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Severna železnica Francije - zgodovina

Severna železnica Francije - zgodovina


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Nord-Pas-de-Calais

Nord-Pas-de-Calais (Francoska izgovorjava: [nɔʁ pɑ d (ə) kalɛ] (poslušaj)) je nekdanja upravna regija Francije. Od 1. januarja 2016 je del nove regije Hauts-de-France. [2] Sestavljali so ga departmaji Nord in Pas-de-Calais. Nord-Pas-de-Calais meji na Rokavski preliv (zahodno), Severno morje (severozahodno), Belgijo (severno in vzhodno) in Picardy (južno). Večina regije je bila nekoč del zgodovinske (južne) Nizozemske, vendar je postopoma postala del Francije med letoma 1477 in 1678, zlasti v času vladavine kralja Ludvika XIV. Zgodovinske francoske pokrajine, ki so bile pred Nord-Pas-de-Calaisom, so Artois, Francoska Flandrija, Francoski Hainaut in (delno) Pikardija. Prebivalci te pokrajinske oznake še vedno pogosto uporabljajo.

S 330,8 prebivalci na km 2 na nekaj več kot 12.414 km 2 je gosto poseljena regija z okoli 4,1 milijona prebivalcev, kar je 7% celotnega prebivalstva Francije, zaradi česar je četrta najbolj naseljena regija v državi, 83% jih živi v mestnih skupnostih. Njegovo upravno središče in največje mesto je Lille. Drugo največje mesto je Calais, ki služi kot glavno celinsko gospodarsko/prometno središče z Doverjem iz Velike Britanije, 42 kilometrov stran, zaradi česar je Nord-Pas-de-Calais najbližja celinskoevropska povezava z otokom Velika Britanija. Druga večja mesta so Valenciennes, Lens, Douai, Béthune, Dunkirk, Maubeuge, Boulogne, Arras, Cambrai in Saint-Omer. Regija je predstavljena v številnih filmih, vključno z Bienvenue chez les Ch'tis.


Zgodovina železnic in ohranitev ojačevalnikov - ZDA in Kanada

American Steam Railroad Preservation Association - neprofitna izobraževalna organizacija, namenjena ohranjanju, razstavljanju in upravljanju zgodovinske železniške opreme, vključno s parno lokomotivo Frisco # 1352

Ameriški časovni razpored in sistem naročil vlakov, - Zgodovina ključne vloge telegrafa v edinstvenem severnoameriškem sistemu železniškega prometa

Zgodovinsko društvo Amtrak - Ohranjanje zgodovine Amtraka

Združenje železniških muzejev - vodi k napredku železniške dediščine z izobraževanjem in zagovarjanjem

Dražbe na eBayu - 100.000+ zbirateljskih predmetov in železniških predmetov, vključno s starinskimi oglasi, zemljevidi, urniki, vstopnicami, potrdili o zalogah, ročnimi urami, urami, znaki, svetilkami, priborom, ključavnicami, oblačili in drugo

Muzej varnostnih avtomobilov Birney - Zgodovina, fotografije in modeli vozička za enotovornjake Birney, razvitega v 1910 -ih letih

Bridgehunter.com - Baza zgodovinskih mostov in predorov po Združenih državah

Mostovi, postaje in predori - Vodnik po najzgodnejših, najdaljših, najvišjih in največjih železniških strukturah

Budd-RDC.org - Fotografije, zgodovina in trenutne informacije o dizelskih avtomobilih Budd Rail (RDC)

Canada By Rail - Organizacija kanadskih turističnih železnic, muzejev, zgodovinskih društev, železniških potovalnih organizacij, zgodovinskih železniških postaj in znamenitosti

Canadian Railroad Historical Association (CRHA) - Ohranjanje in širjenje informacij o železniški dediščini v Kanadi, pri čemer številni oddelki organizirajo svoja srečanja, projekte in dejavnosti

Canadian Railway Music - Seznam kanadske železniške glasbe, ki vključuje klasične, ljudske in podeželske pesmi

Canadian Street Railways - Zgodovina uličnih in medmestnih električnih železnic v Kanadi

Carknocker Railroad Stories - Zgodbe in fotografije železniških carmen

Carolwood Pacific Historical Society - posvečeno ohranjanju osebne železniške zapuščine Walta Disneyja

Fotografski zgodovinski muzej železnice osrednjega Pacifika - Zgodovina transkontinentalne železnice in povezovanje centralne in unijske pacifiške železnice 10. maja 1869 na vrhu Promontory v Utahu

Chapel Cars of America-Približno trinajst cerkva na tirnicah, ki so sledile železnicam proti zahodu od leta 1890 do 1940, in prinesle evangelij in zakramente ljudem, ki živijo ob tirih

Classic Streamliners - Članki in fotografije, ki praznujejo starodobne potniške vlake, zasebne vagone, potovanja z vlakom, turistične železnice in drugo

Conrail Cabins & Cabooses - Izmenjujte informacije o floti kabin in kabojev Conrail

Korporativna zgodovina železnic v Severni Ameriki - korporativne (družinske) lestvice za raziskovanje določene družine ali posameznih imen železnic

Dan's Wigwag Site - Zgodovina, fotografije in lokacije preživelih signalov o prečkanju razreda Wigwag flagman po vsej ZDA

Nevarnost pred nami: Zgodovinske železniške nesreče - preiskava pomembnih železniških nesreč od prvih dni železniškega prometa do danes

Dizelski motorji iz Schenectadyja - posvečeni Alcosu tako v preteklosti kot v sedanjosti s fotografijami in informacijami

Driving the Last Spike - Zgodovina iz Muzeja mesta San Francisco

Zgodnje železnice - Zapisi in prvi podatki o gradnji in delovanju železnic v ZDA in po svetu

Društvo za ohranjanje F40PH - Ohranja zgodovino in artefakte, povezane z Amtrakovimi dizelskimi lokomotivami F40PH

Padle zastave in druge železniške fotografije - Obsežne fotogalerije padlih zastav po vsej Severni Ameriki

FallnFlags - fotografije lokomotiv severne lokomotive pred Burlingtonom, ki posebej zajemajo veliko severno železnico, vključujejo sheme barv Great Northern Sky Blue in Orange, severni Pacifik, Spokane Portland in Seattle ter Burlington

Pozabljene železnice - tekoči projekt za raziskovanje, sledenje in kartiranje opustitev železniških prog

Prijatelji severne železnice Burlington - zgodovinska družba, osredotočena na BN in BNSF

Parna lokomotiva z gonilom - ohranjanje in spodbujanje informacij o severnoameriških parnih lokomotivah, vključno s Shay, Heisler, Climax, Byers, Gilbert, Dunkirk, Willamette, Davenport, Baldwin, Bell in drugimi

Mednarodno društvo za ohranitev žensk na železnici - Potujoča razstava ponuja izobraževalni pogled v svet železničark

Posebna interesna skupina za železarsko in jeklarsko industrijo - skupina za tiste, ki jih zanimajo železnice jeklarn in tudi jeklarne, so dobrodošli tako prototipni oboževalci kot modelarji

Nacionalna železniška knjižnica John W. Barriger III - Posebna knjižnica v okviru trgovske knjižnice St. Louis na Univerzi v Missouriju - St. Louis

Podjetje Johnson Farebox - Zgodovina in fotografije predalov Johnsona in Clevelanda, ki jih najdemo v številnih vozičkih, tramvajih in avtobusih do šestdesetih let 20. stoletja

Locomotive Records - Vodnik po najzgodnejših, najhitrejših, najtežjih, največjih in najmočnejših parnih lokomotivah

Železniške proge za sečnjo Severne Amerike - Seznam vseh znanih železniških operacij za sečnjo v Severni Ameriki

Društvo za ohranjanje lokomotiv trgovske mornarice - posvečeno dejavnostim MNLPS, lastnikom in upravljavcem lokomotive razreda MN 35028 "Clan line"

Vlak Merci - Fotografije in zgodovina vlaka z 49 avtomobili, napolnjenega z darili, ki jih je Francija leta 1948 podarila ZDA

Mike's Railway History - obsežna zgodovina svetovnih železnic do sredine tridesetih let 20. stoletja Michael Irlam

Železniški arhiv Multimodalways - Zbirka optično prebranih zemljevidov, vozovnic in različnih dokumentov iz preteklih in sedanjih severnoameriških železnic

National Railway Historical Society (NRHS) - Uradna stran ameriške nacionalne zgodovinske organizacije

Severnoameriško združenje železniških operaterjev - namenjeno ohranjanju in varnemu, zakonitemu delovanju železniške opreme, ki se je v preteklosti uporabljalo pri vzdrževanju poti

Družinska drevesa severnoameriške železnice - kronologija predhodnikov severnoameriških železnic

Zgodovinsko združenje železnic severnega Pacifika - namenjeno ohranjanju zgodovine prve severnoameriške transkontinentalne železnice

Vlaki starih časov - ohranjanje kanadske železniške dediščine s članki, zgodbami, fotografijami in drugim

Pacific Railway Act, The - Zakon iz leta 1862 za pomoč pri gradnji železnice in telegrafske proge od reke Missouri do Tihega oceana

PCC Car - Ni tako standardno - Zgodovina in fotografije avtomobilov PCC

PCC Cars - Fotografije in informacije o avtomobilih PCC, avtor Gerard Scheltens

Pennsy Railcar Restorations LLC-nudi svetovanje na kraju samem in zunaj njega za nakup, prevoz in obnovo železniških vozil

Seznam ohranjenih severnoameriških električnih železniških vagonov - podatkovna zbirka ohranjenih severnoameriških električnih železniških vagonov s specifikacijami avtomobilov, zgodovino lastništva in fotografijami

Knjižnica Pullman - Več kot milijon risb, izvirnih specifikacij, korespondenc, fotografij in dokumentacije v zvezi z osebnimi in tovornimi vagoni Pullman in Pullman -Standard Illinois Railway Museum, Union, Illinois

Zgodovinski označevalci železniških in tramvajskih vozil - Seznam obcestnih in drugih trajnih označb, povezanih z železnico, z besedilom, fotografijami, zemljevidi, podrobnimi informacijami o lokaciji in komentarji

Zgodovina železniških vagonov - izdaja elektronske knjige o železniških vagonih in sorodnih temah

Železniško evangelistično združenje-Nekonfesionalna, nestrankarska krščanska železniška družina

Generaloško društvo RailRoad - namenjeno iskanju, zbiranju in ohranjanju vseh zapisov, ki se nanašajo na zaposlene na ameriških zgodovinskih železnicah

Blog Railroad Heritage Blog - zajema sodobno in vintage železniško progo, s sprehodi po opremi, starinskimi fotografijami in novicami o ohranjanju

Arhiv železniških zemljevidov - Zgodovinski železniški zemljevidi iz vseh ZDA, brezplačno na voljo na Univerzi v Alabami

Zbirka železniških zemljevidov - Več kot 600 železniških zemljevidov od 1828-1900 iz arhiva Kongresne knjižnice

Železniški vzdevki - Vodnik po vzdevkih preteklih in sedanjih severnoameriških železnic

Železniška policija - promovira zgodovino redarstva na železnici

Spletno mesto za železniške signale - Podrobne fotografije in opisi železniških signalov za reflektorje, barvne luči, lasulje in svetlobne signale

Železniška signalizacija in komunikacije - Fotografije in informacije o različnih železniških signalih in komunikacijski opremi

Historical Society Railroad Station, Inc - Zbirke obstoječih železniških / železniških struktur v ZDA in Kanadi, zgodovinske raziskave o skladiščih, reference o železniških strukturah in drugo

Domača stran železniške postaje, - Posvečena arhitekturi in zgodovini železniških postaj po vsem svetu

Železniške zgodbe - Zbirka železniških zgodb s konca 19. in začetka 20. stoletja

Railroad.net - Na desetine Railfan forumov, razglednic, prototipnih fotogalerij in še več

RailroadRob.net - Stare razglednice in dokumenti na železnici, zgodovina tramvajske službe v Grand Rapids MI in vodnik po hotelih in krajih, ki so posebej zanimivi za ljubitelje železnice in popotnike na železnici

Zgodovinsko društvo železnic in lokomotiv - spodbuja raziskave in spodbuja hranjenje dokumentacije, ki je pomembna za poslovno zgodovino, finance, zgodovino dela, biografijo in tehnologijo

Railway Mail Service - Zgodovina dostave pošte po železnici, od USPS

Railway Preservation News - Spletna revija o zgodovini in ohranjanju železnic, ki jo ureja Bob Yarger

Železnice v glasbi - Zgodovina železnic v glasbi, Philip Scowcroft

Arhiv železnic Kanade - Ohranjanje zgodovine kanadskih železnic z več deset članki in fotografijami

RailwaySurgery.org - Ohranja zgodovino železniških kirurgov in bolnišnic ter izobražuje javnost o njihovem delu in prispevkih v medicini

Zbirka redkih zemljevidov - Zgodovinski železniški zemljevidi, ki so na voljo na spletu z Univerze v Gruziji

Rekordne železniške poti - Vodnik po najvišjih, najbolj strmih in najdaljših železniških razredih po vsem svetu

Železniški arhiv Richarda Leonarda - Fotografije in komentarji o parnih lokomotivah, ki so delovale v petdesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja na severnoameriških železnicah, vključno s CB&Q, CPR, GTW, IC, NKP, NYC in UP

Richardov salonski avtomobil - posvečen zgodovini različnih severnoameriških osebnih avtomobilov, večinoma kanadskih, CNR, CPR in nekaterih ameriških

Spalni avtomobil Richardovega planeta - zgodovinski podatki in podatki o različnih spalnih in salonskih avtomobilih, ki jih upravljajo kanadski narod, kanadski Pacifik in Pullman v Kanadi, ZDA in Mehiki

RRSignal.com - Informacije in fotografije signalov, oprema CTC, releji in drugo

Semaphores.com - Obsežen seznam živih in muzejskih semaforjev, fotografij, zgodovine semaforjev in še več

Slim Rails - fotografije in informacije o ozkotirnih železnicah, vključno z Carson & Colorado, Durango & Silverton, East Tennessee & Western North Carolina, and East Broad Top

Gora svetega Miklavža-Eden od šestih opazovalnih avtomobilov z visokimi okni, ki jih je American Car & Foundry izdelal za graditelja imperija srednjega stoletja, zdaj pa se obnavlja za zasebna potovanja z železnico

Steam in the Americas - Zajema možnosti za delujočo in skoraj delujočo paro v Ameriki ter poudarja nekatere ohranjene parne lokomotive in relikvije

SteamLocomotive.com - Obsežen vodnik po preživelih parnih lokomotivah v Severni Ameriki, vključno z motorji, ki trenutno delujejo in se obnavljajo

Streamliner Memories - železniške brošure, oglasi, vozni redi, meniji in vozovnice iz petdesetih in šestdesetih let

Streamliner Schedules - Urniki racionalizatorjev od sredine tridesetih do poznih šestdesetih let

Tap Lines - ponuja skenirane železniške knjige za zgodovinarje in modelarje, vključno z uradnimi vodniki, registri opreme in seznami graditeljev lokomotiv na CD -ju in DVD -ju

Tehnično društvo za varnost in signalizacijo železniških operacij - Osredotočenost na varnost in signalizacijo vključuje navedbo imen železnic, podatke o razbitinah/nesrečah in zgodovinske podatke o signalizaciji in prestopih

Birney Car - spletna knjiga s seznami in zgodovino tramvajev po državah

Stran Caboose - fotografije kabojev in informacije o njihovi uporabi

Trgovina z dizelskim motorjem - celovit vir za razporeditev pogonskih sil in lokomotive prve generacije

Omejitev dvorišča: ameriški dizelski stikalci - Spotterjev vodnik, galerija fotografij, novice in drugo

Filmi o vlakih-Vodnik po več kot 130 klasičnih filmih o vlakih, veliko zdaj redkih in brez tiskanja, vključno s podrobnostmi o lokacijah snemanja in predstavljenih železnicah, postajah in opremi

Rekordi vlakov - Vodnik po najhitrejših, najdaljših in najtežjih vlakih v zgodovini ZDA in sveta

Razbitine vlakov - Vodnik po najzgodnejših, najsmrtonosnejših in najbolj nenavadnih razbitinah vlakov, nesrečah, iztirnicah in nesrečah

Transcontinental Railroad, The - Zgodovina voditeljev, ustanoviteljev in delavcev na Central Pacific Railroad

Načrtovanje prevoza in odpreme vlakov - zgodovinske in tehnične informacije o odpremi, načrtovanju in upravljanju vlakov

Trolley Cars Dot Com - Projekti restavriranja, konzerviranje in drugo

Resnična zgodba o Caseyju Jonesu - objavljeno v "Erie Railroad Magazine" (april 1928)

Zgodovinsko društvo Union Pacific - Ohranjanje zgodovine železnice Union Pacific od njenega začetka leta 1862 do obratovanja, kakršno je danes

Zgodovina in fotografije Union Pacific - Zgodovina železnice Union Pacific (UP), zgodovinska železniška oprema in fotografije

Domača stran industrijske dediščine Vagela Kellerja - zgodovinski in modelirni podatki o ameriški industriji premoga, železa in jekla ter železnici


Severna železnica Francije - zgodovina

    (d-maps.com)
  • Atlas des colonies françaises, protectorats et Terries sous mandat de la France, 1934 (G. Grandidier)
  • Atlas historique de la France depuis César jusqu ’à nos jours (Auguste Longnon, 1907) Zbirka (Knjižnica kongresa) (Zbirka digitalnih zemljevidov knjižnice Ameriškega geografskega društva) (Zbirka zemljevidov Davida Rumseyja) (WHKMLA) (Gallica - Bibliothèque nationale de France) (Univerza Columbia) (oldmapsonline.org)
    (Putzgers Historischer Weltatlas, 1923) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (R. Lane Poole, Zgodovinski atlas moderne Evrope, ok. 1900) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (R. Lane Poole, Zgodovinski atlas moderne Evrope , c.1900) (Putzgers Historischer Weltatlas, 1905)
  • Francija okoli leta 1035 (William Shepherd, Zgodovinski atlas, 1926) (R. Lane Poole, Zgodovinski atlas. C.1900) (R. Lane Poole, Zgodovinski atlas. C.1900) (Droysens. 1886) (William Shepherd, Zgodovinski atlas, 1926)
  • Francija v trinajstem stoletju (R. Lane Poole, Zgodovinski atlas moderne Evrope, okoli leta 1900) (R. Lane Poole, Zgodovinski atlas moderne Evrope, ok. 1900) (R. Lane Poole, Zgodovinski atlas moderne Evrope, ok. 1900) (William Shepherd, Zgodovinski atlas, 1926) (Muir ’s Historical Atlas, 1911) (Robert Labberton, New Historical Atlas and General History, 1886) (R. Labberton, New Historical Atlas. 1886) (Muir ’s Historical Atlas, 1911) (William Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) (William Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1926 ) (Robert Labberton, Novi zgodovinski atlas in splošna zgodovina, 1886) (Charles Colbeck, Zgodovinski atlas javnih šol, 1905)
  • La France en 1461 (à la mort de Charles VII) (Mirot, Manuel de géographie historique de la France, 1947) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (The British Library) (Robert Labberton, New Historical Atlas and General History, 1886) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Muir ’s Historical Atlas, 1911) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886 ) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Lane Poole, Historical Atlas of Modern Europe, c.1900) (William Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1926) (J. Bartholomew, A Literary & amp Historical Atlas of Europe, 1910) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (Robert Labberton, New Historical Atlas. 1886) (Robert Labberton, New Historical Atlas. 1886) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) ( William Shepherd, Zgodovinski atlas, 1926) (William Shepherd, Zgodovinski atlas, 1926) (William Shepherd, Zgodovinski atlas, 1926) (William Shepherd, Zgodovinski atlas, 1926) (William Shepherd, Zgodovinski atlas, 1926) (William Shepherd, Zgodovinski atlas , 1926) (Cambridge Modern Atlas zgodovine, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas , 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge. 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Ameriški spominski muzej holokavsta)

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Atlas Francije

La Francoska republika à la suite d'un long processus d'évolution étalé sur près de 2 000 ans d'histoire, est un État d'Europe dont le territoire métropolitain est situé en Europe de l'Ouest. La France est-parmi tous les grands États européens-le plus anciennement constitué, autour d’un domaine royal Initialment centré sur l’Île-de-France, sa capitale étant Pariz.

França es un país de l'Euròpa occidentala, es la pàtria del pòble francés e forma un estat. França es, demèst totes los grands Estats europencs, lo mai ancianament constituat, a l'entorn d'un domeni reial inicialament centrat sus l'Illa-de-França, que sa capitala zgodovica e culturala es uèi París.

La República Francesa, és un estat d'Europa el territori metropolità del qual és situat en l'Europa de l'oest. França és - dins el conjunt dels països més grans d'Europa - el més antigament constituit, a l'entorn d'un domini reial inicialment centrat en l'illa de França, la seva capital és París. Catalunya-nord esdevé francesa el 1659 amb el tractat dels Pirineus (Tractat no oficial perquè no ha estat mai aprovat per les Corts Catalanes de Barcelona).

Frankriich isch e Land, wo im weschtliche Europa leit. Es het ebbis meh wie sächzig Millione Ywohner in isch 543.965 km² groß un 's isch nooch Russland und dr Ukraine es dritt gröscht Land fun Europa. Es Elsass isch e Stickel fun Frankriich un d'r Sproch, wo mer spricht, isch Elsässerditsch.

The Francoska republika je država, katere metropolitansko ozemlje se nahaja v zahodni Evropi in ki obsega tudi različne čezmorske otoke in ozemlja na drugih celinah. Metropolitanska Francija se razteza od Sredozemskega morja do Rokavskega preliva in Severnega morja ter od Renu do Atlantskega oceana. Francija meji na ► Belgijo (► Flandrijo in ► Valonijo), ► Luksemburg, ► Nemćijo, ► Švico, ► Italijo (z ► dolino Aoste), ► Monako, ► Andoro in ► Španijo (s ► Katalonijo, ► Navarro in ► Baskija. V nekaterih svojih čezmorskih departmajih ima Francija tudi kopenske meje z ► Brazilijo, ► Surinamom in ► Sint Maartenom (konstitutivno državo Kraljevine Nizozemske). Predor, ki poteka pod Rokavskim prelivom.
Francija vključuje tudi čezmorske regije/departmaje ► Guadeloupe, ► Francoska Gvajana, ► Martinik in ► Réunion, čezmorsko skupnost/regijo ► Korziko, kakor tudi ► Francosko Polinezijo, čezmorsko drżavo, ► Novo Kaledonijo, entiteto sui generis, ► Mayotte, oddelčna kolektivnost in druge čezmorske kolektivnosti ► Saint-Barthélemy, ► Saint-Martin, ► Saint-Pierre in Miquelon, ► Wallis in Futuna ter nenaseljena ozemlja ► otoka Clipperton ter ► francoskega juga in Antarktike Zemljišča.


Železniki v Olive Drabu: Vojaška železniška služba v drugi svetovni vojni

Julija 1861 je brigadni general Konfederacije Joseph E. Johnston dramatično pokazal pomen železnic v sodobnem vojskovanju, ko je z železniške postaje 12000 vojakov premaknil s postaje Piemont (danes Delaplane) v Virginiji na Manassas Junction, razdaljo približno 50 milj, da bi okrepil sile Konfederacije so se zbrale jugozahodno od Washingtona, DC. Premik je trajal le približno tretjino časa, ki so ga vojaki prevozili s korakom, in prišli so pripravljeni na boj. Okrepitve so presenetile sile Unije in prispevale k zmagi upornikov 21. julija v prvi bitki za Bull Run. To je bil šele prvi poskus prevoza velikega števila vojakov med državljansko vojno po železnici. Železnice so bile tako pomembne, da je vojno ministrstvo organiziralo ameriške vojaške železnice in korpus železniških konstrukcij za popravilo, delovanje in vzdrževanje železniških prog, ko se je vojska Unije preselila na ozemlje Konfederacije. Obe organizaciji sta se v veliki meri oprli na izkušene železniške delavce in inženirje, ki so bili pooblaščeni za prostovoljne častnike in so delali pod nadzorom generalmajdorja vojske Unije generalmajorja Montgomeryja C. Meigsa.

Koncept napotitve izkušenih železnikov v vojsko se je nadaljeval v prvi svetovni vojni pod okriljem vojaške železniške službe (MRS), ki jo je upravljal inženirski zbor. Redni polkovniki vojske so poveljevali inženirskim polkom, organiziranim kot železniške enote. Poklicni železničarji, ki so bili podpolkovniki, so služili kot izvršni častnik polka. Med prvo in drugo svetovno vojno je inženirski zbor ugotovil, da polk ni najboljša organizacija za delovanje železnic. Inženirski rezervni častniki, ki so bili v svoji civilni karieri železničarji, so pomagali oblikovati ustrezne enote za vojaške železniške operacije. Odločili so se, da bodo kot osnovo nove organizacije uporabili najnižji organizacijski element ameriških železnic, oddelkov. V železniškem oddelku je bil nadzornik odgovoren za vzdrževanje glavnih tirov, stranskih poti, terminalov, trgovin in struktur, potrebnih za upravljanje vlakov na določenem odseku železniške proge. Oddelek je vzdrževal in upravljal tudi lokomotive in vagone. Poklicni železničarji in vojaški inženirji so oblikovali železniški operativni bataljon, ki je zrcalil funkcije civilnega železniškega oddelka.

Poslanstvo železniškega operativnega bataljona je bilo upravljati in vzdrževati določen odsek vojaške železnice v gledališču operacij. Za razliko od civilnih železnic pa so morali biti bataljoni pripravljeni uničiti tudi progo, ki jo je upravljal. Na splošno bi lahko železniški operativni bataljon vzdrževal in obratoval med 90 in 150 miljami enotirne železnice, čeprav je bilo njegovo dejansko področje odgovornosti v vojnem času odvisno od vojaških razmer. Pri izvajanju železniških operacij na prijaznih območjih ali zasedenem ozemlju je bataljon uporabil lokalne civilne tehnične in usposobljene delavce na železnici za povečanje svojih zmogljivosti, vendar jih je moralo nadzorovati vojaško osebje, da bi se zaščitilo pred morebitnimi sabotažami. Predstavil je tudi izzive angleško govorečim ameriškim vojakom-železničarjem, ki niso bili vedno seznanjeni s tem, kako druge države upravljajo svoje železnice.

Organizacija železniškega operativnega bataljona je bila vzporedna s tipičnim vojaškim bataljonom s štabno četo in tremi ali štirimi četami s črkami. Vsako podjetje je imelo edinstveno organizacijo s posebnimi zmogljivostmi, ki ustrezajo organizaciji civilne železniške enote. Podjetje s sedeža je poslalo vlake, zaloge in signale. Podjetje Popravljena in vzdrževana proga in pripadajoča oprema, kot so stikala, mostovi, rezervoarji za vodo, signalna oprema in zgradbe. Družba je imela dva voda, enega za vzdrževanje mostov in zgradb in enega za vzdrževanje tirov. Družba B je upravljala okroglo hišo ter popravljala in vzdrževala tirna vozila - lokomotive in vagone. Imel je tudi dva voda, enega za popravilo lokomotiv, drugega za popravilo avtomobilov. Lokomotive in železniški vagoni niso bili dodeljeni bataljonu, ampak so se po potrebi premikali po celotnem železniškem sistemu. Četa C je bila največja enota v bataljonu z dvema vodoma, od katerih je vsak imel petindvajset posadk za upravljanje vlakov, dvorišč in postaj na območju odgovornosti bataljona. Na območjih po svetu, kjer je bilo veliko električnih vlakov, na primer v Evropi, bi lahko bataljonu dodali družbo D za vzdrževanje sistema oskrbe z električno energijo.

Ne samo, da je bataljonska organizacija odražala civilno železniško službo, tabela organizacije je povezovala vojaške položaje z njihovimi civilnimi kolegi. Poveljnik bataljona, podpolkovnik, je bil enakovreden divizijskemu nadzorniku na komercialni železnici. Poveljniki čet, vsi kapitani, so se enačili s svojimi kolegi na civilnih železnicah: divizijski inženir je poveljeval četi A, glavni mehanik je vodil četo B, poveljnik voda pa je vodil četo C. Vodje voda so imeli podobne civilne posebnosti. Mnogi vojaki so bili izkušeni železniki, ki so v vojski opravljali v bistvu enaka dela kot v civilnih poklicih. Medtem ko je bil poudarek na železnici, so vojaki obiskovali osnovno bojno usposabljanje, bataljoni pa so v skladu z ustreznimi vojaškimi priročniki vojske izvajali disciplinsko, fizično, bojno in tehnično usposabljanje.

Inženirski zbor je za iskanje in usposabljanje častnikov in ljudi za nove bataljone razvil Načrt pridruževanja, s katerim so komercialne železnice v Združenih državah sponzorirale posebne enote v MRS. V skladu z načrtom je komercialna železnica imenovala uradnike na podlagi njihovih tehničnih nalog. Po opravljenem fizičnem pregledu so bili naročeni kot rezervni častniki v vojski in razporejeni na ustrezne položaje v bataljonu, ki ga sponzorira železnica, da bi zagotovili kader poklicnih železnikov.

Naslednji višji štab železniškega operativnega bataljona je bila velika železniška enota, ki je ustrezala pisarni generalnega nadzornika na civilni železnici in je nadzorovala delovanje več divizij. Velika divizija je običajno vključevala tri ali štiri operativne bataljone, trgovski bataljon in četo baznega depoja. Trgovinski bataljoni so se ukvarjali z velikimi popravili, gradnjo in remontom opreme, medtem ko je osnovno skladišče zagotavljalo zaloge. Gledališča operacij z več kot eno veliko enoto so ustanovila sedež MRS.

18. junija 1941 je vojska v Fort Belvoiru v Virginiji organizirala prvi tovrstni 711. železniški operativni bataljon. Za razliko od drugih železniških operativnih bataljonov ni imela civilnega podjetja, ki bi ga sponzoriralo. Namen je bil zamenjati častnike in vpoklicane moške skozi bataljon na kratke dolžnosti za usposabljanje. Policisti iz desetih različnih ameriških železnic so imeli v bataljonu osebje, osemindvajset vojakov pa je prišlo iz odreda inženirske šole v Fort Belvoirju. Iz centra za zamenjavo inženirjev je bilo na delovnem mestu dodeljenih tudi nekaj sto mož z železniškimi izkušnjami. V oseminštiridesetih dneh po aktiviranju je bataljon saniral dolgo zanemarjeno železnico Quartermaster, dolgo štiri leta in pol, ki je služila temu mestu. Delo je vključevalo zamenjavo tisočih vezi, popravilo več mostov in postavitev dvajsetih prepustov. Naslednja naloga je bila nekoliko zahtevnejša.

Bataljon se je avgusta 1941 preselil v kamp Claiborne v Louisiani, kjer je začel delati na objektu za usposabljanje železniških operativnih bataljonov, ko so bili poklicani na aktivno službo. Dela so se začela z uporabo najete opreme za zemeljska dela, ki so jo upravljali vojaki leta 711., dokler ni postala na voljo vojaška oprema. Prva tirnica je bila položena septembra, oktobra pa so pri gradnji prispeli 91. in 93. inženirski bataljon, ki sta jih imela v lasti afroameriški vojaki. Na progi je delalo več kot 6000 vojakov. Med gradnjo železnice so na projektu delali 98., 383d in 331. inženirski bataljon ter več podjetij za prekucnike. 11. julija 1942 je slovesnost "zlate konice" označila zaključek petdeset milj razvrščanja in polaganja poti med Camp Claiborne in Fort Polk. Tečajniki, znani kot železnica C & ampP za Claiborne in Polk, so jo imenovali "zločin in kazen" ali "najslabša železnica na svetu", ker je bila zgrajena na nestabilnih tleh, zaradi česar so iztirnice pogoste. Da bi bilo usposabljanje bolj realistično, je bilo petindvajset mostov ob progi občasno razstreljenih, da so jih vzdrževalne ekipe bataljonov na usposabljanju lahko obnovile. C & ampP je vključeval železniške postaje na vsakem koncu proge in strojarnice v kampu Claiborne. Telegrafsko in telefonsko linijo za odpremo vlakov je postavil 26. gradbeni bataljon signalov. Železniški vozni park je vključeval devet lokomotiv na kurjenje nafte in skoraj 100 avtomobilov, vključno z vagoni, gondolami, prikolicami, avti s hladilniki, avtomobili hladilniki in kabuzi.

Ko so Združene države decembra 1941 vstopile v drugo svetovno vojno, je vojska aktivirala dodatne operativne bataljone za železnice v skladu z Načrtom pripadnosti. In March 1942, the 727th Railway Operating Battalion, sponsored by the Southern Railway Company, became the first battalion to be activated after the war began, followed in April by the 713th, affiliated with the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway Company. Most of the officers and many of the enlisted men were experienced railroaders, but the new battalions included men drawn from Army training centers who needed to be trained. The newly organized battalions also had to learn how to operate efficiently as units, so the War Department contracted with commercial railroads to provide on-the-job training. For example, an Army train crew would accompany a train manned by civilians to learn operating rules and railroad techniques. The same procedure was followed for other specialties in the battalion with soldiers working alongside their civilian counterparts to learn the basics of railroading. The 713th trained on the Santa Fe line near Clovis, New Mexico, while the 727th went to Camp Shelby, Mississippi, to train on the Southern Railroad between Meridian, Mississippi, and New Orleans, Louisiana. When the 730th Railway Operating Battalion was activated in May, its sponsoring company, the Pennsylvania Railroad, trained the unit on its line near Fort Wayne, Indiana.

As the war effort increased, the War Department activated additional railway units including grand divisions to coordinate operations in overseas theaters of operations and shop battalions to support the operating battalions. In November 1942, the Transportation Corps assumed responsibility for the MRS. During World War II, the MRS operated in every theater of operations where there were American forces. At its peak, it included eleven grand divisions, thirty-three railway operating battalions, and eleven railway shop battalions. A variety of engineer, signal, and military police units provided support to the railroaders.

In September 1942, a detachment of men from the 713th and 727th Railway Operating Battalions became the first soldier railroaders to deploy outside the contiguous United States when they left Clovis, New Mexico, to assume operations of the White Pass and Yukon Railroad in Alaska. In November, the unit was designated the 770th Railway Operating Detachment. In December, two railway operating battalions deployed to theaters overseas. The 711th, which built the C&P Railroad in Louisiana, went to Iran while the 727th headed for North Africa.

The 711th Railway Operating Battalion arrived in Khorramshahr, Iran, a port city on the Persian Gulf, and began operations in January 1943 making up trains and moving them out of the port before taking responsibility for sections of the line. The 711th was joined by the 730th Railway Operating Battalion (Pennsylvania Railroad) and two shop battalions, the 754th (Southern Pacific Company) and 762d (American Locomotive Company, Baldwin Locomotive Company, Electro-Motive Corporation) Railway Shop Battalions. The 702d Railway Grand Division, staffed mainly by railroad men from the Union Pacific Railroad, coordinated the operations of the four battalions in operating the Iranian State Railway which carried three out of five tons of Lend-Lease material shipped to the Soviet Union through the Persian Corridor during World War II. Although the railway operating battalions were designed to operate ninety to 150 miles of line, in Iran the 711th operated 388 miles, and the 730th 289 miles. Creation of the 1st Provisional Railway Operating Battalion, later designated the 791st Railway Operating Battalion, by taking men from the battalions already in Iran plus personnel from other units in the command who had prewar railroad experience, helped reduce the distances. The new unit took over a 221-mile stretch of mountainous country, leaving the 711th with 258 miles and the 730th with 198, still more than the doctrinal guidelines.

During the time the MRS operated the Iranian State Railway, it handled more than four million long tons of freight. In addition to the freight, special passenger trains carried 16,000 Iranian military personnel, 14,000 Polish war refugees, 40,000 British troops, and 15,000 Russian ex-prisoners of war. During the Muslim holy days from 22 February to 21 April 1944, 21,000 pilgrims traveled on trains operated by the MRS. The last American soldier railroaders left Iran in July 1945.

When the Americans and British began planning for an invasion of North Africa, logisticians estimated that it would require thirty-four trains a day to move 5,000 tons a month from the ports of debarkation at Casablanca, Oran, and Algiers to keep Allied forces supplied. The MRS deployed five operating and two shop battalions to keep the required supplies moving. The first railway operating battalion, the 727th, arrived in Africa in December 1942. In January 1943, the 701st Railway Grand Division, sponsored by the New York Central Railroad, was activated at Fort Snelling, Minnesota. After a brief training period in St. Paul monitoring troop trains and studying car records and other documents in the Twin City terminals, the headquarters traveled by train to New York where it boarded the USS Orizaba as part of the Allied forces bound for North Africa. By May, the 701st was in Casablanca where it coordinated the work of three railway operating battalions, the 715th (Illinois Central Railroad), 719th (Texas and New Orleans Railroad Company), and 759th (Missouri Pacific Railroad).

Railroading in North Africa proved to be a challenge. Trains were operated by British, French, and American crews assisted by Arab civilians. With a variety of languages among the railroaders, the crew often used hand signals, although that was not always a solution. For example, the U.S. signal for “go” or “highball it” in railroad terms meant “stop!” in the French system used in North Africa. Another quirk was that French locomotives in North Africa did not have seats for engineers or firemen as American ones did, so crews had to stand for hours on end while they were underway.

In spite of the difficulties, the MRS was moving about 90,000 tons of freight a week by June 1943. At its peak the MRS operated 1,905 miles of railway in North Africa. General Dwight D. Eisenhower, impressed with the work of the soldier-railroaders, wrote that “When we went into North Africa the railway could deliver a maximum of 900 tons of supplies…Yankee energy and modern American methods of operation…increased the daily tonnage to 3000.”

After freeing North Africa from German occupation the Allies’ next move was to Sicily, and MRS personnel went with them. Three days after the initial landings on 10 July 1943 the 727th Railway Operating Battalion went ashore at Licata, Sicily, and immediately began work on the Sicilian railway. Lieutenant General George S. Patton, Jr. later wrote that the battalion “organized national rail workers, located equipment, had steam up, and made a reconnaissance of the rail lines four hours after landing.” In its first twenty-four hours of operations, the 727th moved 400 tons of supplies forward to the 3d Infantry Division. By the third day it was moving 800 tons. During the campaign in Sicily, the 727th operated 1,373 miles of railway using 300 locomotives and 3,500 freight cars that carried an average of 3,400 tons a day to supply Seventh Army.

On 9 September 1943, the Allies made their first landing on the European mainland at Salerno, Italy. After encountering heavy German resistance, they spent the rest of the month building up men and supplies in the beachhead in preparation for an offensive to capture the port city of Naples. Three days after the first Allied troops entered Naples, the advance party of the 703d Railway Grand Division (Atlantic Coast Railroad Company) reached the port only to find that the combination of Allied bombing and German demolition had left the rail yard in shambles. Technical Sergeant Louis L. Russel of the 713th Railway Operating Battalion described the scene on Wednesday 6 October: “Charred and twisted cars were strewn around haphazardly, with lengths of rail cross ties still attached, pointing toward the sky.” It was a mess, but the next day, First Lieutenant R.H. Anderson, a yardmaster from Newton, Kansas, was optimistic when he said, “I believe we can get a train out of this by Sunday.” With everybody in the battalion, including conductors, engineers, and firemen working to clear the debris, Anderson proved correct. On Saturday, a test train consisting of an old Italian locomotive pushing five cars moved four miles out of the yard. Four days later, six trains moving an average of 450 tons each, rolled to the forward railhead.

With the rail yard back in operation, Naples became the primary port for supplying Fifth Army. From January through September 1944, an average of 136,567 tons of freight a month moved out of Naples by rail. By July 1944, all of the MRS troops that had been in North Africa were in Italy operating 2,478 miles of railway with an average of 250 military trains a day in addition to civilian passenger and freight service. Fifth Army commander Lieutenant General Mark Clark recognized the contributions of the soldier-railroaders in Italy when he presented them with a plaque in 1944 that read in part: “The services performed by the Allied Force Military Railway Service have contributed materially to the military operation of the Fifth Army.”

At the same time Allied forces were fighting in North Africa and Italy, they began to build up forces in England for an invasion of France. In July 1942, the MRS organized the 761st Transportation Company at Camp Shelby, Mississippi, with men taken from the 713th, 727th, and 730th Railway Operating Battalions. In September, the company deployed to Scotland where it operated the Melbourne Military Railway and provided switching service to depots being established by American forces. The first railway operating battalion to arrive in England was the 729th (New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad Company) in July 1943. By June 1944, when Allied forces landed at Normandy, the MRS had two grand divisions, three operating battalions, and four shop battalions in England. While in England, the American railroaders conducted technical training, prepared American steam and diesel locomotives for use on the continent, and assembled prefabricated railcars shipped from the United States. They also operated sections of the British rail system that carried American troops and supplies.

As in Italy, railroads and yards were prime targets for Allied bombers in the months before the landings in Normandy, France. Two years of bombing raids had destroyed railroad facilities and twisted tracks into extraordinary shapes. Eleven days after the Allies landed on 6 June 1944, a small detachment of MRS troops arrived to assess the railroad facilities in the beachhead, estimate damage to rails and yards, and locate available locomotives. Using a Jeep equipped with flanged wheels, the detachment surveyed the lines from the landing area to the port of Cherbourg. On 2 July, the 729th Railway Operating Battalion arrived in Normandy and took over operations at the Cherbourg terminals. Assisted by French engine crews and volunteers, the American railroaders repaired roundhouses, shop buildings, engines, and rolling stock while Army engineers cleared the rail line from Cherbourg to Carentan. Nine days after arriving in France, the 729th operated the first passenger train between the two cities.

The 720th Railway Operating Battalion (Chicago and North Western Railway) arrived in France on 15 July and began to rehabilitate and operate approximately sixty-two miles of track between Bayeux and Lisieux. Three days later, the 757th Railway Shop Battalion (Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad) went to work at Cherbourg. In August, another three operating battalions and two more shop battalions arrived. By the end of the month, the MRS was operating 1,006 miles of track and had carried 29,450 passengers on 251 trains and moved 136,169 tons of military freight on 991 trains.

On 15 August, the Allies landed in southern France. One of the goals of that operation was to open the ports of Toulon and Marseilles and establish a southern line of communications to augment the flow of equipment and supplies to the Allied armies in Europe. MRS troops supporting the operation came from Italy. Two of the most experienced operating battalions, the 713th and 727th, deployed to Marseilles and began operations at the end of August. Unlike the situations in Italy and northern France, the ports were not heavily damaged by Allied bombing or German demolitions. In October, the MRS operated 1,897 trains hauling 640,561 tons of freight in support of the Sixth Army Group. General Jacob Devers, commanding the army group, commended MRS troops when he wrote: “I want to send my congratulations to you and your splendid achievement in opening and maintaining the railroad system in southern France since the invasion of our forces.”

Grand divisions, operating battalions, and shop battalions continued to deploy to both northern and southern France to support the Allied forces rolling into Germany. As new battalions arrived, the ones already on the continent moved forward behind the advancing armies. In March 1945, the 729th, the first operating battalion to arrive in France, began transporting rail and construction material to Army engineers building a bridge over the Rhine River at Wesel, Germany. On 9 April, the 720th operated the first train across the new bridge. In its first thirty days of operation, 273,141 tons of freight moved east across the bridge while another 403,656 tons and 309,000 displaced persons moved west.

In May 1945, when the war in Europe ended, the MRS included seven grand divisions, twenty-four operating battalions, seven shop battalions, and a variety of depot and maintenance units as well as eight battalions and two separate companies of military police. Between D-Day at Normandy and V-E Day, MRS loaded and moved more than eighteen million tons of military freight. On 7 June 1945, American railroaders were operating 1,937 locomotives, 34,588 freight cars, and 25,150 miles of track in western Europe. Demobilization of railway units began shortly after V-E Day. The largest contingent of American soldier railroaders was in western Europe with more than 26,600 officers and enlisted men serving there by the end of the war. The last MRS unit, the 716th Railway Operating Battalion (Southern Pacific Company) left Europe in February 1946.

In addition to Europe and North Africa, MRS units operated railroads in India, Burma, and the Philippine Islands. Railway units in India supported construction of the Ledo Road and the airfield used for the airlift over the Himalaya Mountains that provided logistical support to the Chinese. They also supported British and the American forces fighting the Japanese in Burma. The 705th Railway Grand Division (Southern Pacific Company) oversaw military rail operations in India and Burma. The division, along with five railway operating battalions, the 721st (New York Central Railroad), 725th (Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad Company), 726th (Wabash Railroad Company), 745th (Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad), and 748th (Texas and Pacific Railway company) all sailed from Los Angeles aboard the SS Mariposa in December 1943. After thirty-one days at sea they arrived at Bombay, India, in January 1944 to begin operation of sections of the Bengal and Assam Railway.

In India, each of the five operating battalions managed an average of 133 miles of railway. By implementing American techniques, the tonnage carried by the Bengal and Assam Railway increased forty-six percent in the first twenty-six days after the MRS took over. Compared to American railroads, the Indian system was relatively primitive. A unique aspect of railroading in India was the use of elephants to switch cars when locomotives were not available. India also had little in the way of telegraph, telephone, or signal communications. American railroaders installed modern communications equipment to coordinate the increased train movements. They also added 100 miles of double track to facilitate traffic flow. The improvements paid off. Between February 1944 and September 1945, the MRS moved 6,217,143 tons of freight and operated 5,559 passenger trains. The last American railway units left India in October 1945.

There were no requirements for railway units in the Pacific Theater until the Allies reached the Philippine Islands in late 1944. Shortly after the amphibious landings on the island of Luzon in January 1945, a company of MRS troops arrived on the island and began to rehabilitate the rail lines so they could operate the Manila Railway Company. The railroad was in terrible condition due to lack of maintenance, American bombing, and Japanese destruction. While Army engineers rebuilt bridges along the rail line, railway troops repaired locomotives and railcars. The Manila Railway Company had about 712 miles of track on Luzon, but the American forces used only 234 of them designated the Luzon Military Railway. The first train on the line ran on 19 January for a distance of about thirty miles. Because there was no coal the locomotives burned driftwood, pulpwood, and coconut hulls.

Railway supplies began to reach Luzon in February, including locomotives, cars, shop machines, and track material. Eventually fifty-three American-built locomotives and 990 cars reached the island. Several mobile railway workshops deployed to Luzon in March, and in April, two operating battalions, the 737th (New York Central) and the 749th (New York, New Haven, and Hartford Railroad Company) arrived to operate sections of the Luzon Military Railway. By October, MRS troops in the Philippines reached its peak strength of 3,200 officers and enlisted men and 6,010 civilians. Between 1 June and 31 December, they operated a total of 7,410 trains with 48,131 cars. The Army returned control of the Luzon Military Railway back to the Manila Railway Company on 1 January 1946, and the last MRS personnel left the Philippines three months later.

The Military Railway Service was a remarkable team effort made possible by the Affiliation Program the Army and American railroaders developed in the 1930s and implemented as the clouds of global war appeared on the horizon. During World War II the service operated and maintained railroads in Europe, North Africa, Asia, and the Pacific that totaled more than 22,000 miles. Some 43,500 soldier-railroaders, most of whom brought years of experience with them, served in the Army in every theater of operations moving personnel and freight, often under enemy fire and through extreme weather conditions. Their efforts proved vital to the Allied victory.


2000-present day

Metros and monorails are thriving within cities. Online ticketing system started in 2000’s and is one of the major ways of booking train ticket, today. 4.5 billion km was additionally covered in just ten years (2001-2010). Now, the train tracks cover more than 120,000 km of area in India and special amenities like Wi-Fi, customer information system, ergogenic designs and green technologies have taken Indian Railways to the next level.

Recent developments of railway system include technological amenities in unreserved class, high horsepower electric locomotive, GPS based passenger information system, sliding doors, private catering services and many others. (Source)

There is always a next step for Indian Railway. By 2019, more than 7000 stations around the world would receive free Wi-Fi service. The technology team is diving deep into finding greener source of powers.


Wheelchairs

Most, if not all, TGV trains have dedicated spaces for wheelchairs, however, they are all located in the first class cars. But fear not, the price is that of second class, so you’ll not be paying extra to travel with a wheelchair. There’s even space for 2 fellow travellers, and the wheelchair area is located close to the wheelchair-accessible toilets.

Almost all stations in France are now fully equipped to accommodate wheelchairs, including ramps and elevators. But it’s important and highly recommendable that you notify the railroad that you are planning to travel with a wheelchair.


North Railway of France - History

  • 600 - The colony of Massalia is founded by the Ancient Greeks. This would later become the city of Marseille, the oldest city in France.
  • 400 - Celtic tribes begin to settle in the region.
  • 122 - Southeastern France (called Provence) is taken over by the Roman Republic.
  • 52 - Julius Caesar conquers Gaul (most of modern day France).




The Storming of the Bastille


Napoleon is Defeated in Russia

Brief Overview of the History of France

The land that today makes up the country of France has been settled for thousands of years. In 600 BC, a portion of the Greek Empire settled in Southern France and founded the city that is today Marseille, the oldest city in France. At the same time, Celtic Gauls were becoming prominent in other areas of France. The Gauls would sack the city of Rome in 390 BC. Later, the Romans would conquer Gaul and the area would become a productive part of the Roman Empire until the 4th century.


In the 4th century, the Franks, which is where the name France comes from, began to take power. In 768 Charlemagne united the Franks and began to expand the kingdom. He was named the Holy Roman Emperor by the Pope and is today considered the founder of both the French and German monarchies. The French monarchy would continue to be a great power in Europe for the next 1000 years.

In 1792, the French Republic was proclaimed by the French Revolution. This didn't last long, however, as Napoleon grabbed power and made himself Emperor. He then proceeded to conquer most of Europe. Napoleon was later defeated and in 1870 the Third Republic was declared.

France suffered greatly in both World War I and World War II. During World War II France was defeated and occupied by the Germans. Allied forces liberated the country in 1944 after four years of German rule. A new constitution was set up by Charles de Gaulle and the Fourth Republic was formed.


“Cock o’ the North”

COMPETITION is always stimulating. There is no question that the competition of other forms of transport has stirred the locomotive engineers considerably. Diesel rail- cars, for example, have established a new mode of high speed transport on rails. Electrification, where traffic conditions are sufficiently dense to warrant the heavy expenditure involved, has been carried out on an extensive scale. Competition from outside the railways, on the roads, and in the air has to be fought unceasingly.

But “King Coal” is determined to hold his own. On a thermal efficiency basis the steam locomotive of traditional design does not rank very high. Even in the best conditions, not much more than seven per cent of the heat units developed by the burning of the coal on the locomotive fire- grate is turned into useful work in moving the locomotive and its train.

There are, as previously explained, many reasons to account for this figure. The use of the exhaust steam to furnish a draught for the fire necessarily means that power for the purpose must be thrown to waste out of the chimney, whereas in a stationary power- station the steam would be condensed, and its heat, at least, would be trapped. Similarly the limitations imposed in length and diameter on the locomotive boiler involve the loss up the chimney of much of the heat from the fire.

Some years ago the locomotive engineers of the Paris- Orleans Railway of France made an exhaustive study of all the features of locomotive design which have a bearing on efficiency. Their study concentrated on the “flow” of the steam from the time it left the boiler until the moment of its rejection, as exhaust, from the chimney. It was realized that much could be done by the use of larger and more direct steam- pipes and passages, and of improved inlet and exhaust valves to the cylinders, to facilitate that flow. Measures could also be taken to speed up the circulation of the water in the boiler, and this would increase the capacity to raise steam.

An existing “Pacific” locomotive was rebuilt in the Paris- Orleans workshops at Tours to embody the results of this research. The effect was startling. The reconditioned engine, though weighing no more than one of the London and North Eastern “Pacifics”, created new standards of combined speed and weight haulage on what was already a very speedy line. It was proved that trains weighing over 800 tons could be hauled not merely to scheduled time but well within it.

HERALD OF A NEW ORDER. The striking appearance of the great LNER locomotive is indicative of the revolutionary changes in design that she embodies. The “Cock o’ the North” was the first eight- coupled locomotive built for express passenger service in Great Britain.

A series of these earlier “Pacifics” was reconditioned, and the next experiment was to convert another “Pacific” to the 4- 8- 0 wheel arrangement, with a similar boiler, cylinders, and valves, for working over the extremely difficult route through Central France from Vierzon (to which point the trains are worked electrically from Paris) to Toulouse. Again the results were successful.

These developments attracted attention all over France. Other French railways followed suit, and as some of the Paris- Orleans steam locomotive stock was becoming superfluous, owing to the extension of main line electrification from Paris to Tours as well as Vierzon, the Paris- Orleans rebuilt many more of its “Pacifics” for transfer to the Nord and the Est Companies. The news of these Paris- Orleans transformations spread to England when the London and North Eastern Railway was about to build new locomotives for service over the heavily- graded east coast main line between Edinburgh and Aberdeen.

This is one of the most difficult main routes, from the locomotive point of view, in Great Britain. Gradients as steep as 1 in 70 abound. There are also numerous sharp curves demanding reductions of speed, most of them at the beginning of long adverse gradients so that the drivers are compelled to slow down severely just when they are in most need of the impetus for the climb that follows.

THE LEADING DIMENSIONS of this 110- ton locomotive, as given in these diagrams were supplied by the courtesy of the LNER Chief Mechanical Engineer’s Department.

From Inverkeithing, for example, after slowing round the curve to twenty miles an hour, drivers of south- bound trains have an ascent for two miles at 1 in 70 on to the Forth Bridge, and north- bound trains face a similar, though shorter, grade up to Dalgetty.

From every intermediate stop, also, the trains have to accelerate up steep gradients, in some cases, indeed - as in both directions from Arbroath and Montrose, and southwards from Aberdeen - long and arduous climbs. The consequence has been that most of the heavy modern East Coast expresses have needed “double- heading” - that is, the provision of an assistant locomotive - over this section. The new type of engine had to be sufficiently powerful to obviate this.

It was decided that to give an increased tractive force to enable the engines to get away more rapidly from these frequent stops and slowings, and also to move these heavy trains at higher speeds up the banks, the driving wheels should be reduced in diameter from the 6 ft 8 in of the “Pacifics” to 6 ft 2 in, and the diameter of the cylinders increased from the 19 in of the high- pressure “Pacifics” to 21 in. The next essential was to provide greater adhesion, so that this increased power might be transmitted to the rails without slipping, and the decision was made to use eight- coupled instead of six- coupled driving wheels.

These points are important, as “Cock o’ the North” was not designed, as has been widely supposed, for high- speed long- distance running, but for the difficult conditions of the Edinburgh- Aberdeen route. It was the first eight- coupled locomotive built for express passenger service in Great Britain.

However desirable it might have been to provide the engine with a leading four- wheeled bogie, the increased length would have made it necessary to replace the turntables along the route by tables of larger diameter. It was not thought necessary to incur this additional expense, and the locomotive was therefore designed, like the “Moguls”, with a two- wheeled radial truck at the leading end. Another pair of wheels at the rear end carries the immense firebox, and the wheel arrangement of the engine is thus the 2- 8- 2, or “ikado” type, as it is generally known.

Examination of the internal economy of the “Cock o’ the North” shows that the designer of this notable locomotive - Mr. H. N. Gresley, the Chief Mechanical Engineer of the LNER, - has adapted to British conditions certain of the principles which proved so effective on the Paris- Orleans Railway, and has incorporated them in the engine.

THE TENDER contains an automatic water pickup apparatus (shown dotted) to the left of the coal- space.

HEAD- ON DIMENSIONS should be compared with the fine view of this locomotive shown below.

The fine sectional picture of the engine, which appears below, reveals what a mass of detail has been crowded within the smooth external casing of the locomotive. It also shows the difficulties experienced by the designer of the modern locomotive in compressing, within the narrow limits of the British loading gauge, all the working parts of an engine capable of exerting over 2,000 hp on the draw- bar of it train.

The magnificent centre- spread to this photogravure supplement: a fine broadside photograph of No.2001 and a corresponding sectioned cut- away drawing of the locomotive. In addition to the explanatory tabs, there are a further 52 numbered items, each identified by the key in the top right hand corner of the centre- spread.

At a working pressure of 220 lb per sq in, steam passes from the boiler through a series of long narrow slots up into a cavity of pressed steel, which has been riveted on to the top of the boiler at the rear of the dome. From the regulator the steam passes into a main steam- pipe having the unusually large diameter of 7 in. The next stage of its journey is through a 43- element superheater, from which it is led down to the cylinders.

Large poppet- valves of 8- in diameter admit the steam to the cylinders, and 9- in valves are provided for the exhaust the valves are worked by a rotary cam arrangement, instead of the ordinary Walschaerts valve- motion.

The last stage of the journey of the steam is into a blast pipe which branches into two, leading up to a double chimney which has three telescopic sections from the bottom to the top, and is known as the “K.C.” blast- pipe, after its designer, Monsieur K. Chapelon [ sic ], of the Paris- Orleans Railway.

All these arrangements so facilitate the passage of the steam that the engine is capable of doing high- speed work with heavy trains at no more than ten per cent cut- off - that is to say, steam is admitted for one- tenth of the stroke only, and for the remaining nine- tenths does its work by expansion.

FACTS AND FIGURES OF THE “COCK O' THE NORTH”. Cylinders (three) diameter 21in stroke 26 in. Driving wheels, diameter 6 ft 2 in. Heating surface, tubes and flues, 2,477 sq ft firebox, 237 sq ft superheater, 776.5 sq ft total, 3,490.5 sq ft. Firegrate area, 50 sq ft. Working pressure, per sq in, 220 lb. Tractive effort (at 85 per cent working pressure), 43,460 lb. Adhesion weight, 80½ tons. Weight of engine (in working order) 110¼ tons. Coal capacity of tender, 8 tons. Water, 5,000 gals. Weight of engine and tender, 165½ tons. Length of engine and tender (overall), 73 ft 8½ in.

One result of this ultra- short cut- off working is that the pressure at which the steam is finally exhausted is very low, and there would be a tendency for it to drift along the top level of the boiler and obscure the front windows of the driver’s cab, were special precautions not taken to prevent this. It is here that the external casing at the front end of the engine, with its wings on either side of the smoke- box, serves both as streamlining and also to make a strong up- current of ail when the engine is running at speed, which lifts the exhaust steam from the double chimney, and carries it well clear of the cab.

The cab- front also is V- shaped, to assist in the streamlining effect, but, despite the enormous size of the boiler, there is an excellent look- out ahead. Inside the external boiler casing there is found another aid to efficiency in the feed- water heater, of the A.C.F.I. type, which uses some of the exhaust steam in order to heat up the feed- water on its way from the tender into the boiler. This means that less heat is required inside the boiler to convert the feed- water into steam.

A novelty is provided in the shape of a chime whistle in front of the chimney, which was the only convenient place in which it could be put. The tender is of the standard LNER eight- wheeled type. “Cock o’ the North” is the heaviest locomotive built, up to the time of writing, for passenger service in Great Britain, and weighs 110¼ tons in running trim with the tender the total weight is 165½ tons.

Shortly after the “Cock o’ the North” had emerged from Doncaster Works, a test run was made, with a train weighing 650 tons, from King’s Cross to Barkstone, just beyond Grantham, and back. The long gradient to Stoke Summit, partly at 1 in 200 and partly at 1 in 178, was surmounted at an average speed of a mile- a- minute for the whole distance, and without speed at any time falling below 56 miles an hour. The engine developed at the draw- bar the hitherto unprecedented figure for Great Britain of 2,090 hp.

Whether we like it or not, locomotive fashions are fast altering. Both internally and externally revolutionary changes are being made, and from recent developments - of which the “Cock o’ the North” is only one example - it is clear that we must accustom ourselves to locomotives unlike those which have become familiar.

Those who lament the radical external changes in locomotive design sometimes forget that higher and even higher speeds are being called for in this hurrying age. The greater the speed the more potent is the resistance of the air through which the vehicle passes. Streamlining has become essential for all vehicles designed for rapid motion, and we must expect, therefore, that streamlining should be extended to the steam locomotives of the future. It is not the aim of the designer merely to obtain higher speeds. If he can lessen the resistance at high speeds coal consumption will be reduced, and efficiency will be increased proportionately. The “Cock o’ the North” is one of the heralds of the new order of things in the locomotive world.

FROM THE FRONT the feature of the “Cock o’ the North” that chiefly interests the layman is the pair of side- plates, curving upwards to form “shoulders”. The object of these side- plates is to aid visibility from the cab- windows when the engine is running. Owing to the shape of the side- plates a strong current of air sweeps upwards, carrying the exhaust steam and smoke with it clear of the cab- windows.


Poglej si posnetek: Secret War in Laos: Bombing Attacks, School Activities, Military Training of the Pathet Lao (Maj 2022).


Komentarji:

  1. Anluan

    I thank for the help in this question, now I will not commit such error.

  2. Dao

    Nimate prav. Lahko to dokažem. Pišite mi v PM, govorili se bomo.

  3. Devlyn

    Good idea

  4. Ruck

    You have kept away from conversation



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