sail across the Baltic Sea. Nearby is a smaller boat, its slain sitting eerily upright. Who are these dead men? Jüri Peets reveals his discovery of a mysterious double Viking ship burial.

Bone and ancient artefacts began to appear almost as soon as workmen cut into the earth. They were laying an electric cable for a cycle path through the tiny village of Salme on the island of Saaremaa in Estonia. Work stopped immediately, and the archaeologists were called in.

That was in 2008. By the time excavations were complete, in 2012, they had revealed a most extraordinary discovery: two Viking boat burials, within 30m (98ft) of each other, and both dating to about AD 750, the very beginning of the Viking period.

The larger of the vessels is the first known example of a sailing ship to cross the Baltic Sea. Both are about 100 years older than the Oseberg boat in Norway – the earliest example of a Viking boat to be found in the region. And both bore a grim cargo: the remains of several men killed in battle. Alongside the dead were the possessions they had carried with them in life: their weapons, gaming pieces, knives, whetstones, and combs.

None of the artefacts recovered at Salme come from this region: they belonged to a style associated with Scandinavian settlements across the Baltic Sea. These men, then, were strangers to these shores.

Finding the first burial
This smaller vessel was the first to be discovered. When the archaeologists, led by Jüri Peets of Tallinn University, began excavation at Salme, they recovered fragments of bent swords, boat rivets, and two antler dice from soil disturbed by the workmen digging the cable trench.

As the archaeologists continued to sift through the soil, they found more fragments of weapons, human and animal bones, and a total of 75 gaming pieces turned from whale bone or made from bovine femur-heads. Five of these gaming pieces are decorated with engraved ornamentation.

The style of weapon fragments suggests they belong to the Vendel Period or the beginning of the Viking Age, about AD 600-800. They had been deliberately damaged by bending, hacking, and breaking – a common practice during this period – and showed evidence of having been in a fire. Subsequent carbon-14 analyses of the human and animal bones confirmed a date of about AD 750, the late Pre-Viking Period.

The cable trench had cut through the stern of the boat – Salme I – but a section of the prow was still evident. Most of the wood had rotted away. However, the archaeologists were able to trace the lower section of the boat’s original contours by the three rows of rivets that remained.

The boat, therefore, was clinker-built – that is, the hull was formed by overlapping planks secured by rivets. It was about 11.5m (38ft) long with a maximum width of about 2m (6ft 6in). Its size and shape suggest it would have been a 12-oar rowing vessel. The rivets are only about 3-4cm (1-1.5in) long, which means the planks would have been very thin. So, Salme I was light, fast, and easy to manoeuvre: almost certainly a military ship.

The skeletal remains of seven individuals were recovered. All seven are male, and all are of impressive stature. Three of the men were more than 30 years old when they died, the others were under 30 years of age. Examination of the osteological and dental evidence showed that this crew enjoyed good health – and only one of them suffered tooth decay.

The prow of the boat points to the north-east, and most of the human remains were found to the middle and stern. Because part of the boat was destroyed by the cable trench, it is difficult to ascertain exactly how or where they were positioned. However, no traces of human or other remains associated with the boat were found outside the hull’s contours in areas not affected by the trench disturbance, suggesting all seven had been buried within it. Strangely, the undamaged articulated skeletal remains indicated that rather than being laid flat, the men were buried in a sitting position – perhaps at what would have been their work-stations during life.

The animal bones recovered showed butchery marks. Perhaps they were part of a funerary feast, or supplies the crew had brought along for themselves. Interestingly, several decapitated goshawks and a sparrowhawk were also found. These birds of prey would have been used for hunting fresh food for the crew as they travelled along the shoreline.

What is absent can be as significant as what is present: usually horse and dog bones are included in Viking boat burials as prestige possessions of the deceased, yet none were recovered from Salme I. These, men were buried far from home, with only the possessions they carried aboard ship with them during their lifetime.

Finding the second ship
In 2010, the team of archaeologists extended their search. The new area took in the yard that belonged to a farm, demolished by a destroyer battalion of the Red Army in the autumn of 1941. Almost immediately, pieces belonging to two sword hilts were uncovered, along with a scattering of boat rivets and then more finds.

Lying about 15-20cm (6-8in) below the surface, were the contours of a second Vendel-era ship. Like Salme I, it pointed in a north-east/south-west direction. The size of the rivets and the distance between the board contours – about 3.20m (10ft) – indicated immediately that this vessel was considerably larger than the first. The ditch cut for the electrical cable crossed the excavation trench but this, rather fortuitously, exposed an important clue: the dark, rotted outline of the ship’s keel beneath the hull. Salme II, then, was a sailing ship.

This ship, Salme II, also carried crew: two well-preserved human skeletons lay on the western side of the hull. Beside them were two shield bosses, several sword fragments, and a complete skeleton of a dog that had been slashed in two.

These individuals had met with a violent end. The humerus of one had been chopped through in three places the other had two injuries made to the front of his skull by either a sword or an axe.

As excavation continued, it became clear that there were many more skeletons here. This was, in effect, a closely packed multi-layered mass grave: a staggering 33 individuals were eventually revealed, packed four deep. The human remains and grave goods were located in several layers in a very small area in the middle of the boat. As a result, it was often difficult to determine which of the find assemblages belonged to which skeletons. This work continues in the laboratory, and the final results will have to wait until further extensive analysis of the finds is completed.

A large calibre shell or bomb, almost certainly courtesy of the Red Army on their return in 1944, had slightly damaged the hull of the boat. But as the crater had filled up again, some bones, boat rivets and other artefacts had fallen into it. Among these finds were four gaming pieces, one made from walrus tusk, as well as fragments of two single-edged swords and a broken double-edged sword. The double-edged sword was, rather curiously, discovered in an upright position directly beneath the yellow-mantled cable.

The dead on Salme II were buried in four layers: those in the bottom layer had been arranged between the ribs of the ship, some facing south-east, some north-west. It appears, therefore, that the orientation of the ship, along the north-east/south-west axis – which, in summer, follows the line of the Milky Way, or ‘Souls’ Way’ – was of more importance symbolically than the orientation of the dead. Most Scandinavian ship burials lie more or less along this axis.

The largest group of finds from Salme II – aside from rivets, of which there were about 1,000 – are the gaming pieces. Two were made from walrus tusk, and 326 from whale bone. Five or six dice, of different materials, were also recovered.

Most of the gaming pieces are similar in shape, material, and size to those found in the first burial. However, a set of 11, found around the skull of Skeleton XIV on Salme II, are considerably smaller than the rest. Also, while the gaming ‘king’ from Salme I was larger than other pieces and was covered with intricate plaited decoration, the ‘king’ from this assemblage simply had an iron tack on top.

A larger ‘king’ piece was found in the jaw region of Skeleton XIV, as if deliberately placed in the dead man’s mouth. Was this a symbolic act denoting this person’s higher status? Certainly, this individual was richly furnished with grave goods that included fragments of a double-edged sword with a ringed hilt of gilt bronze. Furthermore, he was positioned along the central axis of the boat.


Two Viking Age ship burials discovered in Sweden

The two boat burials were found during an excavation at the vicarage in Gamla Uppsala last autumn. A medieval cellar and a well were excavated and then one of the boats was observed beneath the more modern structures. The two boat burials have been excavated during the last month and the results are sensational. “This is a unique excavation, the last burial ship here was excavated 50 years ago,” says archaeologist Anton Seiler.

A ship burial was a specific funeral practice in which the dead person was placed in a ship or boat often along with rich gifts like jewellery or sets of weapons and other objects. This kind of grave typically dates back to the Vendel Period (around 550–800 AD) or the Viking Age (800–1050 AD), when it otherwise was common to cremate the dead. The graves can therefore be very well preserved. This custom was probably reserved for people of a higher social standing in society.

Paleontologist Ola Magnell and archaeologist Anton Seiler at the site. Photo credit: The Archaeologists, National Historical Museums

In Sweden, only around ten boat burial sites of this kind have been discovered previously, mainly in the provinces of Uppland and Västmanland in central Sweden.

“It is a small group of people who were buried in this way. You can suspect that they were distinguished people in the society of the time since burial ships in general are very rare,” says Anton Seiler, who works at Arheologi, part of the National Historical Museums in Sweden.

One of the two newly discovered graves was intact while the other was damaged, probably when the much later cellar, dating from the16th century, was built. Remains of a man was found in the stern of the intact boat burial. A horse and dog, that probably belonged to the man were found in the bow, they might have been sacrificed to accompany him in death. Archeologists also found personal items including a sword, spear, shield, and an ornate comb. Wood and clinch-nails of iron that were used in the construction of the boats were also found.

The fact that it’s an intact grave undisturbed by plundering, makes this a particularly interesting opportunity to study these kind of rare burial traditions with modern scientific analysis methods and documentation techniques. This is the first time in Sweden these kind of methods are used in relation to this grave type.

The horse skeleton. Photo credit: The Archaeologists, National Historical Museums

”It is extremely exciting for us since boat burials are so rarely excavated. We can now use modern science and methods that will generate new results, hypotheses and answers. We will also put the boat burials in relation to the very special area that is Old Uppsala and the excavations done here before”, added Seiler.


The famous marauders, explorers, traders, and colonists who transformed northern Europe between AD 750 and 1100 continue to hold our fascination. The Vikings are the subject of major new museum exhibitions now circulating in Europe and a popular dramatic television series airing on The History Channel.

Recent years have revealed many spectacular new finds from the Viking age that expand our understanding of their lives and times. Some of these finds — from England and Estonia, reveal the warrior/raider side of Viking life and the dangers therein. Discoveries from Denmark document the extraordinary quality of their ships and shed light on the nature of political and military organization in the Viking period.

Ridgeway, England. The English did not warmly welcome their Viking visitors. Conflict appears to have been common. There is dramatic evidence for this at several places in southern England, especially at a site called Ridgeway near Weymouth, not far from Dorset. During highway construction in 2009, a mass grave was found containing 54 headless human skeletons and a pile of 51 detached skulls that had been cast into an old quarry from Roman times. The grave is dated to around AD 1000. The bodies were those of young men, most less than 30 years of age, who were executed following a violent encounter. Isotopic evidence indicates these men were not natives and may well have come from Scandinavia. The evidence is consistent with a Viking raiding party—50-some men might constitute the crew of a Viking longship with 25 pairs of oars. Perhaps this was a group of raiders who encountered a superior force. They must have been captured, taken to the old quarry, and slaughtered.

Salme, Estonia. Two buried Viking Age ships were uncovered at Salme, Estonia, between 2008 and 2012. Dated to ca. AD 750, these are the earliest known Viking ships to have crossed the Baltic and the earliest examples of mass ship burials. Buried with the two ships were the skeletal remains of 41 individuals, a variety of weapons and tools, and the bones of a number of animals. The materials appear to document the hasty burial of the two ships and the members of their crews who died violently. The grave-goods – weapons and other objects – were of Scandinavian design, largely unknown in Estonia. Isotopic ratios of strontium and oxygen in the tooth enamel of the deceased, in conjunction with the exotic artifacts, point to the Stockholm region of Sweden as a likely homeland.

Jelling, Denmark. Jelling is a sleepy village in the center of the Jutland peninsula with a well-deserved UNESCO World Heritage rating. A series of Viking Age monuments were placed there more than a thousand years ago including rune stones, two huge burial mounds, the largest-known stone ship setting, and an old church. A three-sided rune stone recounts how King Harald Bluetooth united the kingdom of Denmark, the first mention of the name of the modern nation. Harald also built two large burial mounds at Jelling for his parents. The North Mound sits at the center of the ship-shaped stone setting. The present stone church was originally built around AD 1100 and was likely the first such church in Jutland. There are also the foundations of wooden buildings beneath the stone church, two of which were probably wooden stave churches.

Interest in the Viking monuments has been ongoing for more than 400 years, but the surprises keep coming. Excavations since 2007 revealed an entirely new view, including a massive palisade enclosing a large area around the mounds. The entire palisade would have been ca. 1,440 m (4,800′) in length and enclosed some 12.5 ha (30 acres). The symmetry of the constructions is remarkable. The northern burial mound sits directly in the center of this huge timber palisade. The great stone ship setting runs from one end of the palisade to the other. The South Mound lies near the southern side of the palisade, and the largest rune stone at Jelling is exactly halfway between the two mounds. A series of three almost identical buildings were found around the northeast corner of the palisade. These houses are massive wooden halls with heavy walls of vertical timber and several interior divisions. These large buildings or halls were likely part of a magnate estate at Jelling. Thus this sleepy village was once the royal manor of Viking Denmark.

Vallø Borgring, Danska. There were four known, almost identical Viking ring fortresses in Denmark before the summer of 2012, including the namesake tourist destination at Trelleborg on the island of Zealand. All built around AD 980, each of these fortresses was about a day’s march apart, between 30 and 40 km. But Danish archaeologists noticed there was a gap on the east coast of Zealand. Careful investigations, laser mapping of the landscape, and some trial trenches at a place near the modern town of Køge, south of Copenhagen, exposed evidence for a circular earthwork 145 m (500’) in diameter, the same size as some of the other known fortresses. In Viking times, this fort — known as Vallø Borgring — was strategically located at the intersection of the old road and a small navigable river. There may well be more Viking Age ring forts to be discovered, further documenting the might and sway of the Viking kingdom.

Roskilde, Denmark. The Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde, Denmark, holds the salvaged and reconstructed remains of five ships deliberately scuttled around AD 1070 to block the shipping channel and protect the Viking town. This Museum is one of the more popular tourist attractions in Denmark and has grown substantially over the years. Expansion to a new artificial island was planned and excavation of a channel to create this island began in 1997. Nine new ships were discovered during the digging and eventually removed. One of the ships, the Roskilde 6, is incomplete but estimated to have been 32 m (100′) in length, the longest known Viking warship. A ship of this size must have been the property of a king or noble. Both the timber and craftsmanship were of the finest quality. The ship would have had 78 rowing positions and a crew of 100 men. The mast would have held a single square sail of perhaps 200 m 2 (2,150 ft 2 ). The ship was built around AD 1025 and was finally put on exhibit in 2014 after years of conservation and analysis.

These new discoveries prod the imagination and inspire archaeologists, historians, and the general public to learn more about this dynamic period in Scandinavia. The end of the Viking period was ultimately brought about by the arrival of Christianity after AD 1000, leading to the onset of the Middle Ages and long centuries of oppression by the church and state. Some in Scandinavia today would prefer to see a return to the old ways the religious beliefs of the Vikings, as described in various sagas and myths, have been adopted by some modern individuals and groups. The Vikings are gone but certainly not forgotten!


Archaeologists uncover 1,000-year-old Viking ship burial site in Norway

Archaeologists in Norway have uncovered a unique Viking burial site, hidden deep underground, dating back over 1,000 years ago. Using only a radar, researchers identified a feast hall, cult house, farmhouse and the remnants of a ship.

According to a study published Wednesday in the journal Antiquity, the burial site is located in Gjellestad, in southeastern Norway. Gjellestad is home to the Jell Mound, which is one of the largest Iron Age funerary mounds in Scandinavia, according to the Norwegian Institute for Cultural Heritage Research.

Researchers were able to use a ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to map features below the Earth's surface, finding the site without having to dig underground. The research originally began in 2017 to look for at-risk burial sites ahead of a construction project.

Archaeologists classified the site as "high-status" after finding copper brooches and rings, a silver coin and, most notably, a gold pendant. Boats, which were symbols of safe passage into the afterlife, were also reserved for powerful Viking individuals.

"The site seems to have belonged to the very top echelon of the Iron Age elite of the area, and would have been a focal point for the exertion of political and social control of the region," lead author Lars Gustavsen said in a press release.

Interpretation map of the mound cemetery based on the full depth-range of the GPR dataset (left). Corresponding depth slices below the ground's surface (right). Map source: Kartverket/CC-BY-4.0. Figure by L. Gustavsen

GPR data revealed that the boat is about 62 feet long &mdash considered very large and rare &mdash and buried up to 4.6 feet underground. Though some have been demolished, the radar also revealed 13 burial mounds once existed in the area, some nearly 100 feet wide.

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The site offers unique insights into the lives of Viking people. In addition to the ship, researchers found a farmhouse, a large building they believe to be a feast hall and another structure that may have been a cult house or alternative religious structure.

Researchers believe the Jell Mound may have been used for centuries, possibly as early as the 5th century AD, though the ship appears to have been buried centuries later. It likely overlapped with a crucial period in Scandinavia's history, from the collapse of the Western Roman Empire to the rise of the Vikings.

"We suggest that the site has its origins in an ordinary mound cemetery, which was later transformed into a high-status cemetery represented by monumental burial mounds, hall buildings and a ship burial," researchers said.

A full excavation of the ship burial is currently underway, marking the first time a Viking ship burial has been excavated in almost 100 years &mdash the first with modern technology.

"It forms a stepping stone for further research into the development and character of social, political, religious, and economic structures in this tumultuous period," Gustavsen said.

First published on November 11, 2020 / 12:24 PM

© 2020 CBS Interactive Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Sophie Lewis is a social media producer and trending writer for CBS News, focusing on space and climate change.


Photos: Rare Viking Boat Graves Discovered in Sweden

All images courtesy Arkeologerna

Published Jul 5, 2019 7:25 PM by The Maritime Executive

Archaeologists in Sweden have uncovered two rare Viking-era boat burial sites during an excavation in Uppsala. It has been five decades since the last similar find in the area, and national archaeology agency Arkeologerna described the discovery as "sensational."

The team stumbled upon the burial sites during the excavation of more modern ruins in Old Uppsala. The boat graves were buried beneath a well and a cellar from later eras. One of the two graves was quite intact, with remains of a man at the stern of the boat and those of a horse and a dog found towards the bow. Personal items - a sword, a spear, a shield and a comb - were also laid within the vessel.

All images courtesy Arkeologerna

According to the agency, this kind of grave typically dates back to the Vendel Period (around 550&ndash800 AD) or the Viking Age (800&ndash1050 AD), when it was generally more common to cremate the dead. Remains in boat burials were not cremated, so the graves are often very well preserved.

&ldquoIt is a small group of people who were buried in this way. You can suspect that they were distinguished people in the society of the time since burial ships in general are very rare,&rdquo said Anton Seiler of the National Historical Museums in Sweden. "It is extremely exciting for us since boat burials are so rarely excavated. We can now use modern science and methods that will generate new results, hypotheses and answers."

Some of the results from the dig will be displayed at Gamla Uppsala Museum and Stockholm&rsquos Swedish History Museum.


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