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Mali Osnovna dejstva - zgodovina

Mali Osnovna dejstva - zgodovina


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Prebivalstvo 2007 ......................................... 369.031
BDP na prebivalca 2002 (pariteta kupne moči, USD) ........... 3.900 USD
BDP 2006 (Pariteta kupne moči, milijarde USD) ................ 906
Brezposelnost (2003) .............................................. ............................ n/a


Povprečna letna rast 1991-97
Prebivalstvo (%) ....... 2.8
Delovna sila (%) ....... 2.5

Celotna površina................................................ .................. 115,83 kvadratnih milj
Mestno prebivalstvo (% celotnega prebivalstva) ............................... 28

Pričakovana življenjska doba ob rojstvu (leta) ........................................... .......... 64,76
Umrljivost dojenčkov (na 1.000 živorojenih otrok) ....................................... 53,25
pismenost (% prebivalstva, starejšega od 15 let) ......................................... ..96,3%


Geografija Malija

Mali je država brez morja v zahodni Afriki, ki se nahaja jugozahodno od Alžirije in se razteza jugozahodno od puščave južne Sahare skozi Sahel do območja sudanske savane. Mali je 1.240.192 kvadratnih kilometrov.

Puščava ali polpuščava pokriva približno 65 odstotkov celotne površine Malija (1.240.192 kvadratnih kilometrov). Reka Niger ustvarja veliko in rodovitno celinsko delto, ki se od Malija od Gvineje loči severovzhodno, preden zavije proti jugu in se sčasoma izprazni v Gvinejski zaliv. [1]

Ozemlje obsega tri naravne cone: južno obdelano sudansko območje, osrednjo polpuščavsko sahelsko cono in severno puščavsko saharsko cono. Teren je predvsem na jugu savan, na severu pa ravninski do valoviti ravnini ali visoki planoti (200–500 metrov nadmorske višine). Na severovzhodu so razgibani hribi z nadmorsko višino do 1000 metrov.

Niger (s 1693 kilometri v Maliju) in Senegal sta dve največji Malijevi reki. Niger je na splošno opisan kot življenjska sila Malija, vir hrane, pitne vode, namakanja in prevoza. [1]

Najnižja točka države je na reki Senegal (23 m), najvišja točka pa Hombori Tondo (1155 m).


Vsebina

Paleolitsko urejanje

Sahara je bila pogosto bolj suha, a tudi dolgo časa bolj deževna kot danes. Torej je bil to kraj nenaseljen za ljudi pred 325.000 do 290.000 leti in pred 280.000 do 225.000 leti, razen ugodnih krajev, kot je jezero Tihodaïne na zalivu vode Tassili n'Ajjer. [1] V teh in drugih sušnih obdobjih lahko puščavo, ki se vedno znova razteza daleč proti severu in jugu, najdemo peščene sipine daleč onkraj današnjih meja Sahare. Človeške sledi je mogoče pričakovati le v deževnejših zelenih fazah. Možno je, da so anatomsko sodobni ljudje, ki so se morda razvili v omenjeni izolirani fazi pred 300.000 do 200.000 leti južno od Sahare, že v dolgi zeleni fazi pred več kot 200.000 leti takrat bogato območje. Še pred približno 125.000 do 110.000 leti je obstajala ustrezna mreža vodnih poti, ki je omogočala širjenje številnih živalskih vrst proti severu, sledijo pa jim lovci na ljudi. K temu so prispevala velika jezera, na primer Mega jezero Čad, ki je včasih pokrivalo več kot 360.000 km 2. [2] Po drugi strani pa se je puščava pred 70.000 do 58.000 leti znova raztegnila daleč proti severu in jugu in je zato verjetno predstavljala oviro, ki jo je bilo težko premagati. Druga zelena faza je sledila pred 50.000 do 45.000 leti. [3]

V Maliju je položaj najdbe manj ugoden kot pri severnih sosedih. Izkopavanja v kompleksu Ounjougou [4] na planoti Dogon pri Bandiagari so pokazala, da so v regiji pred več kot 150.000 leti živeli lovci in nabiralci. Gotovo sega v obdobje med 70.000 in 25.000 leti. Paleolitik se je v Maliju končal zelo zgodaj, ker je po tem odseku pred 25.000 do 20.000 leti obstajala še ena ekstremno suha faza, Ogolija. Ko proti koncu pokrajine savane. [5]

Neolitsko urejanje

Po koncu zadnjega največjega širjenja severnih ledenih mas proti koncu zadnjega ledeniškega obdobja je bilo za podnebje značilna precej večja vlažnost kot danes. Niger je na območju okoli Timbuktuja in Araouane ustvaril ogromno celinsko jezero ter podobno veliko jezero v Čadu. Hkrati so pokrajine savane in pokrajina v severnem Maliju primerljive s tistimi, ki so značilne za današnji jug. To je bilo okoli leta 9500 pr. Chr. Vedno bolj nadomešča vse bolj suha faza.

V tej vlažni fazi se je razvil neolitik, čas, v katerem so ljudje vse pogosteje proizvajali svojo hrano, namesto da bi jo lovili, lovili ali nabirali kot prej. Ta je običajno razdeljen na tri dele, ki so med seboj ločeni z različnimi suhimi fazami. Sorg in proso sta bila posajena okoli leta 8000 pr. Velike črede goveda, ki so bile blizu zebusa, so se pasle v današnji saharski ovci in kozah, ki so jih dodali šele pozneje iz zahodne Azije, medtem ko so govedo najprej udomačili v Afriki.

Tu se pojavi keramika, za katero se je dolgo mislilo, da je stranski učinek neolitizacije v najzgodnejšem neolitiku, ki se je pojavila na osrednjem malijskem mestu Ounjougou okoli leta 9.400 pred našim štetjem in naj bi bila primer neodvisnega izuma keramike. [6] tj. 9500 do 7000 v. Pr. N. Št., V Aïru po Marianne Cornevin že 10.000 pr. Chr. [8] Najzgodnejši neolitik se pripisuje fazi produktivnega načina življenja, čeprav rastlin niso gojili in goveda niso hranili. V Maliju je mesto Ravin de la Mouche, ki spada sem, datirano v starost 11.400–10.200 let. [9] To mesto spada v kompleks Ounjougou na Yaméju, kjer so vsa obdobja od zgornjega paleolitika pustila sledi [10] in najstarejšo keramiko v Maliju do leta 9400 pr. Bil je datiran. V Ravinu de la Mouche bi lahko bili artefakti datirani med 9500 in 8500 pr. Spletno mesto Ravin du Hibou 2 je mogoče datirati v obdobje 8000 do 7000 pr. Potem, ko so omenjene najstarejše keramične ostanke našli med raziskovalnim programom, ki je potekal od leta 1997 v obeh soteskah, je prišlo do premora med 7000 in 3500 pr. Kr., Ker je bilo podnebje preveč neugodno - tudi za lovce in nabiralce.

Srednji neolitik Dogonske planote je mogoče prepoznati po sivih, dvoslojnih kamnitih orodjih iz kvarcita. Prve sledi nomadskih rejcev goveda najdemo (spet) okoli leta 4000 pr. Pred našim štetjem, pri čemer je bilo to okoli 3500 pr. Relativno vlažnega podnebja je bilo konec. [11] To dokazujejo izkopavanja v Karkarichinkatu (2500–1600 pr. N. Št.) In po možnosti v Village de la Frontière (3590 cal pr. N. Št.), Pa tudi študije o jezeru Fati. Slednji je vseboval med 10.430 in 4660 BPas, kar dokazujejo plasti blata na njegovem vzhodnem robu. 16 cm debela plast peska je bila datirana okoli 4500 let pred našim štetjem, kar je dokazovalo, da se je regija posušila približno 1000 let kasneje kot na mavretanski obali. [12] Tisoč let kasneje je suha faza, ki je očitno pregnala nomade goveda z vzhoda v Mali, dosegla svoj vrhunec. Severna jezera so se izsušila in prebivalstvo se je večinoma preselilo na jug. Prehod iz neolitika v preddogon je še vedno nejasen. V Karkarichinkatu je postalo očitno, da se gojijo ovce, govedo in koze, vendar so lov, nabiranje in ribolov še naprej igrali pomembno vlogo. Lahko se celo zgodi, da je uspešen pašništvo dolgo časa preprečeval, da bi se kmetijstvo uveljavilo. [13]

Pozni neolitik je zaznamoval ponovni priseljenec iz Sahare okoli 2500 pr. Chr., Ki je prerasla v ogromno prostorno puščavo. Ta izsušitev se je nadaljevala in prisilila nadaljnje selitve na jug, katerih približen potek je arheološko razumljiv. Na podlagi etno-arheoloških študij keramike so bile ugotovljene tri skupine, ki so v obdobju okoli leta 2000 pr. Živel. To so omogočile keramične raziskave na najdišču Kobadi (1700 do 1400 pr. N. Št.), Najdišču MN25 pri Hassi el Abiodu in Kirkissoyu pri Niameyin Nigeru (1500 do 1000 pr. N. Št.). Očitno sta se skupini zadnji odpravili proti Kirkissoyu. [14] Najkasneje v drugi polovici 2. tisočletja pr. Gojenje prosa je v to regijo doseglo na mestu Varves Ouest, natančneje pridelovanje bisernega prosa (Pennisetum glaucum), pa tudi pšenice in smreka, ki sta bila vzpostavljena veliko prej na vzhodu Sahare, zdaj (spet?) Dosegla Mali. Ekološke spremembe kažejo, da se je obdelava tal morala začeti že v 3. tisočletju. [15] Toda ta faza kmetijstva se je končala okoli 400 pr. Po drugi strani pa huda suša.

Uporaba okerja pri pogrebih je bila do 1. tisočletja pogosta tudi pri živalih, kar kaže spektakularna najdba konja na zahodu celinske delte v Tell Natamatao (6 km od Thiala v Cercle Tenenkou), katere kosti so vključeni Ocher je bil posut. [16] Obstajajo tudi kamnite rezbarije, značilne za celotno Saharo, v katerih se ne pojavljajo le simboli in upodobitve živali, temveč tudi upodobitve ljudi. Slike iz 1. tisočletja pred našim štetjem v narodnem parku Boucle-du-Baoulé (Fanfannyégèné), na planoti Dogon in v delti reke Niger (Aire Soroba). [17]

V Karkarichikatu Nord (KN05) in Karkarichinkat Sud (KS05) v spodnji dolini Tilemsi, dolini fosilnih rek 70 km severno od Gao, je bilo mogoče pri enajstih ženskah v zahodni Afriki južno od Sahare prvič dokazati, da je sprememba zob iz ritualnih razlogov je bilo tudi v uporabi okoli 4500-4200 BP, podobno kot Magreb. [18] V nasprotju z moškimi imajo ženske spremembe od ekstrakcij do opilkov, tako da imajo zobje koničasto obliko. Običaj, ki je trajal do 19. stoletja. [19]

Tam so ugotovili tudi, da so prebivalci doline že 85% svojega vnosa ogljika pridobivali iz semen trave, predvsem iz rastlin C4, kar se je zgodilo bodisi z uživanjem samoniklih rastlin, kot je divje proso, bodisi z udomačenimi travami za čiščenje svetilk . [20] To je zagotovilo najzgodnejše dokaze o kmetijski dejavnosti in govedoreji v zahodni Afriki (okoli 2200 kalorij BP). [21]

Območja tradicije Dhar-Tichitt v regiji Méma, nekdanji delti reke zahodno od današnje celinske delte, znani tudi kot "mrtva delta" [22], spadajo v obdobje med letoma 1800 in 800/400 pr. Chr. Njihove naselbine so merile med enim in osmimi hektarji, vendar naselje ni bilo neprekinjeno, kar je lahko povezano z dejstvom, da ta regija v deževnem obdobju ni bila primerna za rejo goveda. Razlog za to je bila muha tsetse, ki je dolgo časa preprečevala širjenje tega načina življenja proti jugu.

V nasprotju s temi živinorejci, ki so nato svoje črede spet pregnali proti severu, so pripadniki istočasne kobadske tradicije, ki so živeli izključno od ribolova, nabiranja divjih trav in lova, najkasneje od sredine 2. tisočletja, ostali relativno stacionarni. Obe kulturi sta imeli baker, ki sta ga prinesla iz Mavretanije. Hkrati so različne kulture gojile živahno izmenjavo. [23]

Zgodnja železna doba Urejanje

Mande so ustvarila vrsto zgodnjih mest in krajev, povezanih z ljudmi Soninke, vzdolž srednje reke Niger (v Maliju), vključno z Dia, ki se je začela okoli leta 900 pr. Djenné-Djenno, ki je bila zasedena od okoli 250 pr. [8] Djenné-Djenno je obsegal urbani kompleks, sestavljen iz 40 gomil v radiju 4 km. [9] Mesto naj bi presegalo 33 hektarjev (82 hektarjev), mesto pa se je ukvarjalo tako z lokalno kot na daljavo [10] V drugi fazi Djenné-Djenno (v prvem tisočletju našega štetja) so se meje območja razširile v času (morda obsega 100.000 kvadratnih metrov ali več), kar sovpada tudi z razvojem neke vrste trajne arhitekture iz opeke iz blata, vključno z mestnim obzidjem, verjetno zgrajenim v drugi polovici prvega tisočletja našega štetja po tehnologiji valjaste opeke, "ki je bil na svojem dnu širok 3,7 metra in je tekel skoraj dva kilometra po mestu". [10] [11]

Mali imperij je bil največji imperij v Zahodni Afriki in je s širjenjem jezika, zakonov in običajev močno vplival na kulturo Zahodne Afrike. [12]

Do 19. stoletja je Timbuktu ostal pomemben kot postojanka na jugozahodnem robu muslimanskega sveta in središče čezsaharske trgovine s sužnji.

Mandinka iz c. 1230 do c. 1600. Cesarstvo je ustanovila Sundiata Keita in je postalo znano po bogastvu svojih vladarjev, zlasti Manse Musa I. Mali imperij je imel v Zahodni Afriki številne globoke kulturne vplive, kar je omogočilo širjenje njegovega jezika, zakonov in običajev vzdolž reke Niger. . Razprostirala se je na velikem območju in je bila sestavljena iz številnih vazalnih kraljestev in provinc.

Mali imperij je začel oslabeti v 15. stoletju, vendar je ostal prevladujoč velik del 15. stoletja. Preživel je v 16. stoletju, vendar je do takrat izgubil velik del svoje nekdanje moči in pomena.

Mali imperij je začel slabiti sredi 14. stoletja. Songhai je to izkoristil in potrdil svojo neodvisnost. Songhai je Gao naredil za svojo prestolnico in začel svojo imperialno širitev po zahodnem Sahelu. In do leta 1420 je bil Songhai dovolj močan, da je od Masine zahteval davek. Nastajajoče cesarstvo Songhai in propadajoče cesarstvo Mali sta obstajala v večjem delu poznejšega 14. in v 15. stoletju. V poznem 15. stoletju se je nadzor nad Timbuktu preusmeril na Songhai imperij.

Cesarstvo Songhai je sčasoma propadlo pod pritiskom maroške dinastije Saadi. Prelomnica je bila bitka pri Tondibiju 13. marca 1591. Maroko je nato do konca 17. stoletja z velikimi težavami nadzoroval Gao, Timbuktu, Djenné (tudi Jenne) in z njimi povezane trgovske poti.

Po razpadu imperija Songhai regije ni nadzorovala nobena država. Marokanci so uspeli zasesti le nekaj delov države, in tudi na tistih lokacijah, kjer so poskušali vladati, so bili njihovi posegi šibki in so jih izpodbijali tekmeci. Nastalo je več malih kraljestev naslednikov. najbolj opazni v današnjem Maliju so bili:

Imperij Bambara ali Kraljevina Segou Edit

Imperij Bambara je kot centralizirana država obstajal od leta 1712 do 1861, imel je sedež v Ségouju in tudi v Timbuktuju (ki se imenuje tudi Segu) ter je vladal delom osrednjega in južnega Malija. Obstojala je do El Hadj Umar Tall, osvajalca Toucouleurja, ki je po vsej Zahodni Afriki preplavil Futa Tooro. Mudžahidi Umarja Talla so zlahka premagali Bambaro in 10. marca 1861 zasegli Ségouja ter razglasili konec cesarstva.

Kraljevina Kaarta Uredi

Razkol v dinastiji Coulibaly v Ségouju je leta 1753. povzročil ustanovitev druge države Bambara, kraljevine Kaarta, na današnjem zahodnem Maliju, ki jo je leta 1854 premagal Umar Tall, vodja Toucouleurskega cesarstva, pred svojo vojno s Ségoujem.

Kenedougou Kingdom Edit

Kraljestvo Senufo Kenedugu je nastalo v 17. stoletju na območju okoli današnje meje Malija in Burkine Faso. Leta 1876 se je glavno mesto preselilo v Sikasso. Uprla se je prizadevanjem Samori Ture, vodje cesarstva Wassoulou, da jo osvoji 1887, in je bila eno zadnjih kraljestev na tem območju, ki je leta 1898 padlo pod oblast Francozov.

Maasina Edit

Vstaja, ki jo je navdihnil islam v veliki del regije Fula Notranji del Nigra proti vladi Ségouja leta 1818, je privedla do ustanovitve ločene države. Pozneje se je povezal z imperijem Bambara proti Toucouleurskemu imperiju Umarja Tall in ga leta 1862 tudi premagal.

Toucouleur Empire Edit

Ta imperij, ki ga je leta 1864 ustanovil El Hadj Umar Tall iz Toucouleurjev, je sčasoma vladal večini današnjega Malija do francoske osvojitve regije leta 1890. To je bilo na nek način nemirno obdobje z nenehnim uporom v Messini in vse večji pritisk Francozov.

Wassoulou Empire Edit

Cesarstvo Wassoulou ali Wassulu je bilo kratkotrajno (1878–1898) cesarstvo, ki ga je vodil Samori Ture na pretežno Malinké območju današnje Zgornje Gvineje in jugozahodnega Malija (Wassoulou). Kasneje se je preselil na Slonokoščeno obalo, preden so ga osvojili Francozi. ÷

Mali je leta 1892. padel pod francosko kolonialno oblast. [13] Leta 1893 so Francozi imenovali civilnega guvernerja ozemlja, ki so ga imenovali Soudan Français (Francoski Sudan), vendar se je aktivni odpor proti francoski vladavini nadaljeval. Do leta 1905 je bila večina območja pod trdnim francoskim nadzorom.

Francoski Sudan je bil del federacije francoske zahodne Afrike in je delodajal francoskim kolonijam na obali zahodne Afrike. Leta 1958 je preimenovana Sudanska republika pridobila popolno notranjo avtonomijo in se pridružila Francoski skupnosti. V začetku leta 1959 sta Sudanska republika in Senegal ustanovili Malijsko federacijo. 31. marca 1960 se je Francija strinjala, da bo federacija Mali postala popolnoma neodvisna. [14] 20. junija 1960 je Malijska federacija postala neodvisna država, Modibo Keïta pa njen prvi predsednik.

Po izstopu Senegala iz federacije avgusta 1960 je nekdanja Sudanska republika 22. septembra 1960 postala Republika Mali, predsednik pa je bil Modibo Keïta.

Predsednik Modibo Keïta, čigar stranka v Sudanskem sindikatu in Afriškem demokratu (ZDA/RDA) je prevladovala v politiki pred osamosvojitvijo (kot članica afriško-demokratskega zborovanja), se je hitro odločil za razglasitev enopartijske države in za uveljavljanje socialistične politike o obsežni nacionalizaciji. Keïta se je umaknila iz francoske skupnosti in imela tudi tesne vezi z vzhodnim blokom. Nenehno propadajoče gospodarstvo je privedlo do odločitve, da se leta 1967 ponovno pridruži coni Franc in spremeni nekatere gospodarske presežke.

V letih 1962–64 je bil na severu Malija upor Tuarega.

Pravilo za eno stranko Uredi

9. novembra 1968 je skupina mladih častnikov izvedla brezkrvni udar in ustanovila 14-članski vojaški odbor za narodno osvoboditev (CMLN) s predsednikom podpolkovnikom Mousso Traoréjem. Vojaški voditelji so poskušali nadaljevati gospodarske reforme, vendar so se več let soočali z izčrpavajočimi notranjepolitičnimi boji in katastrofalno sahelsko sušo.

Nova ustava, sprejeta leta 1974, je ustvarila enopartijsko državo in je bila zasnovana tako, da Mali premakne k civilni vladavini. Vendar so vojaški voditelji ostali na oblasti. Septembra 1976 je bila ustanovljena nova politična stranka Demokratična zveza malezijskega ljudstva (UDPM), ki temelji na konceptu demokratičnega centralizma. Junij 1979 so bile enopartijske predsedniške in zakonodajne volitve, general Moussa Traoré pa je prejel 99% glasov. Njegova prizadevanja za utrditev enopartijske vlade so leta 1980 izpodbijale študentske protiladne demonstracije, ki so privedle do treh poskusov državnega udara, ki so bili brutalno razveljavljeni.

Politične razmere so se v letih 1981 in 1982 stabilizirale in v osemdesetih letih na splošno ostale mirne. Konec decembra 1985 pa je mejni spor med Malijem in Burkino Faso zaradi mineralov bogatega pasu Agacher izbruhnil v kratko vojno. UDPM je svojo strukturo razširil na Cercles in Arrondissements po vsej deželi.

Preusmeritev pozornosti na gospodarske težave Malija je vlada odobrila načrte za nekatere reforme sistema državnih podjetij in poskušala nadzorovati javno korupcijo. Izvedel je liberalizacijo trženja žit, ustvaril nove spodbude za zasebna podjetja in pripravil nov sporazum o strukturni prilagoditvi z Mednarodnim denarnim skladom (IMF). Toda prebivalstvo je postajalo vse bolj nezadovoljno zaradi varčevalnih ukrepov, ki jih je uvedel načrt MDS, pa tudi zaradi njihovega dojemanja, da vladajoča elita ni podvržena istim strogim omejitvam. Kot odgovor na naraščajoče zahteve po večstrankarski demokraciji, ki je takrat preplavila celino, je Traoréjev režim dovolil nekaj omejene politične liberalizacije. Na volitvah v državni zbor junija 1988 je bilo več kandidatom UDPM dovoljeno, da se potegujejo za vsak sedež, režim pa je organiziral vseslovenske konference, da bi razmislil o tem, kako uvesti demokracijo v enopartijskem okviru. Kljub temu pa režim ni hotel uveljaviti popolnega demokratičnega sistema.

Vendar so se do leta 1990 začela pojavljati kohezivna opozicijska gibanja, vključno z Odborom za nacionalno demokratsko pobudo in Zvezo za demokracijo v Maliju (Alliance pour la Démocratie au Mali, ADEMA). Vse bolj burne politične razmere so se zapletle zaradi naraščanja etničnega nasilja na severu sredi leta 1990. Vrnitev velikega števila Tuaregov v Mali, ki so se med dolgotrajno sušo preselili v Alžirijo in Libijo, je v regiji povečalo napetosti med nomadskimi Tuaregi in sedečim prebivalstvom. Navidezno v strahu pred secesionističnim gibanjem Tuarega na severu je režim Traoré uvedel izredne razmere in ostro zatiral nemire Tuarega. Kljub podpisu mirovnega sporazuma januarja 1991 so se nemiri in občasni oboroženi spopadi nadaljevali.

Prehod na večstrankarsko demokracijo Uredi

Tako kot v drugih afriških državah so se zahteve po večstrankarski demokraciji povečale. Traoréjeva vlada je dovolila nekaj odprtja sistema, vključno z ustanovitvijo neodvisnega tiska in neodvisnih političnih združenj, vendar je vztrajala, da Mali ni pripravljen na demokracijo. V začetku leta 1991 so zopet izbruhnili študentski nemiri, ki so jih podprli tudi vladni delavci in drugi. 26. marca 1991 je po 4 dneh intenzivnih protivladnih nemirov skupina 17 vojaških častnikov pod vodstvom Amadouja Toumanija Touréja aretirala predsednika Traoréja in začasno ustavila ustavo.

V nekaj dneh so se ti častniki pridružili Koordinacijskemu odboru demokratičnih združenj, da bi ustanovili pretežno civilno, 25-člansko vladajoče telo, prehodni odbor za reševanje ljudi (CTSP). CTSP je nato imenoval vlado pod vodstvom civilistov. Nacionalna konferenca, ki je potekala avgusta 1991, je pripravila osnutek ustave (potrjen na referendumu 12. januarja 1992), listino za politične stranke in volilni kodeks. Političnim strankam je bilo dovoljeno prosto oblikovanje. Med januarjem in aprilom 1992 so bili izvoljeni predsednik, državni zbor in občinski sveti. 8. junija 1992 je bil kandidat ADEMA Alpha Oumar Konaré predstavljen kot predsednik Tretje republike Mali.

Leta 1997 so poskusi obnove nacionalnih institucij z demokratičnimi volitvami naleteli na upravne težave, kar je povzročilo razveljavitev parlamentarnih volitev aprila 1997. S sodno odločbo je vaja kljub temu pokazala ogromno moč stranke ADEMA predsednika Konaréja, kar je povzročilo nekatere druge zgodovinske stranke za bojkot poznejših volitev. Predsednik Konaré je zmagal na predsedniških volitvah proti skromni opoziciji 11. maja. V dveh krogih zakonodajnih volitev, ki so potekale 21. julija in 3. avgusta, je ADEMA zagotovila več kot 80% sedežev v državnem zboru. [15] [16]

Urejanje leta 2000

Konaré je odstopil po ustavno določeni meji dveh mandatov in na volitvah leta 2002 ni kandidiral. Touré se je nato ponovno pojavil, tokrat kot civil. Kot neodvisen na platformi narodne enotnosti je Touré zmagal na predsedniškem mestu v drugem krogu proti kandidatu Ademe, ki je bil v spopadih razdeljen in je trpel zaradi ustanovitve odcepljene stranke, relija za Mali. Touré je ohranil veliko popularnost zaradi svoje vloge v prehodni vladi v letih 1991–92. Volitve leta 2002 so bile mejnik, ki je zaznamoval prvi uspešen prehod Malija od enega demokratično izvoljenega predsednika do drugega, kljub vztrajnosti volilnih nepravilnosti in nizki volilni udeležbi. Na parlamentarnih volitvah leta 2002 nobena stranka ni pridobila večine Touré, nato je imenovala politično vključujočo vlado in se zavezala, da se bo lotila perečih Malijevih družbenih in gospodarskih razvojnih težav. [17]

Urejanje leta 2010

22. marca 2012 so poročali, da so se na državni televiziji pojavili uporniški vojaki, ki so naznanili, da so prevzeli nadzor nad državo. [19] Nemiri zaradi predsednikovega reševanja spora z uporniki so bili motivirajoča sila. Nekdanji predsednik se je bil prisiljen skriti.

Vendar pa zaradi vstaje leta 2012 na severu Malija vojaška vlada nadzoruje le južno tretjino države, sever države (znan kot Azawad) pa prepusti upornikom MNLA. Uporniki nadzorujejo Timbuktu, 700 km od prestolnice. [20] V odgovor je Ekonomska skupnost zahodnoafriških držav (ECOWAS) zamrznila sredstva in uvedla embargo, nekaterim pa je ostalo le nekaj dni goriva. Mali je odvisen od uvoza goriva, ki ga po kopnem prevažajo iz Senegala in Slonokoščene obale. [21]

Od 17. julija 2012 so upornike Tuarega od tedaj izgnali njihovi zavezniki, islamisti, Ansar Dine in Al Kaida v islamskem Magrebu (A.Q.I.M.). [22] Ekstremistični minister na severu Malija je nepričakovan rezultat propada prejšnjega državnega udara jeznih vojaških častnikov. [22]

Begunci v begunskem taborišču s 92.000 osebami v mestu Mbera v Mavretaniji opisujejo islamiste kot "namere vsiljevanja islamskega udarca in pištole malijskim muslimanom". [22] Islamisti v Timbuktuu so uničili približno pol ducata častitljivih nadzemnih grobnic častitih svetih mož in razglasili grobnice v nasprotju s šeriatom. [22] En begunec v taborišču je govoril o srečanju z Afganistanci, Pakistanci in Nigerijci. [22]

Ramtane Lamamra, komisar za mir in varnost Afriške unije, je dejal, da je Afriška unija razpravljala o pošiljanju vojaških sil za ponovno združitev Malija in da so pogajanja s teroristi izključena, pogajanja z drugimi oboroženimi frakcijami pa so še odprta. [22]

10. decembra 2012 so vojaki aretirali premierja Cheicka Modiba Diarro in ga odpeljali v vojaško bazo v Katiju. [23] Nekaj ​​ur kasneje je premier na nacionalni televiziji napovedal svoj odstop in odstop svoje vlade. [24]

10. januarja 2013 so islamistične sile zavzele strateško mesto Konna, ki se nahaja 600 km od glavnega mesta, od malijske vojske. [25] Naslednji dan je francoska vojska začela operacijo Serval, ki je posredovala v spopadu. [26]

Do 8. februarja je malajska vojska s pomočjo mednarodne koalicije ponovno prevzela ozemlje, ki je bilo pod nadzorom islamistov. Tuareški separatisti so se še naprej borili tudi proti islamistom, čeprav je bila MNLA obtožena tudi izvajanja napadov na malijsko vojsko. [27]

Mirovni sporazum med vlado in uporniki Tuarega je bil podpisan 18. junija 2013.

Predsedniške volitve so bile v Maliju 28. julija 2013, drugi krog pa 11. avgusta. [28] Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta je v drugem krogu premagal Soumaïlo Cissé in postal novi predsednik Malija.

Mirovni sporazum med uporniki Tuarega in malijsko vlado je bil konec novembra 2013 prekinjen zaradi spopadov v severnem mestu Kidal. [29] Malijska vlada in severni uporniki so se 20. februarja 2015 dogovorili o novem premirju. [30]

Urejanje leta 2020

Od 5. junija 2020 so se v Bamaku začeli ulični protesti, ki pozivajo k odstopu predsednika Ibrahima Boubacarja Keïte. 18. avgusta 2020 so uporniški vojaki aretirali predsednika Ibrahima Boubacarja Keïto in premierja Boubouja Cisséja. Predsednik Keïta je odstopil in zapustil državo. Nacionalni odbor za reševanje ljudstva, ki ga vodi polkovnik Assimi Goïta, je prevzel oblast, kar pomeni, da se je četrti udar zgodil po osamosvojitvi od Francije leta 1960. [31] 12. septembra 2020 se je Nacionalni odbor za odrešenje ljudstva strinjal, da bo 18. -mesečni politični prehod na civilno oblast. [32] Kmalu za tem je bil Bah N'Daw imenovan za začasnega predsednika.


Cesarstvo Mali

Mali imperij, ki ga je ustanovil kralj Sundiata Keita, znan kot & ldquoLion King, & rdquo, je v zahodno Afriko prinesel bogastvo, kulturo in islamsko vero.

Antropologija, družbene študije, starodavne civilizacije, svetovna zgodovina

Kirina, Mali

Sodobno mesto Kirina je bilo nekoč eno glavnih trdnjav cesarstva Mali. Ključna bitka pri Kirini je bila tu leta 1235 n.

Fotografija Werner Forman

Zahodna Afrika je bila od 13. do 17. stoletja dom velikega cesarstva Mali. Kraljestvo, ki ga je ustanovil kralj Sundiata Keita, je združilo več manjših kraljevin Malink & eacute v bližini reke Zgornji Niger. Mali, zaščiten z dobro usposobljeno, cesarsko vojsko in je imel koristi od tega, da je sredi trgovskih poti, je v štirih stoletjih razširil svoje ozemlje, vpliv in kulturo. Obilje zlatega prahu in nahajališč soli je pripomoglo k širitvi imperija & rsquos komercialnih sredstev. Mali je vključeval mesto Timbuktu, ki je postalo znano kot pomembno središče znanja. Mali se je razvil tudi v središče islamske vere, preden je slabo vodstvo privedlo do končnega upada moči in vpliva imperija.

Vzpon cesarstva Mali je mogoče zaslediti vse do Sundiata ali "Lion King" & rdquo, kot so ga nekateri imenovali. Ko so leta 1240 zasedli nekdanjo prestolnico Ganskega cesarstva, so Sundiata in njegovi možje utrdili nadzor, hkrati pa še naprej širili cesarstvo Mali. Uradniki njegovega dvora so pogosto imeli veliko moč, kar je bilo ključnega pomena za ohranitev cesarstva v obdobjih slabega vodstva.

Mali je imel kralje, imenovane Mansa. Mali imperij bi dosegel vrhunec v času vladavine Mansa Musa I. Ozemeljska širitev je sovpadala s kulturnim napredkom, zlasti v arhitekturi, cesarstvo pa je cvetelo. Musa je s svojo veliko vojsko podvojil ozemlje cesarstva in rsquosa. To je kraljestvu omogočilo, da je užival v prednostih v središču trgovine v Afriki. Leta 1324 je Musa romal v Meko, med katerim je porabil in dal vse svoje zlato. Posledično so se zgodbe o bogastvu malega kralja razširile daleč naokoli.

Španski kartograf Abraham Cresques je Musa celo predstavil v katalonskem Atlasu, priljubljenem viru evropskih raziskovalcev. Cresques je vseboval podobo Muse, ki nosi zlato krono in v roki drži več zlata. Ta podoba bi bila raziskovalec katalizator za iskanje mesta Timbuktu v upanju, da bodo našli bogastvo Musa & rsquos. Danes nekateri menijo, da bi lahko bil najbogatejši človek v zgodovini. Islamski učni centri, šole in univerze ter največja knjižnica v vsej Afriki so bili neposredna posledica vladavine Mansa Musa & rsquos in so Mali naredili v večjezično in večetnično kraljestvo.

Po smrti Mansa Musa & rsquos okoli leta 1337 je cesarstvo postalo žrtev upadanja vpliva v Afriki. Razvili so se tudi drugi trgovski centri, ki so prizadeli trgovsko bogastvo, ki je nekoč tako prosto obkrožalo Mali. Slabo vodstvo je kraljestvo postavilo na pot državljanskih vojn. Okoliški imperij Songhay bi do poznega 15. stoletja osvojil večino kraljestva Mali, od nekdaj ponosnega cesarstva Mali pa je ostalo le malo. Do 17. stoletja je območje zasedlo Maroško cesarstvo.


Mali imperij

Mali imperij (1240-1645) v Zahodni Afriki je ustanovil Sundiata Keita (r. 1230-1255) po zmagi nad kraljestvom Sosso (ok. 1180-1235). Sundiatova centralizirana vlada, diplomacija in dobro usposobljena vojska so omogočili množično vojaško širitev, ki bi utrla pot za razcvet cesarstva Mali, zaradi česar je bil največji, ki ga je doslej videl v Afriki.

The reign of Mansa Musa I (1312-1337) saw the empire reach new heights in terms of territory controlled, cultural florescence, and the staggering wealth brought through Mali's control of regional trade routes. Acting as a middle-trader between North Africa via the Sahara desert and the Niger River to the south, Mali exploited the traffic in gold, salt, copper, ivory, and slaves that crisscrossed West Africa. Muslim merchants were attracted to all this commercial activity, and they converted Mali rulers who in turn spread Islam via such noted centres of learning as Timbuktu. In contrast to cities like Niani (the capital), Djenne, and Gao, most of the rural Mali population remained farmers who clung to their traditional animist beliefs. The Mali Empire collapsed in the 1460s following civil wars, the opening up of trade routes elsewhere, and the rise of the neighbouring Songhai Empire, but it did continue to control a small part of the western empire into the 17th century.

Oglas

West Africa & the Sudan Region

The Sudan region of West Africa where the Mali Empire would develop had been inhabited since the Neolithic period as evidenced by Iron Age tumuli, megaliths, and remains of abandoned villages. The Niger River regularly flooded parts of this dry grassland and savannah, which provided fertile land for agriculture beginning at least 3,500 years ago, an endeavour greatly helped by the region's adequate annual rainfall. Cereals such as red-skinned African rice and millet were grown with success, as were pulses, tuber and root crops, oil and fibre plants, and fruits. Fishing and cattle herding were other important sources of food, while local deposits of copper were exploited and used for trade. Similarly, gold was probably locally mined or panned and then traded, but concrete evidence from this period is lacking.

The Ghana Empire (6th to 13th century) was the first major political power in West Africa to create an empire based on military might and the wealth gained from regional trade. Not geographically connected to modern-day Ghana but located to the northwest, the empire was in serious decline by the end of the 12th century. Beset by civil wars, rebellions of subjugated chiefdoms, and poor harvests, the empire began to disintegrate with a large part of its territory taken over by the kingdom of Sosso (aka Susu). When the Sosso king Sumanguru (aka Sumaoro Kante, r. from c. 1200), imposed trade restrictions on the Mali region, the native Malinke (Mandingo) tribe rose in rebellion.

Oglas

Sundiata Keita & Government

Sundiata Keita (aka Sunjaata or Sundjata, r. 1230-1255) was a Malinke prince, whose name means 'lion prince', and he waged war against the kingdom of Sosso from the 1230s. Sundiata formed a powerful alliance of other disgruntled chiefs tired of Sumanguru's harsh rule and defeated the Sosso in a decisive battle at Krina (aka Kirina) in 1235. In 1240 Sundiata captured the old Ghana capital. Forming a centralised government of tribal leaders and a number of influential Arab merchants, this assembly (gbara) declared Sundiata the supreme monarch and gave him such honorary titles as Mari Diata (Lord Lion). The name Sundiata gave to his empire, Africa's largest up to that point, was Mali, meaning 'the place where the king lives'. It was also decreed that all future kings would be selected from the Keita clan, although the title was not necessarily given to the eldest son of a ruler, which sometimes led to fierce disputes among candidates.

The Mansa, or king, would be assisted by an assembly of elders and local chiefs throughout the Mali Empire's history, with audiences held in the royal palace or under a large tree. The king was also the supreme source of justice, but he did make use of legal advisors. In addition, the king was helped by a number of key ministers such as the chief of the army and master of the granaries (later treasury), as well as other officials like the master of ceremonies and leader of the royal orchestra. Nevertheless, the Mansa acted as a supreme monarch and monopolised key trade goods, for example, only he was permitted to possess gold nuggets, traders had to make do with gold dust. The king had certain mystical qualities attributed to him, and all slaves were exclusively loyal to him. No person had the right to be in the king's presence when he ate, for example, and all visitors before him had to be barefoot and bow down and pour dust over their heads. Such was this cult of leadership and the extreme centralisation of government in a single figure that the fortunes of the empire rose and fell depending on the talents or lack of them possessed by a particular king.

Prijavite se na naše brezplačne tedenske e -novice!

These problems of governance were yet to come, though, and Sundiata would continue to expand his territory to include the old kingdoms of Ghana, Walata, Tadmekka, and Songhai. Niani, now no longer in existence but probably located on a plain near the all-year-round navigable Sankarani River, was selected as the empire's capital. It was protected by mountains and was close to the two key sources of trade goods: forests and waterways.

Tribute was acquired from conquered chiefdoms, although many local chiefs were permitted to continue to rule their own people but with a Mali-appointed governor to assist them, often backed by a garrison. Additional guarantees of loyalty included taking royal hostages and keeping them at the capital. This federation prospered, developing over the next century into one of Africa's richest ever empires whose wealth would astound both Europe and Arabia. Further, and perhaps more important for the ordinary people of Mali, foreign visitors noted the high degree of justice they saw, the safety with which one could travel from place to place, and the abundance of food in all villages.

Oglas

Trade & Timbuktu

Like its political predecessors, the Mali Empire prospered thanks to trade and its prime location, situated between the rain forests of southern West Africa and the powerful Muslim caliphates of North Africa. The Niger River provided ready access to Africa's interior and Atlantic coast, while the Berber-controlled camel caravans that crossed the Sahara desert ensured valuable commodities came from the north. The Mali rulers had a triple income: they taxed the passage of trade goods, bought goods and sold them on at much higher prices, and had access to their own valuable natural resources. Significantly, the Mali Empire controlled the rich gold-bearing regions of Galam, Bambuk, and Bure. One of the main trade exchanges was gold dust for salt from the Sahara. Gold was in particular demand from European powers like Castille in Spain and Venice and Genoa in Italy, where coinage was now being minted in the precious metal.

Timbuktu, founded c. 1100 by the nomadic Tuaregs, was a semi-independent trade port which had the double advantage of being on the Niger River bend and the starting point for the trans-Saharan caravans. The city would be monopolised and then taken over by the Mali kings who made it into one of the most important and most cosmopolitan trade centres in Africa. Through Timbuktu there passed such lucrative goods as ivory, textiles, horses (important for military use), glassware, weapons, sugar, kola nuts (a mild stimulant), cereals (e.g. sorghum and millet), spices, stone beads, craft products, and slaves. Goods were bartered for or paid using an agreed upon commodity such as copper or gold ingots, set quantities of salt or ivory, or even cowry shells (which came from Persia).

Mansa Musa I

After a string of seemingly lacklustre rulers, the Mali Empire enjoyed its second golden era during the reign of Mansa Musa I in the first half of the 13th century. With an army numbering around 100,000 men, including an armoured cavalry corps of 10,000 horses, and with the talented general Saran Mandian, Mansa Musa was able to maintain and extend Mali's empire, doubling its territory. He controlled lands up to the Gambia and lower Senegal in the west in the north, tribes were subdued along the whole length of the Western Sahara border region in the east, control spread up to Gao on the Niger River and, to the south, the Bure region and the forests of what became known as the Gold Coast came under Mali oversight. The Mali Empire thus came to include many different religious, ethnic, and linguistic groups.

Oglas

To govern these diverse peoples, Mansa Musa divided his empire into provinces with each one ruled by a governor (farba) appointed personally by him and responsible for local taxes, justice, and settling tribal disputes. The administration was further improved with greater records kept and sent to the centralised government offices at Niani. With more tribute from more conquered chiefs, more trade routes under Mali control, and even more natural resources to exploit, Mansa Musa and the Mali elite became immensely rich. When the Mali king visited Cairo in 1324, he spent or simply gave away so much gold that the price of bullion crashed by 20%. Such riches set off a never-ending round of rumours that Mali was a kingdom paved with gold. In Spain c. 1375, a mapmaker was inspired to create Europe's first detailed map of West Africa, part of the Catalan Atlas. The map has Mansa Musa wearing an impressive gold crown and triumphantly brandishing a huge lump of gold in his hand. European explorers would spend the next five centuries trying to locate the source of this gold and the fabled trading city of Timbuktu.

Spread of Islam

Islam spread through parts of West Africa via the Arab merchants who traded there. Noted Muslim travellers and chroniclers like Ibn Battuta (1304 - c. 1369) and Ibn Khaldin (1332-1406) recorded that even Mali's first ruler Sundiata converted to Islam. However, the Malinke oral tradition, which was kept up over the generations by specialised bards (griots), presents a different story. Although recognising Islam was present in Mali long before Sundiata's reign, the oral tradition maintains that the first ruler of the Mali Empire did not reject the indigenous animist religion. We do know that Sundiata's son, Mansa Uli (aka Mansa Wali or Yerelenku), went on a pilgrimage to Mecca in the 1260s or 1270s, and this would be a continuing trend amongst many of Mali's rulers.

Islam in West Africa really took off, though, from the reign of Mansa Musa I. He famously went to Mecca and, impressed with what he saw on his travels, Mansa Musa brought back home Muslim architects, scholars, and books. Mosques were built such as Timbuktu's 'Great mosque' (aka Djinguereber or Jingereber), and Koranic schools and universities were established which quickly gained an international reputation. Studies were actually much wider than religion and included history, geography, astronomy, and medicine. Great libraries were built up with tens of thousands of books and manuscripts, many of which survive today.

Oglas

As more people were converted, so more Muslim clerics were attracted from abroad and the religion was spread further across West Africa. Many native converts studied in such places as Fez, Morocco, and became great scholars, missionaries, and even saints, and so Islam came to be seen no longer as a foreign religion but a black African one. Despite the spread of Islam, it is also true that ancient indigenous animist beliefs continued to be practised, especially in rural communities, as noted by travellers like Ibn Battuta who visited Mali c. 1352. In addition, Islamic studies were conducted in Arabic not native languages, and this further impeded its popularity outside the educated clerical class of towns and cities. Even the Islam that did take hold in Mali was a particular variation of that practised in the Arab world, perhaps because Mali rulers could not afford to completely dismiss the indigenous religious practices and beliefs that the majority of their people clung on to.

Mali Architecture

The buildings of the Mali Empire, some of which like the Sankore mosque in Timbuktu still stand, are one of the most recognisable features of the region and have become international symbols of Africa's rich pre-colonial history. Mali architects had a distinct disadvantage because of the rarity of stone in the region, and for this reason, buildings were typically constructed using beaten earth (banco) reinforced with wood which often sticks out in beams from the exterior surfaces. Despite the limited materials, the mosques, in particular, are still imposing multi-storied structures with towers, huge wooden doors, and tiered minarets. Other large buildings included warehouses (fondacs) which were used to store goods before they were transported elsewhere and which had up to 40 apartments for merchants to live in. Other examples of the Mali baked-mud buildings which impress today, although many are early 20th-century reconstructions, include the huge mosques at Mopti and Djenne.

On a smaller scale, excavations at Niani have revealed the remains of houses and their stone foundations, confirming later sources that the richer members of society built stone houses. Arab chroniclers describe another type of domestic building, which was constructed using beaten earth bricks and with ceilings made of wooden beams and reeds, the whole formed into a conical roof. Flooring was made using earth mixed with sand.

Mali Art & Culture

We have already noted that the Malinke had a rich tradition of recounting legends and community histories orally by specialised story-tellers know as griots. These stories, passed down from generation to generation (and continuing today), were often accompanied by music. During the Mali Empire, there were even songs reserved for certain people who alone had the right to have them sung in their honour, this was especially so for renowned warriors and hunters. Music was also an important part of religious festivals when masked dancers performed.

Pottery and sculpture were produced, as they had been at noted centres like Djenne since the 9th century. Sculptures are generally up to 50 cm tall and made of solid pottery but sometimes with a reinforcing iron rod interior. Wood and brass were other popular materials for sculpture and, to a lesser degree, stone. Decoration is typically incised, painted, or achieved by adding three-dimensional pieces. Subjects include human figures, especially bearded warriors riding a horse but also many kneeling or crouching figures with upturned faces. Figures are often realistic portrayals of ordinary people, sometimes showing symptoms of tropical diseases. Although it is rare for artworks of this period to come with a certain provenance obtained from professionally excavated sites, the sculptures are so numerous that it seems likely many were used as everyday decorative objects as well as for ritual or burial purposes.

Zavrni

The Mali Empire was in decline by the 15th century. The ill-defined rules for royal succession often led to civil wars as brothers and uncles fought each other for the throne. Then, as trade routes opened up elsewhere, several rival kingdoms developed to the west, notably the Songhai. European ships, especially those belonging to the Portuguese, were now regularly sailing down the west coast of Africa and so the Saharan caravans faced stiff competition as the most efficient means to transport goods from West Africa to the Mediterranean. There were attacks on Mali by the Tuareg in 1433 and by the Mossi people, who at that time controlled the lands south of the Niger River. Around 1468, King Sunni Ali of the Songhai Empire (r. 1464-1492) conquered the rump of the Mali Empire which was now reduced to controlling a small western pocket of its once great territory. What remained of the Mali Empire would be absorbed into the Moroccan Empire in the mid-17th century.


Hrana in gospodarstvo

Hrana v vsakdanjem življenju. Malian families invest more than half of their household income in food expenditures. In the cities, rice is the preferred dish (40 percent of the daily food intake), followed by cereals (sorghum and millet, 35 percent), peanuts, sugar, and oil (20 percent). In the rural areas where rice is produced, farmers tend to consider rice a luxury item and they sell it. Their basic staples are millet, sorghum, and fonio (a West African cereal) that are consumed in a variety of ways: served with sauces with fish or meat and various vegetables, or in the form of porridge (mixed with water, sugar, and fresh or powdered milk).

Običaji hrane ob slovesnih priložnostih. Malian cuisine varies from region to region, but some dishes and drinks have acquired a national dimension, such as nsaamè ali riz au gras (a rice dish with meat and vegetables), jinjinbere (a drink made of water, sugar, lemon, and ginger), and dabileni (a drink made of water, sugar, and sorrel).These dishes are often prepared for the celebration of life-cycle rituals (e.g., naming ceremonies, weddings) and other ceremonial events.

Osnovno gospodarstvo. The Malian economy is principally based on the cultivation of cotton (Mali is the second largest producer of cotton in Africa), food crops (rice, millet, sorghum, fonio, peanuts, and corn), and livestock (cattle, sheep, and goats). The primary sector accounts for approximately 46 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP) and is mostly run by small-scale family-run enterprises. Industry, including manufacturing, contributes 20 percent to the GDP, and services approximately 33 percent. According to official statistics, Mali is one of the poorest countries in the world. Solidarity links among family members, neighbors, and coworkers entrepreneurial skills and redistributive practices, however, go a long way to ease difficult economic conditions.

Lastništvo zemljišča in lastnina. Prior to colonization, land was not a commodity. Among the Bamana agriculturists, access to the land (that is, the right to cultivate a piece of land, not individual ownership) was often mediated by the so-called "land chief" who was often a respected elder from the first family to settle in the area. The land chief was in charge of distributing the land among the various lineages of the village. He was also responsible for the celebration of various sacrifices, in particular to the shrine of the spirits in charge of protecting the village, the so-called dasiri (a cluster of trees and shrubs). Lineage members would collectively cultivate the land and the lineage chief would be in charge of the redistribution of resources among individual households according to their perceived needs. However, conflicts among households of the same lineage would periodically erupt and often lead to further fissions within the lineage. Besides collective farming, individuals of both genders could cultivate smaller fields on the side and independently manage their revenues. The colonial conquest has greatly complicated the issue of property. At the present, local systems for the allocation of property, Islamic law, and colonially derived property rules (mostly affecting parcels in urban areas) coexist, but not without conflict, side by side.

Glavne panoge. The Malian economy is scarcely industrialized despite massive efforts in this direction by the Keita government after independence. Locally operated industries mostly concentrate on processing farm commodities (such as food and fish), construction (e.g. the production of cement), and the production of minor consumer goods such as cigarettes, matches, and batteries. The strict programs of structural adjustment imposed by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) since the late 1980s have forced the Malian government to reduce dramatically the number of state employees, progressively privatize state-owned enterprises, and devalue the local currency (the franc de la Communauté Financière d'Afrique , the CFA) by 50 percent. The consequences of these programs have been mixed. Even though official economic indexes show some economic growth, there has also been a neocolonial return of foreign capital. This has been the case for COMATEX, the largest textile factory in Mali, built with Chinese cooperation in the late 1960s. In October 1993 an accord between China and Mali paved the way for the privatization of COMATEX by a Chinese group (the COVEX), despite efforts by a group of Malian entrepreneurs to purchase the enterprise (the Malian state retains 20 percent of the capital).

Similarly, new gold mines have opened, but they remain mostly foreign operated. Given the advanced technology and large amount of capital resources gold mines require, the business is for the most part in the hands of companies such as the South African Randgold Resources and the Canadian IAMGOLD. As a result the revenues of the Malian state have been estimated, at best, to equal 10 percent of the total value of the gold extracted.

Trgovina. Mali's major exports are cotton (50 percent of foreign exchange earnings), gold (17 percent), and livestock products. In 1998, main destinations for exports were Thailand, Italy, Brazil, and Portugal. In the same year, Mail purchased most of its imports (in particular, machinery and petroleum products) from Cte d'Ivoire, France, Belgium and Luxembourg, and Senegal. In general, the Malian economy is extremely vulnerable to fluctuations in prices on international markets. It is also heavily dependent on foreign aid, and in this context benefits from its positive international image as a model African democracy progressing steadily toward the privatization and diversification of its national economy.

Oddelek za delo. Although the available statistical data are often not reliable, they do give a general picture of labor distribution in Mali. Employment in the formal economy, at best, approximates 6 percent of the total economically active population (the latter estimated at 44.7 percent of the total population). The large majority of the population is involved in the so-called informal sectors of the economy or are unemployed. Unemployment is much higher among the educated elites because of the lack of employment opportunities in the modern sector, and amounts to 13.2 percent of those employed in this sector. Agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, and fishing employ the large majority (83 percent) of the total active population. Other occupational sectors include the craft industry (5.4 percent) and trade (4.7 percent). In order for Malians to provide for their families, they are often forced to take on several jobs at the same time, a situation rarely expressed by official statistics.


Mali Basic Facts - History

Mali is among the poorest countries in the world, with 65% of its land area desert or semidesert and with a highly unequal distribution of income. Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger. About 10% of the population is nomadic and some 80% of the labor force is engaged in farming and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. Mali is heavily dependent on foreign aid and vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices for cotton, its main export, along with gold. The government has continued its successful implementation of an IMF-recommended structural adjustment program that is helping the economy grow, diversify, and attract foreign investment. Mali's adherence to economic reform and the 50% devaluation of the CFA franc in January 1994 have pushed up economic growth to a 5% average in 1996-2007. Worker remittances and external trade routes for the landlocked country have been jeopardized by continued unrest in neighboring Cote d'Ivoire.


Five Things to Know About Education in Mali

Despite relative improvements in past decades, such as the recognition of education as a constitutional right in Mali in 1993, the implementation of the Malian government’s Ten-Year Education Development Program (PRODEC), and increasing donations from the United States, France and the World Bank, socioeconomic barriers still limit access to education in Mali. Here are five facts about the Malian education system which highlight some of these barriers and some potential solutions.

  1. In Mali, the first six years of schooling are primary education, and the last six years are separated into two three-year cycles of secondary education. Education in Mali is free and compulsory between ages 7 and 16, or until the end of grade nine. Even so, many children still do not attend class due to high ancillary education costs, including transportation, writing supplies and uniforms.
  2. In order to pursue the second level of secondary education, students sit for an exam called the Diplôme d’études fondamentales at the end of grade nine. Secondary schools are mostly located in urban areas and many are private institutions, so accessibility is limited for poor children in rural areas.One organization working to improve school attendance in Mali is the Ouelessebougou Alliance, a developmental partnership with villagers in the Ouelessebougou region of Mali. The Alliance has constructed 18 new concrete classrooms and provides pencils, paper, chalkboards, chalk, erasers, maps, some textbooks, and bench desks for 11 village elementary schools. The Alliance has a five-year plan for school construction with the goal that villages can become eligible to have their education programs sustained by the government of Mali. Over the past year alone, its efforts have allowed over 1,900 children attend village schools.
  3. According to the UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 69 percent of Mali children of primary school age are enrolled in primary school and 36 percent of secondary school-aged students are enrolled in secondary school. These statistics correlate with the economic and accessibility barriers keeping many students from obtaining a higher secondary education.
  4. At the end of grade 12, students sit for an exam called the Baccalauréat, which is required to pass in order to graduate. From there, students may attend an institute of tertiary education, like the University of Bamako, to study science and technology, medicine, humanities, arts and science, law and public service or economy and management. Over the past few decades, however, the Malian government and the World Bank have promoted vocational training and apprenticeships as more accessible career avenues.
  5. Malian girls have a greater risk of early school dropout, seeing as they are expected to marry young. According to UNICEF, while 62 percent of all Malian children who enter primary schooling eventually finish their last year of primary school, 64 percent of boys and only 59 percent of girls complete their basic education.

In a study of the scientific, technical, and vocational education of African girls, UNESCO found that on average women made up 23 percent of college graduates in the medical field, three percent of engineering graduates, and 10 percent of graduates in agricultural sciences. Tertiary education in Mali may be inaccessible to many students, but it is especially unobtainable to Malian girls. In response to these findings, UNESCO office in Bamako and the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA) have taken measures to fund a UNESCO-UNFPA-UNWOMEN joint project. The initiative aims to increase access to quality education for adolescent girls and young women, provide protective gender-sensitive learning environments adapted to strengthened links between education and health, and social services for adolescent girls and young women.

Although education in Mali has seen some improvement in recent years, reassessment of the barriers which impede young students as well as expanding efforts to help them is crucial for continued development.


The Decline of the Mali Empire

The Mali Empire had reached its zenith during the reign of Mansa Musa , and after his death the empire begin its slow decline. This does not mean, however, that all subsequent rulers of the Mali Empire were incompetent. As an example, Mansa Musa’s brother, Mansa Souleyman, who came to the throne in 1341, was a capable ruler. His predecessor was Mansa Maghan I, the son of Mansa Musa. Unlike his father, Mansa Maghan I was a weak ruler and spent wastefully. Fortunately, the Mali Empire was strong enough to withstand his misrule and thanks to Mansa Souleyman’s efforts, the empire’s financial problems were mitigated. In addition to economic problems, Mansa Souleyman faced military incursions and a palace plot to dethrone him, both of which he dealt with successfully.

Terracotta archer figure from the Mali Empire - 13th-15th century, with a quiver on his back. The bow and quiver of arrows were the symbols of power in Imperial Mali. (Saithilace / Javna domena )

By the beginning of the 16th century, the power of the Mali Empire had been much reduced and neighboring states took advantage of the situation to expand into the empire. Around 1610, the last ruler of the Mali Empire, Mansa Mahmud IV, died and the realm was divided by his sons into three parts. The three rulers fought not only against outsiders but also among themselves. The situation persisted until the rise of the Bamana of Djenné, who declared a jihad on all other Muslim powers in the area. By 1650, two of the three Mandinka rulers were defeated and only the mansa of Kangaba was left. Niani was sacked and burned in 1670, which marked the end of the Mali Empire.

Top image: African Empires, The Mali Empire. Source: K. Flewelling / YouTube.


U.S. Relations With Mali

The United States established diplomatic relations with Mali in 1960, following its independence from France. In 1992, Mali moved from a one-party state to multiparty democracy. In March 2012, while an armed rebellion overtook the north of the country, Mali’s elected civilian government was removed in a military seizure of power, and an interim administration was subsequently put in place, followed by a return to elected government. Despite a peace agreement signed in June 2015 and the presence of UN peacekeeping and French forces, implementation of the peace accord has faced a number of challenges, and non-signatory extremist groups are still active in northern and central Mali. In August 2020, a group of military officers again staged an overthrow of the elected government. In October 2020, that group ceded power to a transitional government, with an 18-month mandate to hold elections and return Mali to constitutional rule.

U.S.-Mali relations have been strong for decades and have been based on shared goals of improving stability and reducing poverty through economic growth. Mali remains near the bottom of the Human Development Index, notably in health and education. Mali continues to face serious security challenges.

The United States is committed to international efforts to help Mali restore peace and stability throughout its territory following the recent coup d’etat, and the loss of the northern two-thirds of the country to violent extremist groups. French counterterrorism forces and the MINUSMA (United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali) peacekeeping mission have been working since 2013 to help restore and maintain Mali’s territorial integrity. The Peace and Reconciliation Accord was signed by all parties on June 20, 2015. The accord , which the transitional government of Mali has committed to implementing, provides an opportunity for Mali to regain the path towards stability and prosperity. The peace accord’s comprehensive plan includes mechanisms to: demobilize armed militias reform the Malian military institute crucial political and institutional reforms jumpstart development in northern Mali and lay the foundations for durable reconciliation between Mali’s diverse communities. The United States will continue to support Mali in achieving its goals of peace and economic development, recognizing that progress will require sustained leadership on the part of the Malian transitional government and commitment from the other accord signatories to implement their obligations under the peace accord.

U.S. Assistance to Mali

Prior to the August 2020 coup, U.S. bilateral foreign assistance to Mali totaled more than $130 million in FY 20 19 and over $1 3 5 million in FY 20 20 . More than $ 85 million in bilateral foreign assistance was officially requested for FY 20 21 . U.S. assistance to Mali seeks to support the country’s fragile peace and implementation of the June 20, 2015, peace accord. Key U.S. interests in Mali include promoting a stable democracy and improved governance promoting regional security by combatting terrorists and traffickers who seek to exploit ungoverned spaces in the Sahel reducing chronic vulnerability by improving social development and increasing sustainable livelihoods and encouraging economic growth, opportunity, and development by supporting sustainable development and increased U.S. economic investment. From these interests our mission goals include: (1) promoting democratic institutions, responsive governance, and respect for human rights (2) enhancing regional security by building institutions to counter transnational threats (3) advancing social development (particularly health and education) (4) increasing economic growth and sustainable livelihoods and (5) promoting the U.S. as a key partner to Malian stakeholders, enhancing mutual understanding, and protecting the wellbeing of U.S. citizens. Following the August 2020 coup, restrictions under section 7008 of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Pr ograms Appropriations Act, 2020 (the Act) and similar prov isions in prior-year acts, now apply to a ssistance that benefits the Government of Mali.

U.S. foreign assistance is administered through a whole of government approach that includes but is not limited to the long-standing in-country presence of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the National Institutes for Health (NIH), and the Department of Defense (DOD). Furthermore, Mali is a focus country for U.S. assistance priorities and initiatives, including but not limited to: Women, Peace and Security (WPS), the Trans-Sahara Counter Terrorism Partnership (TSTCP), the Security Governance Initiative (SGI), Global Climate Change (GCC), Feed the Future (FTF), Resilience, the President’s Malaria Initiative (PMI), the President’s Emergency Plan For Aids Relief (PEPFAR), the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA), and Ending Preventable Child and Maternal Death (EPCMD). On October 9, 2015, the U.S. government, through USAID, signed a formal agreement with the Government of Mali to implement USAID/Mali’s new 5-year Country Development Cooperation Strategy (available tukaj ).

USAID/Mali’s projected $690 million investment for FY 2016-2020 seeks the following goal: “Malians secure a democratic, resilient, and prosperous future” through four objectives: 1) Stabilization of conflict-affected areas reinforced (i.e: support for humanitarian assistance and transition to development in Mali’s northern regions of Gao, Timbuktu and Kidal) 2) Fostering improved public trust in government (i.e: through improved public service delivery (especially health, education, and justice), administration of justice and respect for human rights, and citizen participation in Malian electoral processes) 3) Increased resilience and adaptive capacity of vulnerable communities and households (through mitigation of climate change, countering violent extremism, economic diversification and strengthening human capital) and, 4) increased prosperity through advancing socio-economic well-being (particularly through improving health services and adopting healthy behaviors, reducing poverty and malnutrition through investment in agriculture, and promoting early grade reading for boys and girls). Underlying this goal is the understanding that a democratic, resilient, and prosperous future is unattainable if the country, as a whole, does not benefit from development assistance. U.S. programming focuses on achieving tangible peace dividends and continuing our commitment to working with all Malians.

Dvostranski gospodarski odnosi

Prior to the 2020 coup and the COVID-19 crisis, Mali’s economy was growing at 5.5 percent on average over the past 5 years and some foreign investment return ed in key sectors such as energy, but investment remains limited by continuing insecurity in the country. Due to the economic impact of COVID-19 in particular , real GDP is projected to fall 2.0 percent in 2020. Mail is participating in the IMF/World Bank Debt Service Suspension Initiative (DSSI) which is providing space to focus resources on fighting the pandemic. Longer term, t he government’s national strategy to fight poverty as presented to the IMF, World Bank, and other donors is focused on the role of the private sector in developing the economy. Mali is a member of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)

Mali’s Membership in International Organizations

Mali and the United States belong to a number of the same international organizations, including the United Nations, International Monetary Fund, World Bank, and World Trade Organization. Mali is also one of 15 member countries of ECOWAS (Economic Community of West African States) the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU), which aim to reduce trade barriers, harmonize monetary policy, and create a common market one of 12 member countries of CILSS (Permanent Interstates Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel) and a member of the Group of Five (G5) Sahel. Mali receives preferential trade access to the U.S. market under the U.S. African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA).

Dvostransko zastopanje

P rincipal embassy officials are listed in the Department’s Key Officers List.

Mali maintains an embassy in the United States at 2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 (tel. 202-332-2249).

More information about Mali is available from the Department of State and other sources, some of which are listed here:


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Komentarji:

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