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Vojna za Jenkinovo uho, 1739-c.1743

Vojna za Jenkinovo uho, 1739-c.1743


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Vojna za Jenkinovo uho, 1739-c.1743

Ena od niza vojn, ki jih je povzročilo kolonialno rivalstvo v novem svetu. Španci so angleške trgovce izključili iz svojih ameriških kolonij, kar je povzročilo tihotapljenje in zamere. Leta 1738 se je kapitan Robert Jenkins pojavil pred parlamentom s svojim ušesom, za katerega je trdil, da so ga Španci odrezali, ko so sedem let prej vstopili na njegovo ladjo. Vojna je bila razglašena leta 1739, čeprav je konflikt kmalu pogoltnila vojna za avstrijsko nasledstvo (1740-1748), do leta 1743 pa so sovražniki v Ameriki postali del vojne kralja Georgea (1744-1748). Leta 1739 in 1740 so bili angleški napadi na španske kolonije na Karibih, v letih 1740 in 1743 pa so napadli St. Augustune (Florida), ki je bil takrat v španskih rokah, medtem ko so Španci leta 1743 izvedli napad na Gruzijo.

Jenkinsovo uho, vojna

Vojna Jenkinsovega ušesa (1739-42), zahodnoindijski pomorski boj, ki je bil del širše anglo-španske vojne (1739-48), se je vodila med Anglijo in Španijo zaradi nadzora trgovine na Karibih. V manjši meri je vojna vključevala tudi obrambo kolonij Velike Britanije na zahodni polobli in strah, da bi Španija in Francija lahko sklenili zavezništvo, da bi omejili prihodnjo britansko širitev v Ameriki. Španija je poskušala preprečiti nizozemskim, danskim, angleškim in francoskim tihotapcem trgovanje s svojimi ameriškimi posesti in omejiti pravne transakcije družbe South Sea Company v angleški lasti s tem območjem.

Nenavadno ime vojne izvira iz incidenta leta 1731, v katerem se je španska posadka vkrcala na angleško ladjo Rebecca zapleniti nekaj njegovega tovora. Ko se je kapitan ladje Robert Jenkins uprl, so mu španski vojaki odtrgali uho in mu rekli, naj ga »odnese k svojemu kralju in mu pove, da mu bodo služili na enak način, če bo priložnost ponujena«. Jenkins je v steklenici odnesel odrezano uho v iskanju odškodnine in ga pokazal državi, kar je vzbudilo precejšnje ogorčenje ljudi.

Med avgustom in sredino decembra 1740 je guverner Gabriel Johnston iz Severne Karoline za boj v vojni zbral in poslal 400 mož, kolikor jih je bilo v Virginiji, in priznal, da bi jih lahko zbral za polovico manj, če bi imel sredstva za prehrano in prehrano. dostaviti v Zahodno Indijo. Tako je bil sposoben zadovoljiti potrebe svojih novakov z 1200 funtov, ki jih je zbrala kolonialna skupščina, vendar je moral zagotoviti prevoz iz diskrecijskih sredstev, ker lastniki ladij ne bi sprejeli papirnega denarja iz Severne Karoline.

Prostovoljci iz Severne Karoline so prispeli na Jamajko do 9. januarja 1741 in se pridružili skoraj 9.000 vojakom, tako rednim vojakom kot provincijalom, in 15.000 mornarjem, ki so čakali na ukaze. 23. marca so napadli Cartageno, vendar mesta niso zavzeli. Izgube za odpravo v Cartageni, tako v boju kot v rumeni mrzlici, so bile velike, zaradi česar je bil admiral Edward Vernon v prihodnjih operacijah manj agresiven. V preostalem delu vojne in v naslednji vojni kralja Georgea (1744-48) je Vernon svoje dejavnosti omejil na zaščito angleškega ladijskega prometa na Karibih in uničenje lokalne španske trgovine.

Vojna Jenkinsovega ušesa ni prinesla občutka uspeha angleškim kolonijam v Ameriki na splošno ali zlasti v Severni Karolini. Le 600 od prvotnih 3600 prostovoljcev se je vrnilo v svoje kolonije. V Severni Karolini se je 25 od enega podjetja s 100 moškimi vrnilo domov, ostalim trem podjetjem verjetno ni bilo nič bolje. Poleg tega so od leta 1741 do deset let kolonialnih plovil ob obali Karoline izgubili španski zasebniki, od katerih so številna na kratko delovala zunaj bank. Mesta, kot sta Beaufort in Brunswick, so bili napadeni in prisiljeni plačati danak, predlagane praškaste revije in trdnjave (otok Ocracoke, Medvedov vhod, Topsail Inlet in na reki Cape Fear) pa niso bile zgrajene ali pa niso dosegle ničesar. V Severni Karolini je bil občutek, da so bili kolonialni interesi žrtvovani širšim angleškim ciljem.

Francis L. Berkeley Jr., "Vojna Jenkinsovega ušesa", Old Dominion (1964).

Hugh T. Lefler in William S. Powell, Kolonialna Severna Karolina: zgodovina (1973).

Franz A. J. Szabo, "Vojna za avstrijsko nasledstvo in sedemletna vojna, 1740-1763", v Frank W. Thackeray in John E. Findling, ur., Dogodki, ki so spremenili svet v osemnajstem stoletju (1998).


Kako so škotski gorščaki zmagali v vojni Jenkinovega ušesa #georgiapioneers

Med letom 1733 je general James Oglethorpe prepeljal več kot sto naseljencev iz visokogorja Škotske. Škoti so v rokah Britancev trpeli zaradi preganjanja od svojega prvega junaka, Charlesa Stuarta, ki je leta 1689 iskal prestol. In med Jakobitskim uporom leta 1745 je na sceno prišel mladi princ, ki je bil ljubkovan kot "bonnie princ Charles". da zase prevzame prestol. Charles Edward Stuart je verjel, da je to njegova rojstna pravica, in je s svojim Jakobitom načrtoval invazijo na Veliko Britanijo ter odstranil hanoverskega uzurpatorja Jurija II. Ko načrt ni uspel, so se škotski klani začeli priseljevati.

Do leta 1733 pa so se, zaradi slabih okoliščin, ki so vplivale na gorštane, odločili za odhod. Oglethorpe je postavil staro britansko utrdbo v Ameriki med Savano in Darien, da bi nove koloniste v Savani zaščitil pred špansko armado v sv. Avguštinu. Če je resnici na ljubo, so bili gorniki tisti, ki so z gverilskim bojem proti napadu španskih osvajalcev med vojno Jenkins Ear (1742) prepričali Španijo, da se preda in se odpove zahtevi po deželi v Ameriki. Predniki v Genealogi okrožja GA McIntosh so dobrodošli, da pustite komentarje.


Vojna Jenkins ' Ear

Vojna Jenkinsovega ušesa je bil konflikt med Veliko Britanijo in Španijo, ki je trajal od 1739 do 1748, velike operacije pa so se v veliki meri končale leta 1742. Njegovo nenavadno ime, ki ga je leta 1858 skoval Thomas Carlyle, se nanaša na Roberta Jenkinsa, kapetana britanskega trgovca ladjo, ki je v Parlamentu razkril svoje uho po vkrcanju na svoje plovilo s strani španske obalne straže leta 1731. Ta afera in številni podobni incidenti so sprožili vojno proti španskemu cesarstvu, ki naj bi spodbudilo Špance, naj se ne odrečejo donosnemu asientu pogodbo (dovoljenje za prodajo sužnjev v španski Ameriki).

Po letu 1742 je vojno prevzela širša vojna za avstrijsko nasledstvo, v katero je bila vključena večina evropskih sil. Mir je prišel z Aix-la-Chapelle pogodbo leta 1748.

Ob koncu vojne za špansko nasledstvo je Utrechtska pogodba iz leta 1713 Britaniji dala tridesetletno asiento ali pogodbo o dobavi neomejenega števila sužnjev španskim kolonijam in 500 ton blaga na leto. To je britanskim trgovcem in tihotapcem omogočilo vdor na (tradicionalno) zaprte trge v španski Ameriki. Vendar sta bili Britanija in Španija v tem obdobju pogosto v vojni, med seboj sta se borili v vojni četvernega zavezništva (1718 �), blokadi Porto Bello (1726) in anglo-španski vojni (1727 �).

V Seviljski pogodbi (1729) je po anglo-španski vojni Britanija španskim vojaškim ladjam podelila pravico, da ustavijo britanske trgovce in preverijo, ali je spoštovana pravica asiento. Sčasoma so Španci postali sumljivi, da britanski trgovci zlorabljajo pogodbo in so se začeli vkrcavati na ladje in jim zasegati tovor. Po zelo zaostrenih odnosih med letoma 1727 in 1732 so se razmere izboljšale med letoma 1732 in 1737, ko je sir Robert Walpole med vojno za nasledstvo Poljske podpiral Španijo. Toda vzroki za težave so ostali in ko je naraščalo nasprotovanje Walpoleju, se je povečalo tudi protišpansko razpoloženje v britanski javnosti.

Walpole je popustil pritisku in odobril pošiljanje vojakov v Zahodno Indijo in eskadrilo na Gibraltar pod admiralom Haddockom, kar je povzročilo takojšnjo špansko reakcijo. Španija je zaprosila za finančno odškodnino, kar je privedlo do britanskega povpraševanja po razveljavitvi & quot; pravice do obiska & quot;, dogovorjene v Seviljski pogodbi (1729). V odgovor je španski kralj Filip V. razveljavil desnico Asiento in zasegel vse britanske ladje v španskih pristaniščih.

Konvencija Pardo, ki je poskušala posredovati v sporu, se je porušila. 14. avgusta je Britanija odpoklicala svojega veleposlanika v Španiji in 23. oktobra 1739 uradno napovedala vojno. Kljub Pacte de Famille je Francija ostala nevtralna. Walpole je bil zelo nejevoljen pri napovedi vojne in je po poročanju pripomnil o veselju v Veliki Britaniji in "zvonijo jim v zvonove, kmalu bodo skrčili roke".

Dodatne informacije: Robert Jenkins (glavni mornar)

Incident, ki je dal ime vojni, se je zgodil leta 1731, ko je na britansko brigado Rebecco vstopila španska obalna straža La Isabela, ki ji je poveljeval Julio Le ón Fandi ño. Po vkrcanju je Fandi ño odrezal levo uho kapetanu Rebecce Robertu Jenkinsu, ki je bil obtožen piratstva. Fandi ño je Jenkinsu rekel: "Pojdi in povej svojemu kralju, da bom storil enako, če si bo drznil storiti isto." Commons. Po nekaterih poročilih je med obiskom izdrl odrezano uho, čeprav ni podrobnega zapisa o zaslišanju. Incident so obravnavali skupaj z različnimi drugimi primeri & quot; španskih depredations on the British Subjects & quot; in so ga dojemali kot žalitev časti naroda in jasen casus belli.

Glavni članek: Bitka pri Porto Bellu

Po pričevanju Jenkinsa in peticijah drugih trgovcev iz Zahodne Indije je opozicija v parlamentu 28. marca 1738 glasovala za pošiljanje & quotan Address & quot kralju, v katerem je od svojega veličanstva zahteval odškodnino od Španije. Več kot eno leto kasneje, ko so bila vsa diplomatska sredstva izčrpana, je 10. julija 1739 kralj George II pooblastil Admiralitetni odbor, da zahteva pomorske represalije proti Španiji. 20. julija sta viceadmiral Edward Vernon in eskadrila bojnih ladij odpotovala iz Anglije proti Zahodni Indiji, da bi napadla španske ladje in "posest". Dejanska napoved vojne proti Španiji je bila razglašena šele v soboto, 23. oktobra 1739 (po starem slogu).

Eno prvih dejanj je bilo 22. novembra 1739, ko so Britanci zavzeli Porto Bello, mesto izvoznika srebra na obali Paname, da bi poškodovali španske finance in oslabili njene pomorske zmogljivosti. Slabo zaščiteno pristanišče je napadlo šest ladij proge pod viceadmiralom Edwardom Vernonom, ki so ga zavzeli v štiriindvajsetih urah. Britanci so mesto umaknili tri tedne, preden so se umaknili, saj so uničili njegove utrdbe, pristanišča in skladišča. Bitka je pripeljala Špance do spremembe trgovalne prakse. Namesto da bi trgovali v centraliziranih pristaniščih z nekaj velikimi zakladnicami, so začeli uporabljati večje število manjših konvojev, ki so trgovali v najrazličnejših pristaniščih. Prav tako so začeli potovati po rtu Horn, da bi trgovali na zahodni obali. [Potrebno citiranje] Gospodarstvo Porto Bella je bilo močno poškodovano in si ni okrevalo vse do izgradnje Panamskega prekopa več kot stoletje pozneje.

V Veliki Britaniji so zmago pozdravili z veliko praznovanjem, leta 1740 pa so na večerji v čast Vernona v Londonu pesem & quotRule Britannia & quot; prvič izvedli v javnosti. Portobello Road v Londonu je dobil ime po tej zmagi in podelili so več medalj kot za kateri koli drug dogodek v osemnajstem stoletju. Zavzetje pristanišča v španskem ameriškem cesarstvu so mnogi Patriot Whigi in opozicijski torijevci na splošno menili, da so bili vnaprej sklenjeni, ki so pritiskali na nejevoljnega Walpola, da bi sprožil večje pomorske odprave v Mehiški zaliv.

Dodatne informacije: potovanje Georgea Ansona po svetu

Uspeh operacije Porto Bello je Britance septembra 1740 poslal eskadriljo pod komodorjem Georgeom Ansonom, ki je napadla špansko posest v Pacifiku. Preden so sploh prispeli do Pacifika, je velika večina odprave umrla zaradi bolezni in niso bili v formi, da bi sprožili kakršen koli napad. [16] Anson je ponovno sestavil svoje sile na otokih Juan Fern ández in jim omogočil okrevanje, preden se je pomaknil navzgor po čilski obali in napadel majhno mesto Paita. Vendar je v Acapulco prišel prepozno, da bi prestregel letno galerijo v Manili, kar je bil eden glavnih ciljev odprave. Umaknil se je čez Pacifik in naletel na nevihto, ki ga je prisilila, da pristane za popravila v Kantonu. Naslednje leto je zadnjič poskusil prestreči galerijo v Manili. To je naredil 20. junija 1743 na rtu Espiritu Santo in zajel več kot milijon zlatnikov.

Anson je nato odplul domov in se nazadnje vrnil v London več kot tri leta in pol po tem, ko se je odpravil na pot, pri tem pa je obkrožil svet. Manj kot desetina sil je preživela ekspedicijo, vendar so Ansonovi dosežki pomagali uveljaviti njegovo ime in bogastvo v Veliki Britaniji, kar je privedlo do njegovega poznejšega imenovanja za prvega gospoda Admiralitete.

Glavni članek: obleganje svetega Avguština

Leta 1740 so prebivalci Gruzije sprožili kopenski napad na svetega Avguština na Floridi, podprti z britansko pomorsko blokado, vendar so bili odbiti. Britanske sile pod vodstvom Jamesa Oglethorpa, guvernerja Gruzije, so več kot mesec dni oblegale svetega Avguština, preden so se umaknile, pri tem pa so opustile topništvo. Neuspeh blokade kraljeve mornarice, da bi preprečila dobavo zalog do naselja, je bil ključni dejavnik pri propadu obleganja. Oglethorpe je nato začel pripravljati Gruzijo na pričakovani španski napad.

Ko je izbruhnila vojna leta 1739, je bilo tako v Veliki Britaniji kot v Španiji pričakovano, da se bo Francija pridružila vojni na španski strani. To je imelo veliko vlogo pri taktičnih izračunih Britancev. Če bi Španci in Francozi delovali skupaj, bi imeli prednost devetdeset ladij te linije. Leta 1740 je prišlo do strahu pred invazijo, ko so verjeli, da se bosta francoska flota v Brestu in španska flota na Ferrolu združila in začela invazijo na Britanijo. Čeprav se je izkazalo, da temu ni tako, so Britanci obdržali večji del svojih pomorskih in kopenskih sil v južni Angliji kot odvračilnega sredstva.

Mnogi v britanski vladi so se bali sprožiti veliko ofenzivo proti Špancem, ker so se bali, da bi velika britanska zmaga Francijo vlekla v vojno, da bi zaščitila ravnovesje sil.

Glavni članek: Bitka pri Cartageni de Indias

Največja akcija vojne je bil velik amfibijski napad, ki so ga Britanci pod admiralom Edwardom Vernonom marca 1741 izvedli proti Cartageni de Indias, enemu od glavnih španskih pristanišč za trgovanje z zlatom v njihovi koloniji Nova Granada (danes Kolumbija). Vernonovo odpravo so ovirali neučinkovita organizacija, njegovo rivalstvo s poveljnikom njegovih kopenskih sil in logistične težave pri pripravi in ​​vzdrževanju velike čezatlantske odprave. Močne utrdbe v Cartageni in sposobna strategija španskega poveljnika Blasa de Leza so bile odločilne pri odbijanju napada z velikimi izgubami na britanski strani. Poleg neznanega tropskega podnebja so Vernonovi možje v velikem številu podlegli virulentni tropski bolezni, predvsem rumeni mrzlici.

Novice o porazu pri Cartageni so bile pomemben dejavnik pri padcu britanskega premierja Roberta Walpola. Opozicija je menila, da so Walpolejevi protivojni pogledi prispevali k njegovemu slabemu pregonu vojnih prizadevanj. Nova vlada pod vodstvom lorda Wilmingtona je želela preusmeriti pozornost britanskih vojnih prizadevanj z Amerike na Sredozemlje. Španska politika, ki jo je narekovala Elizabeta iz Parme, se je tudi približala izgubljenim španskim posestvom v Italiji od Avstrijcev. Leta 1742 je bila poslana velika britanska flota pod vodstvom Nicholasa Haddocka, da bi poskusila prestreči špansko vojsko, ki se je prevažala iz Barcelone v Italijo, kar mu ni uspelo.

Racije proti Kubi in Venezueli

Na Karibih se je zgodilo več drugih britanskih napadov, ki niso imeli nobenega vpliva na geopolitične razmere v Atlantiku. Oslabljene britanske sile pod vodstvom Vernona so začele napad na Kubo in pristale v zalivu Guant ánamo z načrtom, da se odpravijo petinštirideset milj do Santiaga de Cube in zavzamejo mesto. Vernon se je spet spopadel z poveljnikom vojske in odprava se je umaknila, ko se je soočila s španskim nasprotovanjem, ki je bilo večje. Vernon in njegova flota sta ostala na Karibih do oktobra 1742, preden sta se vrnila v Veliko Britanijo. Naslednje leto so manjše sile, ki jih je vodil Charles Knowles, napadle venezuelsko obalo in februarja 1743 napadle La Guairo in aprila Puerto Cabello, čeprav nobena operacija ni bila posebej uspešna.

Glavni članek: Napad na Gruzijo (1742)

Leta 1742 so Španci poskušali zavzeti britansko kolonijo Gruzijo. Dva tisoč vojakov pod poveljstvom Manuela de Montiana je pristalo na otoku St Simons. General Oglethorpe je zbral lokalne sile in premagal španske redovnike pri Bloody Marsh in Gully Hole Creek ter jih prisilil, da so se umaknili. Mejni spopadi med Florido in Gruzijo so se nadaljevali naslednjih nekaj let, vendar obe državi nista nadaljevali z ofenzivnimi operacijami na ameriški celini.

Do sredine leta 1742 je v Evropi izbruhnila vojna za avstrijsko nasledstvo. Vojna, ki sta jo v glavnem borili Prusija in Avstrija zaradi posesti Šlezije, je vojna kmalu zajela večino večjih sil Evrope, ki so se pridružile dvema konkurenčnima zavezništvima. Obseg te nove vojne je zaskrbel vse boje v Ameriki in osredotočil Veliko Britanijo in Španijo na operacije na evropski celini. Vrnitev Vernonove flote leta 1742 je pomenila konec velikih ofenzivnih operacij v vojni Jenkinsovega ušesa. To je potrdil vstop Francije v vojno leta 1744. Francija je dala poudarek vojni v Evropi in načrtovala ambiciozno invazijo na Britanijo. Čeprav na koncu ni uspelo, je britanske oblikovalce politike še dodatno prepričalo o nevarnostih pošiljanja pomembnih sil v Ameriko, ki bi jih morda potrebovali doma.

Čeprav so New Englanders leta 1745 začeli odpravo, da bi zavzeli strateško francosko naselje Louisbourg, ni bilo nobenega nadaljnjega napada na špansko posest.

Vojna je vključevala zasebništvo obeh strani. Anson je ujel dragoceno galerijo v Manili, vendar so to več kot izravnali napadi španskih zasebnikov na britansko čezatlantsko trikotno trgovsko pot. Zasegli so na stotine britanskih ladij, ki so v Zahodni Indiji delovale z nekaznovanostjo, dejavne pa so bile tudi v evropskih vodah. Španski konvoji so se izkazali za skoraj neustavljive, zato so v avstrijski fazi vojne Britanci namesto tega napadli slabo zaščitene francoske trgovce.

Avgusta 1746 so se v nevtralnem mestu Lizbona začela pogajanja, da bi poskušali urediti mirovno rešitev. Smrt španskega Filipa V. je na prestol pripeljala njegovega sina Ferdinanda VI. Vendar se Britanci zaradi svojih zavez do avstrijskih zaveznikov niso mogli strinjati s španskimi zahtevami po ozemlju v Italiji in pogovori so se prekinili.

Končna diplomatska resolucija je bila del širše rešitve vojne za avstrijsko nasledstvo s pogodbo iz Aix-la-Chapelle. Vprašanje asiento ni omenjeno v pogodbi in se je zmanjšalo za oba naroda. Vprašanje je bilo dokončno rešeno z Madridsko pogodbo iz leta 1750, v kateri se je Britanija strinjala, da se odpove zahtevku za asiento v zameno za plačilo 򣄀.000, in dovolila britansko trgovino s špansko Ameriko pod ugodnimi pogoji.

Odnosi med Veliko Britanijo in Španijo so se v naslednjih letih dramatično izboljšali zahvaljujoč usklajenim prizadevanjem vojvode iz Newcastla, da bi Španijo kultiviral kot zaveznico, in želji španske vlade, da ne bi bila marioneta Francije. V Španiji so bili imenovani nasledniki anglofilskih ministrov, med drugim Jos é de Carvajal in Ricardo Wall –, ki sta bila v dobrih odnosih z britanskim veleposlanikom Benjaminom Keenejem, da bi se izognila ponovitvi vojne Jenkinsovega ušesa. Eden od rezultatov tega je bila španska odločitev, da ostane nevtralna v zgodnjem delu sedemletne vojne.

Vojno Jenkinsovega ušesa se vsako leto spomnijo zadnje sobote v maju na plantaži Wormsloe v Savannah v Gruziji.


Vojna za Jenkinovo uho, 1739 -c.1743 - Zgodovina

Avtor: John Brown

V 1700 -ih je bil španski imperij na Karibih donosen trgovinski monopol iz Madrida, Cadiz pa je bil imenovan za uradno pristanišče za trgovino v Španijo in iz nje ter njenih kolonij. Cadiz je bil tudi zbirno mesto za kraljeve dolžnosti pri vsej trgovini z kolonijami Novega sveta. Tujcem je bilo prepovedano neposredno trgovanje s španskimi kolonijami, vsaka tuja ladja, za katero je bilo ugotovljeno, da trguje z njimi, je veljala za tihotapljenje in je bila zasežena skupaj s tovorom. Prepoved je uveljavila Guarda Costa ali obalna straža, flotila dobro oboroženih ladij, ki so lahko prehitele in premagale vsako močno obremenjeno trgovsko ladjo.
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Jenkins izgubi uho

Po Utrechtski pogodbi iz leta 1713, ki je končala vojno za špansko nasledstvo, je Velika Britanija prejela 30-letno asiento, ali pogodbeno pravico, iz Španije. The asiento je bil v dveh delih, Asiento de Negros, ki je Veliki Britaniji omogočal monopol za dobavo 5.000 sužnjev vsako leto španskim kolonijam, in Navio de Permiso, ki je dovoljeval, da je ena britanska ladja odpeljala 500 ton trgovskega blaga na letni sejem. v Porto Bellu. Britanska vlada je družbi South Sea Company dodelila monopol za oba sporazuma. Toda tudi drugi britanski trgovci in bankirji so želeli dostop do donosnih španskih trgov na Karibih, španski kolonisti pa so želeli blago britanske proizvodnje. Rezultat je bil uspešen črni trg s tihotapljenim blagom med delavnimi trgovci v obeh državah.

V prizadevanju zajeziti britanske tihotapce je Velika Britanija leta 1729 Španiji podelila pravico, da se ustavi in ​​preišče britanske ladje v španskih vodah, da bi zagotovila spoštovanje pogojev sporazumov. Toda tihotapljenje se je nadaljevalo in Španci so se še naprej vkrcali in zasegli britanske ladje ter ujeli njihove posadke, ki so jih pogosto dobro mučili. To je v Veliki Britaniji povzročilo naraščanje protišpanskega razpoloženja.

Aprila 1731 ladja East India Company Rebecca, ki ga je vodil Robert Jenkins, je bil na potovanju iz Jamajke v London, ko so jo umirili iz Havane na Kubi. Španski uradniki iz obalne straže San Antonio, ki ga je vodil Julio Leon Fandino, se vkrcal in preiskal angleško ladjo. Ugotovljeno je bilo, da je tovor zakonit, sladkor. Kljub temu so Španci poskušali Jenkinsa razkriti kakršno koli tihotapstvo ali dragocenosti, ki bi jih morda skril na ladji, tako da so ga trikrat dvignili za jambor za vrat in vrgli v loputo. Fandino ga je nato "prijel za levo uho in ga s kozarcem prerezal, druga obalna straža pa ga je prijela in ga odtrgala." Fandino naj bi Jenkinsu vrnil uho in rekel: "Pojdi in povej svojemu kralju Georgeu, da bom jaz storil enako z njim, če si upa narediti enako kot ti."

Da je Jenkins izgubil uho, najbrž tako, kot je bilo poročano, je bilo res, in sedem let pozneje, marca 1738, je pokazal ohranjeno uho, ko so ga poklicali, da se pojavi v spodnjem domu v Londonu, in poročal, da so mu odrezali uho španske obalne straže, ki se je vkrcala na njegovo ladjo, jo oropala in pustila na cedilu. To in druga poročila o španskih grozodejstvih so okrepila vojno mrzlico, ki je v Veliki Britaniji nastajala tako v parlamentu kot na ulicah. "Jenkinsovo uho" je postalo geslo, slogan in zbirateljski vzklik - grozljivo grozodejstvo, ki se ga je zlahka spomnilo med številnimi grozodejstvi, ki so jih Španci zagrešili nad britanskimi trgovci na Karibih.

Polemika je prikrila dejstvo, da so bili Britanci glavni storilci donosne nezakonite trgovine s kolonijami in nezakonite sečnje na obali Hondurasa. Dolga leta so britanske ladje, med katerimi je predvsem močna in privilegirana družba Južno morje, vodile obsežno trgovino s špansko kolonijami, bogatimi s srebrom, včasih s privolitvijo skorumpiranih španskih kolonialnih guvernerjev in uradnikov, s čimer so španskemu kralju odvzeli pravico kraljeve dolžnosti. Britanski trgovci so v preteklih letih izgubili veliko ladij in tovora za Guarda Costa, vključno z nekaterimi ladjami, ki so prevažale zakonit tovor.

Mejni spor med Gruzijo in Florido

Guverner Gruzije James Oglethorpe.

Poleg tihotapljenja na Karibih se je drugo gnojno vprašanje med Veliko Britanijo in Španijo nanašalo na mejni spor med Gruzijo pod nadzorom Britancev in špansko Florido. Reševanje obeh vprašanj je poslabšala domoljubna bravada, buka javnega mnenja in osebna čast zainteresiranih monarhov, Georgea II iz Anglije in Philipa V iz Španije.

Na vprašanje o meji med kolonijo Georgia, ki jo je leta 1732 ustanovil James Oglethorpe, in Florido v španski lasti ni bilo enostavnega odgovora. Meje vseh kolonij so bile le skicirano določene in odprte za argumente. Po številnih spopadih in medsebojnih obtožbah sta se Oglethorpe in španski guverner svetega Avguština dogovorila, da bosta med njimi ohranila mir, dokler njune vlade ne sprejmejo dokončne odločitve o meji. Med čakanjem so se pojavile govorice o invazijah obeh strani, kar je povečalo napetosti med obema silama.

52 Odvzete in oropane trgovske ladje

Med obema vladama so se nadaljevala pogajanja o rešitvi, kaj je legalna trgovina in kaj je tihotapljenje, ter o oceni izgube za Veliko Britanijo zaradi uničenja Guarde Coste in izgube za Španijo zaradi tihotapljenja Velike Britanije. Tožbe in nasprotni zahtevki so se vrnili dolga leta, za katera so potrebovali veliko časa in jih je bilo težko preiskati. Britanski glavni minister, Sir Robert Walpole, se je zavzemal za izogibanje vojni. Tako je bilo tudi nekaj Špancev. Toda mnogi močni britanski politiki so izgubljali potrpljenje s Španci, tudi državni sekretar kralja Georgea, vojvoda Newcastle.

Avgusta 1737 je Guarda Costa pri Havani vkrcala še dve britanski ladji. Edina tihotapna naprava, najdena na krovu, je bilo nekaj hlodov iz Hondurasa, vendar so bile ladje odpeljane v Havano z barvami na pol jamborja in spuščeno britansko zastavo. Množice zasmehovalcev so srečale posadke, ki so jih zaprli in domnevno hranili kot sužnje. V Veliki Britaniji je prišlo do velikega negodovanja zaradi domnevne španske žalitve zastave in britanskih podložnikov, ki so bili vzeti kot sužnji.

Londonski trgovci, vključno s podjetjem South Sea Company, so sestavili seznam 52 trgovskih ladij, ki so jih Španci vzeli ali oropali na Karibih in trdili, da jih je še veliko več. Seznam, čeprav osumljen, je bil široko objavljen, kar je še dodatno razburilo javnost proti Špancem. Oktobra so trgovci predložili kralju peticijo, v kateri so zahtevali ukrepanje v zvezi z domnevnimi uničenji Guarde Coste. Kralj je od svoje vlade zahteval močan odgovor, zanj so bile epizode osebne žalitve. Vlada je ostala deljena glede tega, kaj naj stori.

"Nezadovoljstvo zaradi ponavljajočih se poškodb in provokacij"

Leta 1738 je vojvoda iz Newcastla Španiji poslal zahtevo po novi pogodbi, ki določa pravila za pravilno iskanje trgovskih ladij in natančno opredeljuje, kaj pomeni tihotapljenje. Hkrati je svojemu veleposlaniku v Madridu naročil, naj špansko vlado obvesti o "nezadovoljstvu Velike Britanije s ponavljajočimi se poškodbami in provokacijami" v Ameriki in na Karibih ter dodal, da "nič drugega kot popolno zadovoljstvo za preteklost in varnost podobnega". zlorabe za prihodnost lahko odpravijo splošno nelagodje in zamere. "

Pogajanja so se zavlekla v leto 1739, osredotočena na natančne podatke o izgubah obeh strani. Nazadnje je bilo po daljšem prepiranju in številnih kompromisih sklenjeno, da Španija dolguje britanski kroni 95.000 angleških funtov, medtem ko je podjetje South Sea dolgovalo španskemu monarhu 68.000 funtov za neplačilo davkov na sužnje, dostavljene španskim kolonijam po predhodnem sporazumu in za goljufiva trgovina podjetja s kolonijami. Sestavljen je bil nov sporazum, Konvencija Pardo, ki je bila poslana vladam v ratifikacijo.

Ko je bila konvencija predstavljena v britanskem parlamentu v razpravo, so jo pozdravili z veliko argumenti in nasprotovanjem. Družba South Sea Company je takoj zanikala, da dolguje 68.000 funtov španski kroni, in ni hotela plačati. Odločeno je bilo, da je treba vse, kar se nanaša na podjetje, povzeti iz konvencije in ga obravnavati kot ločeno vprašanje. Ko so pogoji konvencije prišli na ulice Londona in Madrida, so povzročili še eno ljudsko razburjenje.

V Londonu se je razprava o konvenciji zavlekla konec maja in se tako in drugače nihala, ko so svoje argumente dodali močni posamezniki, interesne skupine in lobisti. Potem je Španija svetovala britanski vladi, da ker flota kontraadmirala Nicholasa Haddocka deluje v Sredozemlju, kralj Filip ne bo plačal 95.000 funtov, ki jih dolguje Veliki Britaniji. Ta zavrnitev plačila je dejansko končala razprave med državama.

Vojna izbruhne

Adm. Edward "Old Grog" Vernon,

V britanskem tisku in med ljudmi se je mnenje obrnilo proti vojni in njenemu vodenju. Kraljevi kabinet je Haddocku poslal tajna naročila in mu povedal, da mora takoj, ko se začnejo sovražnosti, blokirati Cadiz in "izvesti vse vrste sovražnosti na morju". Naročeno mu je bilo, da prestreže in zajame dve španski ladji z zakladom, za katero je znano, da pluje iz Karibov v Cadiz.

Tudi admiral Edward "Old Grog" Vernon, britanski poveljnik mornarice na Karibih, je bil opozorjen, naj pazi na dve ladji z zakladom. Domnevalo se je, da bo njihov zajem Britaniji nadomestil stroške pogajanj in priprav na vojno, pri čemer bo ostalo dovolj, da pokrijejo zahtevke trgovcev proti Španiji. Vendar so avgusta zakladne ladje, ki so bile opozorjene, da jih pri Cadizu čakajo britanske vojne ladje, spremenile smer za Santander, kjer so uspešno raztovorile 7 milijonov funtov tovora.

Izguba zaklada je spodbudila vojne hujskače v parlamentu in kabinetu, da so še močneje zavpili, pri čemer so utopili Walpoleja in njegove privržence, ki so še vedno poskušali oživiti konvencijo Prado v upanju, da se bodo izognili vsesplošni vojni. Toda kralj George se je, kot je izrazil, odločil, da bo "uveljavil sovražne ukrepe, da bi sebi in narodu zagotovil pravičnost", Newcastle pa je mimo Walpola pripravil vojno napoved. Sovražno stanje s Španijo je bilo razglašeno 23. oktobra 1739.

Zmaga pri Porto Bell: “Rula Britannia ”

Spanish trade in the Caribbean flowed through four main ports: Vera Cruz in present-day Mexico Cartagena de Indias in the colony of New Granada, now Colombia Porto Bello in Panama and the main port through which all the trade came, Havana. The British war plan was to capture Havana first, since only the Cuban capital had the necessary facilities to build, repair and refit ships that were essential to keeping a fleet operating in the Caribbean.

Porto Bello was a silver-exporting town and naval base on the coast of Panama. Following the failure of a British naval force to take it in 1727, an action in which Vernon had taken part, the admiral had repeatedly claimed that he could capture Porto Bello with just six ships despite criticism that the number was far too few. Vernon was an advocate of small squadrons hitting hard and moving fast, rather than larger, slower moving expeditions that were prone to heavy losses through disease and natural attrition.

British ships provide covering fire at Porto Bello while marines in rowboats head to shore. The victory took the British just a day to accomplish, but they occupied the town for three destructive weeks.

In command of the Jamaica station, Vernon organized an expedition of six ships of the line and sailed for Porto Bello, arriving off the port on November 20. Porto Bello’s defenses were weak, and Vernon besieged them for just a day before the Spanish garrison surrendered. Vernon’s force then occupied the town for three weeks, destroying the fortress, the port, warehouses, and other key buildings—in essence, ending the settlement’s function as a maritime base and severely damaging its economy.

In Great Britain, the victory at Porto Bello was greeted with jubilation, and in 1740, at a dinner in London in honor of Vernon, the song “Rule Britannia” was performed in public for the first time. The name Porto Bello was frequently used to commemorate the battle, as in Portobello Road in London and Porto Bello, Virginia. Vernon was promoted to full admiral, and his name was remembered in many ways, including Mount Vernon, the future estate of George Washington. The destruction of Porto Bello forced the Spanish to change their trading practices. Rather than trading at centralized ports and using a few large treasure ships, they began using a larger number of smaller ships in convoy, trading at a wide variety of ports.

The British Caribbean Expedition

In January 1740, Georgia Governor James Oglethorpe marched into Florida with Georgia and Carolina troops. They captured two Spanish forts, San Francisco de Pupo and Picolata, on the San Juan River and besieged St. Augustine for several weeks before returning to Georgia.

Meanwhile, preparations to mount a large-scale British expedition to the Caribbean were very slow. The expedition was to be commanded by General Lord Cathcart and escorted by 25 warships under the command of Admiral Sir Chaloner Ogle. The cabinet did not specify the local objectives of the expedition, which were left to the judgment of the field commanders, but the overall objective was the gold and silver of the Indies.

That August, 6,000 soldiers embarked in troop transports and sailed off, eventually straggling into the Caribbean to rendezvous in Jamaica a few days before Christmas. Cathcart had died along the way Brig. Gen. Thomas Wentworth, who had no previous combat command experience, replaced him. Diseases such as typhus, scurvy, and dysentery claimed many casualties among the soldiers and sailors. By January 1741, the land forces had suffered 500 dead and 1,500 sick. In Jamaica, 300 African slaves, called Macheteros, were added to the expedition as a work battalion.

Jealousies and arguments over the expedition’s main goals arose among the field commanders and further slowed the progress of the campaign. Vernon’s view prevailed, that Cartagena de Indias, principal gold trading port and naval base in the colony of New Granada, should be the first target. Havana, Vernon believed, was too well defended to attack.

Capturing the Manila Galleon

In September 1741, Commodore George Anson set sail from England with six warships and two supply ships for Cape Horn and the Pacific. His crews were old and sick and his marines raw and untrained, Anson complained. They could not even be trusted to fire their weapons. Many died of disease before reaching the Pacific, and many more were sick and in no condition to launch any sort of attack, so Anson reassembled his ships in the Juan Fernandez Islands to allow the crews and marines to recuperate.

In June 1743, English Commodore George Anson intercepted the Spanish treasure ship Nuestra Señora de Covadonga, bound from Manila with riches valued at more than 800,000 English pounds.

Anson’s orders were to attack the Spanish along the Pacific coasts of South and North America. In particular, he was directed to capture the Spanish treasure galleon that sailed each year from Manila to Acapulco. After resting his men, Anson moved up the coast of Chile, raiding the small town of Paita but reached Acapulco too late to intercept the Manila galleon. He retreated across the Pacific and ran into a violent storm that forced him to dock for repairs in Canton.

The following year Anson made another attempt to intercept the Manila galleon. On June 20, 1743, although greatly outmanned and outgunned, he captured the galleon off Cape Espiritu Santo. It was filled with treasure and gold coins to the value of more than 800,000 English pounds.

Anson sailed for home, arriving in London in June 1744, more than three and a half years after he had set out, having circumnavigated the globe. Only one of his ships, Centurion, and less than a tenth of his men survived the expedition. Nevertheless, Anson’s achievements led to his appointment as First Lord of the Admiralty.

The Battle of Cartagena de Indias

Adm. Blas de Lezo.

In the meantime, Vernon’s plans for the assault on Cartagena de Indias were hampered by inefficient organization, rivalry with the commander of the land forces, and the logistical problems of mounting and maintaining a major transatlantic expedition. To make matters more difficult, Cartagena’s fortifications were strong and the Spanish commander, Admiral Blas de Lezo, was a skilled and experienced strategist.

Vernon’s expedition arrived off Cartegena on March 4, 1741. Wentworth commanded the land forces, and Vernon commanded the sea forces. Some 3,600 American colonial marines already had been transported from New York to Jamaica, landing there in December 1740 under the command of Colonel William Gooch. The Americans joined the expedition for the attack on Cartagena. By this time, the Navy had lost so many sailors from epidemics that one-third of the land force was needed to fill out the crews.

Cartagena, a rich city of over 10,000 people, was strongly defended under the able command of Lezo and the Viceroy of New Granada, Sebastian de Eslava. It was fronted on one side by the ocean, but the shore and surf were so rough that they precluded any attempt to approach the city from the sea. Access to the city was through two channels, Boca Grande, which was too shallow for ocean-going ships, and Boca Chica, the only deep-draft passage into the harbor. The passage ran between two narrow peninsulas and was defended on one side by Fort San Luis, with four bastions having 49 cannons, three mortars, and a garrison of 300 soldiers. A boom stretched from the island of La Bomba to the southern peninsula on which was located Fort San Jose with 13 cannon and 150 soldiers. Also in support were six Spanish ships of the line.

The British bombarded the forts for a week then landed 300 grenadiers and artillery near the Boca Chica channel. The Spanish defenders of two small, nearby forts were driven off by three ships of Chaloner Ogle’s fleet, which suffered 120 killed and wounded. The ships were also damaged by cannon fire from Fort San Luis.

The grenadiers were followed ashore on March 22 by the whole of the British land forces—two regular army regiments and six regiments of marines. Only 300 Americans went ashore most of the American troops had been dispersed to serve aboard ships of the line, replacing Vernon’s lost sailors. After the army made camp, the Americans and Macheteros constructed a battery, and its 24-pounder guns began battering Fort San Luis. A squadron of five ships attempted for two days to batter the fort into submission but made no progress, sustaining more casualties. Three of the ships were heavily damaged and disabled.

British artillery, firing night and day for three days, finally made a breach in the main fort. Some British ships engaged the Spanish ships, two of which were scuttled and the other set on fire and captured. The two scuttled ships partially blocked the channel. On April 5, the British attacked Fort San Luis by land and sea, with infantry advancing on the main fort while the Spanish garrison retreated to inner fortifications. The following week the British entered the harbor at Boca Chica, losing an additional 120 killed and wounded while a staggering 250 died from yellow fever and malaria and 600 more were hospitalized.

Assault on Fort Lezaro

With the capture of Fort San Luis and other outlying fortifications, the fleet passed through the Boca Chica channel into the harbor at Cartagena. Again the Spanish withdrew, concentrating their forces at Fort San Lazaro and inside the city proper. Vernon goaded Wentworth into an ill-considered, badly planned assault on the fort, an outlying strongpoint of Cartagena. Vernon’s ships cleared the beach with cannon fire, and Wentworth landed at Texar de Gracias.

Perfectly aligned English ranks surround Cartagena in this fanciful engraving from the period.

After the British occupied the inner harbor and captured some outlying forts, Lezo strengthened the last main bastion of Fort Lezaro by digging a trench around it and clearing a field of fire on the approach. Lezo defended the trench with some 650 soldiers, garrisoned the fort with another 300, and held a reserve of 200 marines and sailors. The British advanced from the beach, and after a short fight the Spanish gave way.

The only British engineer with the expedition had been killed at Fort San Luis, leaving no one who could construct a battery to breach the city walls, so the British decided to storm the fort in a night attack on the walls. Such an attack would enable them to assault the northern side of the fort facing Cartagena, since the guns inside the city would not be able to give supporting fire. The southern side had the lowest and most vulnerable walls, and the grenadiers hoped to quickly storm and carry the parapets.

18,000 British Casualties

The attack started late, and the initial advance on the fort was not made until nearly dawn on April 20, by 50 picked men followed by 450 grenadiers commanded by Colonel John Wynyard. They were followed by the main body of 1,000 men of the 15th and 24th Regiments commanded by Colonel James Grant, together with a mixed company from the 34th and 36th Regiments and some unarmed Americans carrying scaling ladders for the fort’s walls and wool packs to fill in the trench. Last came a reserve of 500 marines commanded by Colonel Edward Wolfe.

The column was guided by two Spanish deserters who purposely misled the column from the southern, low-walled side. Wynyard was led to a steep approach, and as the grenadiers scrambled up the slope they were hit by a volley of musket fire 30 yards from the entrenched Spaniards. The grenadiers deployed into line and advanced slowly, firing as they moved. On the north face, Grant was killed and the leaderless troops traded desultory fire with the Spanish. Most of the Americans dropped the ladders they were carrying and took cover, and the ladders that had been brought forward were found to be too short for the troops to scale the wall.

The sun rose, and the guns of Cartagena opened fire on the British. Casualties mounted, and at 8 o’clock a column of Spanish infantry coming from the city threatened to cut off the British attackers from their ships. Wentworth, realizing that the assault had failed, ordered a retreat. The British lost 600 men out of a force of 2,000, with sickness and disease increasing the casualty figure. Wentworth’s land forces were reduced from 6,500 effectives to 3,200 in the period surrounding the attack of Fort San Lazaro.

Cartagena’s strong fortifications and the skill of the Spanish commander, Lezo, were decisive in repelling the attack. Given the overwhelming British force, Lezo planned to conduct a fighting withdrawal that would delay them until the start of the rainy season at the end of April, when tropical downpours would halt campaigning for two months. The longer the British remained crowded on their ships at sea or in the open on land, hunger and disease would claim many more casualties. Lezo was helped by the contempt that Vernon and Wentworth felt for each other, which prevented their cooperation throughout the expedition.

In the end, the fight for Cartagena lasted 67 days and ended with the British fleet withdrawing in ignominious defeat, with 18,000 dead or incapacitated by disease. The British lost a total of 50 ships another 19 ships of the line were damaged, and four frigates and 27 transports were lost. Of the 3,600 American colonists who had volunteered, lured by promises of land and mountains of gold, most died of yellow fever, dysentery, or starvation. Only 300 returned home, including George Washington’s older brother Lawrence, who renamed his Virginia plantation Mount Vernon after the admiral.

In the early days of the expedition, when the Spanish were retreating, Vernon sent an ill-advised message to King George informing him of a forthcoming victory. Eleven different commemorative medals were minted in London to celebrate the victory. After news of the defeat reached London, all the medals were removed from circulation and the king forbade the news from being disclosed. Following the defeat, Walpole’s government collapsed.

From Jenkins’ Ear to the Austrian Succession

The British undertook several other attacks in the Caribbean with little better success. In July, Vernon launched an invasion of Cuba, but he refused to land troops any closer to Santiago, the first objective, than Guantanamo Bay. The landing proved to be too far away and the invasion was aborted.

In January 1742, 3,000 troops arrived from England to replace the losses at Cartagena. Meanwhile, the Spanish attempted to seize the British colony of Georgia. Some 2,000 troops landed on St. Simon’s Island, but James Oglethorpe and local forces defeated the invaders at Bloody Marsh and Gully Hole Creek and forced them to withdraw. Border clashes between Florida and Georgia continued for several years, but there were no further major operations on the American mainland by either nation.

Spanish troops retreat after the Battle of Bloody Marsh in the face of Georgia and Carolina territorial forces commanded by James Oglethorpe.

The Caribbean campaign ended in May 1742. By then, a majority of the British force had died from combat or sickness. Vernon and Wentworth were recalled to England in September, and Ogle took command of a fleet that had less than half its sailors fit for duty. By then the odd little War of Jenkins’ Ear had merged into the much larger War of the Austrian Succession, a dispute over the succession to the Austrian throne that grew to involve all the main European nations and their forces overseas. Captain Jenkins and his missing appendage were forgotten in the ongoing rush of events.


The Anglo Spanish War of Jenkins’ Ear, a curious matter!

George Anson’s capture of a Manila galleon by Samuel Scott.

One of the more curious and lesser known chapters in the history of conflicts between Spain and England was the strangely named ‘War of Jenkins’ Ear’ that took place between 1739 and 1748.

The title of the war relates to an incident in 1731 when the British merchant vessel Rebecca was boarded by the Spanish coastguard – during which Captain Robert Jenkins had his ear sliced off by a belligerent Spanish coast guard captain called Julio Leon Fandino.

Under the Treaty of Utrecht an agreement had been reached for a thirty year asiento (contract) allowing the British to import up to 500 tons of goods a year into the Spanish colonies and also to trade an unlimited number of slaves. It was Julio Leon Fandino’s boarding of the British vessel to check on the cargo and his belief that Jenkins was smuggling goods above the agreed quota that led to the removal of the captain’s ear.

The Spanish captain accused Captain Jenkins of piracy on the high seas and, returning the severed organ to Jenkins, informed him to “go and tell your king that I will do the same to him, if he dares do the same!”

Relations between the Spain and Britain steadily worsened over the next few years and the British made frequent incursions into the Spanish colonies in the Caribbean and the isthmus of Central America.

In due course, the ear-challenged Captain Jenkins was asked to appear before a committee of the House of Commons. Reputedly, he waved a bottle containing the pickled, shrivelled and fossilised appendage at the assembled, furious members of Parliament.

Jenkin’s parliamentary appearance in March 1738 together with other incidents, were considered sufficient to give ‘casus belli’ or a justifiable cause for war against Spain. Having said that, the British had recently attacked the Spanish silver exporting town of Porto Bello in Panama with six Men of War and stayed in occupation for over six weeks causing ever greater tension to mount between the two countries.

In fact, it was the British public’s approval of the occupation in Panama that led to the naming of Portobello Road in London and also the small village (now a suburb) of Portobello near Edinburgh on the River Forth. It was also at this time that anti-Spanish, bellicose public sentiment was inflamed with the first singing of the song Rule Britannia at a dinner to honour the Commodore of the successful British squadron, Admiral Vernon.

The War of Jenkins’ Ear between Britain and Spain continued over the next few years, with skirmishes by the British in 1741 and 1742 into the Spanish colonies of New Granada (nowadays Colombia), Cuba and Venezuela. The Spanish retaliated by unsuccessfully attacking the British colony of Georgia on the American mainland in 1742.

Eventually hostilities between Great Britain and Spain where overtaken by the wider pan European war of Austrian Succession, which polarised the major countries of Europe into two competing alliances. Although still at war with Spain, Britain’s main focus became France and the threat of invasion of southern England.

The war of Austrian Succession finally came to an end in 1748 with The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. Two years later in 1750 the Treaty of Madrid between Britain and Spain bought the start of much improved diplomatic reactions between the two countries. Indeed, Britain wished to cultivate Spain as an ally and Spain wished not to be seen as a puppet of France. As a result of the Treaty, Britain once again traded with the Spanish colonies and in the Seven Years War of 1754-1763 (mainly between Britain and France) Spain was a neutral country.

Well, he continued his career as a sailor and was, for a brief time, in charge of the island of St. Helena in the South Atlantic although as for his ear – history fails to record what happened to it…

Iain Henderson

Iain lives in Spain, was a professional soldier and is a businessman who has lived in many different parts of the world. Njegovo lovely villa in Valencia, Spain is available for rent during the summer months.

FURTHER ARTICLES ON THE HISTORY OF SPAIN

BIG BANG – The birth of modern Spain and the astonishing rise of Spain as it was united and became the greatest power in Europe helped, of course, by its merciless conquistadors.

WHAT DID THE MOORS DO FOR US? – The Moors entered Spain in 711 and left (reluctantly) hundreds of later. Although they are much reviled now, in fact they contributed an amazing amount to both Spain and Europe.

THE BORGIAS – Few families in the world have been as notorious as the Borgias with Lucrezia Borgia and Caesar Borgia famous worldwide. Were they really as bad that portrayed?

ALL THE KING’S MEN – Politics in Spain and the thrilling story of the death of General Franco, the development of democracy in Spain and the deadly Tejero crisis.

EL CID – genuine Spanish hero and extraordinary soldier, who never lost a battle!


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Richmond, Herbert. Statesmen and Sea Power. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1946.

Roberts, Penfield. Quest for Security, 1715–1740. New York: Harper and Row, 1947.

Speck, W. A. Stability and Strife: England, 1714–1760. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1977.

Williams, Basil. The Whig Supremacy, 1714–1760. 2d izd. Revised by C. H. Stuart. Letnik 11, Oxford History of England. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1962.


To highlight this year’s Georgia History Festival theme, “A Legacy of Leadership,” November’s #MarkerMondays explore Georgia’s military history.

SEDIŠČE SAVANNAH

104 W. Gaston Street
Savannah, GA 31401
Tel 912.651.2125 | Faks 912.651.2831
Brezplačno 877.424.4789

501 Whitaker Street
Savannah, GA 31401
Tel 912.651.2125 | Faks 912.651.2831
Brezplačno 877.424.4789

Pisarna Atlanta

One Baltimore Place NW, Suite G300
Atlanta, GA 30308
Tel 404.382.5410

Pisarna: od ponedeljka do petka od 9.00 do 17.30

Raziskovalno središče (Savannah):
Zaradi prenove je začasno zaprt.
Digitalni arhivski viri GHS so na voljo na naslovu Georgiahistory.com/research.


Zgodovinsko društvo Georgia je prejelo enajsto zaporedno oceno s 4 zvezdicami Charity Navigatorja, največjega ocenjevalca dobrodelnih organizacij v Ameriki, za dobro fiskalno upravljanje in zavezanost odgovornosti in preglednosti, kar družbo uvršča med 1% elitnih dobičkonosne organizacije v Ameriki.


Birthdays in History

Ethan Allen

Jan 10 Ethan Allen, American Revolutionary War patriot (lead the Green Mountain Boys), born in Litchfield, Connecticut (d. 1789)

    Benjamin Tupper, Continental Army officer, and pioneer to the Ohio Country (d. 1792) Cesare Beccaria, Italian criminologist and politician, born in Milan (d. 1794)

William Cavendish-Bentinck

Apr 14 William Cavendish-Bentinck, British 3rd Duke of Portland, Whig Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1783, 1807-09), born in Nottinghamshire, (d. 1809)

Kamehameha I

May 1 Kamehameha I, King of Hawaii (1782-1819), born in Kohala, Hawaii (d. 1819)

    Mikhail Kamensky, Russian field marshal, born in Russian Empire (d. 1809) John Wolcot, English satirist (Peter Pindar), baptized in Dodbrooke, Kingsbridge, Devon (d. 1819) Nathaniel Gorham, American politician (6th President of the Confederation Congress), born in Charlestown, Massachusetts (d. 1796) Joseph-Ignace Guillotin, French physician and freemason who proposed and became the namesake of the guillotine, born in Saintes, France (d.1814)

George III

Jun 4 George III, King of Great Britain (1760-1820), born in London, England

    Mary Katharine Goddard, American printer and publisher (d. 1816) Jacques Delille, French poet and translator (d. 1813) John Singleton Copley, American painter of portraits and historical objects, born in Boston, Massachusetts (d. 1815) Albert Casimir, Duke of Teschen and Governor of the Austrian Netherlands, born in Moritzburg, Electorate of Saxony (d. 1822) Elizabeth "Betje" Wolff-Bekker, Dutch author and poet (Sara Burgerhart), born in Flushing, Netherlands (d. 1804) Jacques François Dugommier, French general, born in Trois-Rivières, Guadeloupe, France (d. 1794) Dionysius Godefridus van der Keessel, Dutch jurist (Theses Selectae, Select Theses on the Laws of Holland and Zeeland), born in Deventer, Overijssel (d. 1816) Nicholas Van Dyke, American lawyer and President of Delaware, born in New Castle County, Delaware (d. 1789) Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria, second child of Francis I Holy Roman Emperor, born in Vienna, Austria (d. 1789) Benjamin West, Anglo-American painter (Death of General Wolfe), born in Springfield, Province of Pennsylvania (d. 1820)

Arthur Phillip

Oct 11 Arthur Phillip, British admiral, 1st Governor of New South Wales (1788-92), born in Cheapside, London (d. 1814)

William Herschel

Nov 15 William Herschel, German-British astronomer (discovered Uranus), born in Hanover, Brunswick-Lüneburg, Holy Roman Empire (d. 1822)

    Richard Montgomery, Irish General in Continental Army during American Revolutionary War, born in Swords, Dublin (d. 1775) Thomas Nelson, merchant, signer of Declaration of Independence

Charles Cornwallis

Dec 31 Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis, British general and colonial administrator (leading British general in the American War of Independence), born in London (d. 1805)


Early exploration and establishment of colonies. Observe the trajectory of Spanish exploration in the Southeast versus English exploration along the Atlantic seaboard. Note the conflict in territorial interests beginning in 1586. While the Spaniards were expending efforts on creating Indian missions, the English of Virginia were rapidly expanding into commercial export of tobacco. By 1670 the Spaniards were entrenching behind defenses and encouraging slaves to runaway from their English masters, while English settlers retaliated with attacks on St. Augustine and the mission system. How did this rivalry between colonists and empires affect the region? Look at the dates around the War of Jenkin's Ear (1739-1742). What's the relationship between the founding of Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose, the Stono slave revolt in Carolina, and Oglethorpe's attack on Spanish Florida? Can you relate this to issues about the American Civil War?


A detail of Francis Drake's attack on the town of St. Augustine in 1586.
A cross from an early mission site. Detail from Thomas Lopez's map of St. Augustine showing the free black community of Fort Mose (far right).



Komentarji:

  1. Sefu

    Verjamem, da se motiš. Prepričan sem. To lahko dokažem. Pišite mi v PM.

  2. Chano

    I love it very much!

  3. Ryence

    Se opravičujem za vmešavanje ... Ampak ta tema mi je zelo blizu. Pišite na PM.

  4. Ahriman

    Lahko s tabo privolim.

  5. Tommy

    young fellow



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