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Regulus I AK -14 - Zgodovina

Regulus I AK -14 - Zgodovina


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Regulus I.

(AK-14: dp. 10,550 (f.); 1,391'9 "; b. 52'2"; dr. 24 '; s. 11,5 k .;
cpl. 48; a. 2 5 ", 4 3"; cl. Regulus)

Prvega Regulusa, zgrajenega kot Glenora leta 1920, Bethlehem Steel Co., Wilmington, Del., Je mornarica pridobila od odbora za vojno ladjarstvo novembra 1921. V rezervo za skoraj dve desetletji je bila naročena 8. avgusta 1940, Comdr. James Doyle poveljuje.

V celoti naročen v New Yorku 14. decembra 1940, je Regulus s zahodno obalo potoval v Pearl Harbor, njeno domače pristanišče od februarja 1941 do konca druge svetovne vojne. Razvrščena v 14. pomorsko okrožje je nosila zaloge na otoke Wake in Midway do japonskega napada na Pearl Harbor. Na Midwayu 7. decembra 1941 se je Regulus 14. vrnil v Pearl Harbour, nato pa odplul na zahodno obalo, od koder je do maja prepeljal tovor na Havaje. Po bitki pri Midwayu v začetku junija je znova začela s preskrbo z gorivom do tega otoka in jih nadaljevala do septembra 1943. Nato je bila dodeljena ServRon 8, delovala je med Samoanskimi in Ellicejevimi otoki, dokler aprila 1944 ni začela tovornih prog zahodne obale-Havaji.

Po invaziji na Filipine je Regulus spet prevažal tovor proti zahodu. 21. novembra je prispela v Eniwetok, od koder je nadaljevala pot do Ulithija. Ko je prišla 30. novembra, se je sredi januarja 1945 preselila v Manus in se konec meseca vrnila v Karoline. Ko je v Ulithiju ostala maja, je 20. odplula proti Filipinom. Na Leyte se je zasidrala 25. in 2 tedna pozneje se je odpravila proti Okinawi, kjer je do konca vojne in do jeseni 1945. izvajala tovorne operacije. 26. novembra je odplula proti vzhodu, prispela v San Francisco in poročala o inaktivaciji 8 Januarja 1946. Odpravljena 25. marca, je bila izbrisana s seznama mornarice 17 Auril, 1. julija premeščena v Pomorsko komisijo; in 29. septembra 1947 prodali v odpadke družbi Kaiser Co.


Regulus I AK -14 - Zgodovina

The AK 47, uradno znan kot Avtomat Kalashnikova (Rusko: Автома́т Кала́шникова, lit. "Kalašnjikova avtomatska puška", znana tudi kot Kalašnjikov ali samo AK), je jurišna puška na plin, ki je namenjena za kartušo 7,62 × 39 mm. V Sovjetski zvezi ga je razvil ruski oblikovalec osebnega orožja Mihail Kalašnjikov in je izvorno strelno orožje iz družine pušk kalašnjikov (ali "AK"). Po več kot sedmih desetletjih ostaja model AK-47 in njegove različice najbolj priljubljene in široko uporabljene puške na svetu.

Število 47 se nanaša na leto, ko je bila puška končana. Oblikovalska dela za AK-47 so se začela leta 1945. Predstavljeno je bilo za uradne vojaške preizkušnje naslednje leto 1947, leta 1948 pa je bila različica s stalnimi zalogami uvedena v aktivno uporabo za izbrane enote Sovjetske vojske. V začetku leta 1949 so AK sovjetsko oborožene sile uradno sprejele [9] in jih uporabljala večina držav članic Varšavskega pakta.

Model in njegove različice ostajajo najbolj priljubljene in široko uporabljene puške na svetu zaradi svoje zanesljivosti v težkih pogojih, nizkih proizvodnih stroškov (v primerjavi s sodobnim orožjem), razpoložljivosti v skoraj vseh geografskih regijah in enostavnosti uporabe. AK so izdelovali v številnih državah in so ga uporabljali tako z oboroženimi silami kot z nerednimi silami in uporniki po vsem svetu. Od leta 2004 [posodobitev], "[od] približno 500 milijonov strelnega orožja po vsem svetu, približno 100 milijonov pripada družini Kalašnjikov, od tega tri četrtine AK-47". [4] Model je podlaga za razvoj številnih drugih vrst individualnega, specializiranega strelnega orožja, ki ga streže posadka.


Prva punska vojna

Bilo je leta 255 pred našim štetjem in prva punska vojna je trajala osem let. Vojaki so sodelovali na bojiščih, ki so se raztezala čez Sicilijo in vode obdajale otok. Pravzaprav so se zasede in spopadi razširili vse do italijanskih obal v bližini glavnega mesta Rima.

Vendar so se Rimljani, da bi končali boj, odločili za invazijo na Severno Afriko, njihova najbližja vstopna točka je bila Kartagina.

To se je zgodilo le enkrat, ko je tiranski kralj Agatokle iz Sirakuze poskusil vdreti v Severno Afriko 65 let prej leta 310 pred našim štetjem, a je bil po dvomesečnem mukotrpnem in nevarnem pohodu premagan. Po porazu je na skrivaj pobegnil iz bitke.

Ne glede na zgodovino so Rimljani izbrali državnika, konzula in generala Marka Atilija Regula za vodenje kampanje proti Severni Afriki. Tako kot Agatokle pred njim je tudi Regululova vojska#8217 doživela ponižujoč poraz s strani Kartažanov, ki so najeli plačanskega špartanskega generala, Ksantipa, ki je Regulusa in njegovo vojsko prisilil v boj na odprtem terenu, kar mu je omogočilo največji učinek odličnega Kartažana konjenica in vojni sloni.

Naslednja bitka je privedla do smrti 12.000 Rimljanov, 500 jih je bilo ujetih za vojne ujetnike, vključno z Regulusom. Ta poraz je ustavil vsako možnost, da bodo Rimljani premagali Kartagino v Afriki, preostanek vojne pa na morju in na Siciliji.

Toda pred tem srečanjem s Ksantipom so Regulus in njegovi možje spoznali nevarnejšega sovražnika in to je tema tega članka.


Regulus I AK -14 - Zgodovina

USS Regulus (AK-14) 20. marca 1942
Kliknite na to fotografijo za povezave do večjih slik tega razreda.

Razred: REGULUS (AK-14)
Zasnova EFC 1046
Prostornina (tone): 3.590 lahkih, 10.550 polnih
Mere (noge): 391,75 'oa, 377,0' pp x 52,0 'wl x 24,0' mn
Originalna oborožitev: Ni nameščena (1921)
Kasnejša oborožitev: 2-5 & quot/51 4-3 & quot/50 0 & lt8-20mm (1941)
Dopolnilo 110
Hitrost (vozli): 11
Pogon (HP): 2.500
Stroji: navpična trojna ekspanzija, 1 vijak

Gradnja:

AK Ime Acq Graditelj Kobilica Kosilo Komisar.
14 REGULUS 7. november 21 Betlehemsko jeklo, Wilm. 19. december 14. avgust 20 14. december 40

Razporeditev:
AK Ime Decomm. Stavka Odstranjevanje Usoda MA prodaja
14 REGULUS 25. marec 46 17. april 46 1. julij 46 MC/D 10. september 47

Opombe za razred:
EFC Design 1046 je bil model, po katerem je Bethlehem Shipbuilding Co., Sparrows Point, MD, v letih 1917-1918 zgradil štiri ladje za Britance (ZDA so jih rekvirirale avgusta 1917). Korporacija Emergency Fleet Corporation ladijskega odbora je naročila še deset ladij po tej zasnovi, sedem na Sparrows Pointu in še tri na Betlehemovem dvorišču v Wilmingtonu v Del. Tri ladje Sparrow Point so bile preklicane in ladje Wilmington so bile dokončane šele sredi do konca leta 1920. Novembra 1921 je mornarica kupila dve ladji Wilmington kot ARCTURUS in REGULUS (AK-12 in AK-14). ARKTURUS je kmalu postal ZLATA ZVEZDA (AG-12, q.v.).

Do leta 1920 je mornarica spoznala, da je veliko njenih predvojnih pomožnih plovil izteklo svojo življenjsko dobo, da Kongres ne bo zagotovil sredstev za zamenjave in da je ladijski odbor imel veliko število presežnih plovil iz svojega programa gradnje v času vojne. bi zadostil potrebam mornarice. Leta 1920 so odvetniki mornarice ugotovili, da je mogoče ladje pridobiti od ladijskega odbora s predsedniškim izvršnim ukazom, do 17. oktobra pa so pogajanja med mornarico in ladijskim odborom dosegla stopnjo, v kateri je 27 posebnih trupov (12 tankerjev, 3 hladilne ladje, Izbranih je bilo 11 tovornih ladij in ena potniška in tovorna ladja), vse razen tankerjev, ki so nadomestile enako število dotrajanih pomožnih pomočnikov. Dne 29. oktobra 21. je izvršni nalog št. 3570 odobril prenose. SecNav je 2. novembra, 21. ladij, dodelil nova imena mornarice 17 ladij, vključno z dvema tovornikoma EFC Design 1046, GOLD STAR in GLENORA, ki sta postala ARCTURUS (AK-12, kmalu preimenovana v GOLD STAR in prekvalificirana AG-12) in REGULUS (AK-14 ). Obe ladji nista delovali in sta bili takoj na voljo na otoku Hog, Pa.

2. novembra 21. je CNO poveljniku poveljstva, četrtemu mornariškemu okrožju, odredil, da ARCTURUS in REGULUS sta na komisiji na mornariškem dvorišču Philadelphia kot pomoč za CAESAR (AC-16) oziroma QUINCY (AK-10). CAESAR in QUINCY sta morala po prihodu na atlantsko obalo ARCTURUS -u in REGULUS -u v Philadelphiji prenesti osebje in material, potreben za sprostitev teh dveh ladij. Do 8. decembra je bila dodelitev 21 reliefov spremenjena in ARCTURUS je zdaj načrtoval razbremenitev SATURN (AG-4). Pričakovani datumi dokončanja za ARCTURUS in REGULUS sta bila zdaj 1. marca in 22. maja. CNO je 22. decembra 21. opozoril, da je bilo zaradi zastojev tovora na pacifiški obali QUINCY nujno, da se odpravi v Pearl Harbour in da bi to lahko zakasnilo prihod QUINCYja na atlantsko obalo za približno 2 tedna. Pravzaprav je QUINCY januarja –. februarja 1922 obiskal Havaje in se 11. aprila vrnil v Philadelphijo. Do 6. januarja 22. je bil REGULUS dodeljen pomorski transportni službi za prevoz tovora iz atlantskih pristanišč v pacifiška pristanišča, za katere je bilo pričakovati, da bodo pripravljeni 1. maja 22. Vendar je prišlo do velikega zmanjšanja števila sil in 4. aprila 22. je CNO urad obvestil, da QUINCY bi nadomestil SIRIUS (AK-15), ki je bil napoten na pot v Philadelphijo okoli 22. aprila. Namesto da bi ga naročil, je bil REGULUS naslednjih 18 let v rezervi na ladjedelnici Philadelphia. Njena pooblaščena baterija v tem obdobju je bila 2-5 & quot/51 in 4-3 & quot/50 AA puške, ki je bila končno nameščena januarja 1941, mesec po tem, ko je bila ladja v celoti provizirana.

Kot aktivna mornariška enota je REGULUS od februarja do decembra 1941 nosil zaloge na otoke Wake in Midway, nato pa se je ukvarjal predvsem z oskrbovanjem Havajev z zahodne obale do konca leta 1944, ki so ga konec leta 1943 in v začetku leta 1944. prekinile operacije na Samoanskih in Elliceovih otokih. REGULUS novembra 1944 prispela v Eniwetok in Ulithi, maja 1945 pa je odplula najprej na Filipine in nato na Okinavo, kjer je izvajala tovorne operacije jeseni 1945. Tovornjak se je 8. januarja 46 vrnil v San Francisco in se prijavil za inaktivacijo.


Regulus I AK -14 - Zgodovina

Ameriški prvi jedrski odvračalec, ki ga prevaža Regulus

Ko se je hladna vojna v desetletju po drugi svetovni vojni zaostrila in zlasti z uspehom Sovjetske zveze, da se Združenim državam pridruži pri razvoju atomskega orožja, je jedrsko odvračanje postalo ključni element svetovne diplomacije. Do zgodnjih petdesetih let sta obe velesili razporedili velike bombnike s človeško posadko, ki so lahko dosegli domovino drug drugega bodisi z baziranjem naprej bodisi z zračnim polnjenjem, poleg tega pa so Združene države začele uporabljati atomsko orožje na letalonosilkah. avtor Edward C. Whitman

Podmornica z vodenim izstrelkom na jedrski pogon USS Morska plošča (SSGN-587) pošilja raketo Regulus I v nebo. Elegantna raketa na turboreaktivni pogon je imela jedrsko bojno glavo in je v floti delovala od leta 1955. V ozadju je letalski nosilec USS Lexington (CV-16).

Obe strani sta prav tako hitro izkoristili zajeti nemški tehnologiji V-1 in V-2 iz druge svetovne vojne, da bi začeli z razvojem tako vodenih kot balističnih raket za taktično in strateško uporabo, pri čemer je ameriška vojska sprva prevzela vodilno vlogo v ZDA . Da ne bi bilo konec, je ameriška mornarica predelala dva flotna čolna druge svetovne vojne, USS Carbonero (SS-337) in USS Cusk (SS-348) za nošenje ameriške različice nemške impulzno-reaktivne rakete V-1, znane kot Loon, ki je bila prvič izstreljena na morje februarja 1947. Nominalni doseg Loona pod vodstvom poveljstva je bil približno 50 navtičnih milj, vendar z uporabo druga podmornica kot rele, lahko bi bila učinkovita do 135 navtičnih milj, s poročano krožno napako (CEP) 6.000 jardov.

Do takrat je mornarica izdala tudi razvojne pogodbe za še dve ambiciozni bombni raketi, nadzvočni Grumman Rigel (SSM-N-6) in podzvočni Chance-Vought Regulus (SSM-N-8), od katerih je vsak nosil 3.000 funt bojne glave za 500 navtičnih milj. Čeprav je Rigel leta 1953 padel ob poti, se je Regulus uspešno razvil v prvo ameriško jedrsko odvračanje na morju in je bil prvič napoten na težko križarko USS Los Angeles (CA-135) leta 1955. Sčasoma je bilo pet podmornic opremljenih za nošenje in izstreljevanje tudi Regulusa, ki so postale glavna sila odvračanja.

Raketa Regulus I je bila v bistvu majhno turboreaktivno letalo, dolgo 42 čevljev, z razponom kril 21 čevljev. Bruto izstrelitvena teža je bila nekaj manj kot sedem ton, vključno s tono goriva, njegov motor Allison J33-A-14 pa bi lahko izstrelil raketo na 0,91 maha (približno 550 vozlov). Regulus je bil izstreljen z nagnjene rampe, ki jo je bilo kasneje mogoče usposobiti, in za dosego hitrosti sta potrebovali dve enoti JATO (potiskanje s potiskom 2300 funtov). Orožje je bilo vodeno z ukazi, sprva do radarskega obzorja s prekrivanjem ukazov za krmiljenje na radarsko valovno zasnovo sledilne platforme, nato pa z uporabo relejne podmornice bližje cilju za sledenje in usmerjanje rakete do končne ciljne točke. Lahko bi nosili 40-50 kilotonsko jedrsko bojno glavo ali 1-2 megatonsko termonuklearno napravo.

USS Tunny (SSG-282) je bila prva podmornica, ki je nosila Regulus. Prvotno podmornica flote druge svetovne vojne Gato razred, Tunny je bil izstreljen junija 1942, opravil devet vojnih patrulj in si prislužil devet bojnih zvezd v pacifiški vojni. Decembra 1945 so jo razbremenili, za kratek čas so jo ponovno rezervirali za korejsko vojno, znova razgradili, nato pa so jo v začetku leta 1953 odpeljali za predelavo v podmornico z vodenimi raketami (SSG). To je obsegalo montažo na palubo velikega valjastega hangarja pod tlakom, s premerom približno 15 čevljev, tik ob jadru, z zložljivo rampo, ki se je raztezala na krmi. V hangarju bi lahko bili nameščeni dve raketi Regulus I v obliki vrtljivega obroča. Orožje je bilo mogoče preveriti, ko je bila podmornica še potopljena, tako da je vstopila v hangar skozi dostopni prtljažnik, vendar je dejansko izstrelitev zahtevalo, da je podmornica na površju in roko pripeljala na tirnice, preden je bila lahko izstreljena. Potem bi moral čoln ostati vsaj na globini periskopa, da vodi raketo do radarskega obzorja.

Tunnyjev spreobrnjenje se je po današnjih standardih hitro premaknilo in julija 1953. je svojega prvega Regulusa izstrelila na morje. Tunny je deloval iz Point Mugua v Kaliforniji predvsem kot preskusna platforma Regulus. Oktobra 1955 je USS Barbero, prvotno SS-317 in tudi ladja za floto iz druge svetovne vojne, je bila naročena kot drugi SSG mornarice, saj so jo izvlekli iz naftalina in jo zagotovila pomorska ladjedelnica otok Mare z valjastim hangarjem, enakim Tunnyjevim. Po delovnih urah ob obali Kalifornije, Barbero aprila 1956 prečkal Panamski prekop in se pridružil Atlantski floti.

Do takrat je bil Regulus na morju tudi na štirih težkih križarkah: Poleg Los Angeles, že omenjeno, Helena (CA-75), Toledo (CA-133) in Macon (CA-132) so bili vsi opremljeni z lahkimi izstrelnimi tirnicami in začeli z rednimi operativnimi uvedbami, prve tri v Pacifiku, in Macon v Atlantiku. Za izstrelitev rakete je bilo opremljenih celo deset letalskih prevoznikov, odvisno od spremljevalnega letala, ki je vodilo srednji tečaj, a čeprav je prišlo do vsaj ene pacifiške napotitve, nastala mešanica raket in letal s posadko ni bila priljubljena v letalski skupnosti.

Zgodnja prizadevanja. ZDA in Sovjetska zveza sta hitro izkoristili zajete nemške tehnologije V-1 in V-2 iz druge svetovne vojne, da bi začeli z razvojem lastnih vodenih in balističnih raket. Nemški uspehi pri postavljanju raket velikega dosega in vse večja zaskrbljenost zaradi rasti sovjetske moči po vojni so v poznih štiridesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja privedli do eksperimentov z izstreljevanjem strateških raket z podmornic. Zgoraj USS Carbonero (SS-337) izstreli Loon-ameriško raketo ramjet po vzoru nemškega V-1. Pretvorba SSG. USS Tunny (SSG-282) je bila prva podmornica, ki je nosila raketo Regulus I. Prvotno podmornica flote druge svetovne vojne, izstreljena leta 1942, že dvakrat razgrajena Tunny je bila v začetku leta 1953. predelana v podmornico z vodeno raketo. Tunny je skrit v valoviti dimni sledi, ko raketa Regulus I strelja v nebo. Regulus II. Skoraj dvakrat večji od Regulusa I je Regulus II druge generacije lahko dosegel 1.200 navtičnih milj pri 2. Mahu. Do konca leta 1955 je imela mornarica dolgoročne načrte za izstrelitev kar 23 podmornic Regulus II, čeprav je Regulus II. Pri končnem preizkušanju sem se izkazal za uspešnega, proračunski pritiski pa so preprečili njegovo uporabo.
1940 (pozno) 1953 1955

Sredi leta 1956 je postala mornariška politika ohraniti en SSG v vsakem oceanu in Tunny je svojo bazo operacij prenesla v Pearl Harbor leta 1957. Medtem je mornarica postavila dve veliki dizelsko-električni podmornici posebej za prevoz Regulusa in izstrelila USS Greyback (SSG-574) marca 1958 in USS Growler (SSG-577) avgusta istega leta. Vsaka od teh dveh sestrskih ladij-s potopljeno približno 3600 ton-bi lahko sprejela skupaj štiri rakete Regulus I v par cilindričnih hangarjev, nameščenih v veliki, čebulni premci. Ti hangarji so se odpirali na krmi skozi sklop vrat, s katerimi je bilo orožje mogoče premakniti na izstrelitveno rampo, postavljeno v vodnjak pred jadrom. Za izstrelitev je bila rampa zavrtena proti ladjam.

Potem ko so Sovjetska zveza in nato ZDA leta 1957 uspešno preizkusile prve medcelinske balistične rakete (ICBM), se je dirka z jedrskim orožjem premaknila v nevarnejšo fazo. Konec leta 1958 je s štirimi SSG -ji in štirimi križarkami Regulus sodelovala mornarica, ki je vse podmornice in tri križarke preselila v Pacifik, da bi ohranila redne odvračilne patrulje, ki grozijo sovjetskemu Daljnemu vzhodu. Zlasti je bila podmorniška eskadrila ONE sestavljena iz štirih SSG v Pearl Harborju in je sprejela položaj pripravljenosti, ki je postavil vsaj štiri rakete na postajah v zahodnem Pacifiku, da bi dopolnil obstoječa letala na letalskih nosilcih, oborožena z jedrskim orožjem. (To je zahtevalo uporabo obeh preoblikovanih ladij flote skupaj ali enega od obeh Greybacks.) Tunny oktobra 1959 odšel na prvo od teh redno načrtovanih odvračilnih patrulj Siva barva in Growlerjev prve patrulje so se začele v začetku leta 1960.

Izdelano po naročilu. Do sredine leta 1958 je USS Greyback (SSG-574) in USS Growler (SSG-577) je bil naročen kot prve dizelsko-električne podmornice, posebej zasnovane za nošenje raket Regulus. Takrat je imela mornarica na morju štiri SSG-je in štiri križarke z raketami. Zgoraj, Growlerjev veliki premčni hangarji, kjer je lahko nosila štiri rakete Regulus I, so jasno vidni kot najpomembnejša značilnost ladje. Jedrska energija. USS Morska plošča je bila prva podmornica z jedrskim pogonom, posebej zasnovana za nošenje in izstrelitev raket. Naročena januarja 1960 je lahko v svojem hangarju nosila štiri rakete Regulus II ali pet raket Regulus I, ki so služile tudi kot sprednja torpedna soba.
1958 1960
Zadnja leta. Pojav kompaktnih jedrskih bojnih glav in velikih raketnih motorjev na trda goriva v poznih petdesetih letih je hitro končal doba Regulusa. V kombinaciji z novim George Washington Podmornica razreda (SSBN-598) je raketa Polaris odpravila vse pomanjkljivosti sistema Regulus.

Nekaj ​​let prej pa je mornarica že usmerila Chance Vought, da začne razvijati nadzvočno raketo Regulus II druge generacije, ki bo zmogla ali dosegla 1.200 navtičnih milj pri 2. mahu. Skoraj dvakrat večje od Regulusa I je novo orožje zahtevalo nekoliko večjo podmornico za njeno nošenje. Študirali so več alternativnih modelov platform, vključno z eno, ki je lahko nosila štiri rakete Regulus II ali osem raket Regulus I v velikem hangarju naprej. Konec koncev so bila sredstva za izgradnjo novega SSG vključena v proračun za leto 1956. Še več, do konca leta 1955 so načrtovalci dolgega dosega mornarice pričakovali, da bodo sčasoma potrebne kar 23 podmornic Regulus II. V začetku istega leta pa se je program jedrskega pogona mornarice uresničil z USS Nautilus (SSN-571) "podzemni tok jedrske energije." Zato je bil prvi načrtovani SSG Regulus II preurejen kot podmornica na jedrski pogon, postavljena na otoku Mare aprila 1957 in naročena kot USS Morska plošča (SSGN-587) januarja 1960.

Morska plošča, Dolžine 350 čevljev in potopljene skoraj 4900 ton, je bila opremljena s takrat standardno napadalno podmorsko elektrarno z dvema vijakoma. Njen ogromen hangar z enim izstrelkom je bil postavljen globoko v zunanji trup naprej in se nagnil navzgor in nazaj, da bi prodrl na krov, kjer so velika, navpično odpirajoča se vrata omogočala dostop do gramofona pred jadrom. Prostor v hangarju bi lahko imel štiri rakete Regulus II ali pet Regulus I, prav tako pa bi se lahko podvojil kot sprednja torpedna soba. Ta velik hangar z enojnimi vrati, ki je bil med začetkom evolucije potencialno odprt proti morju, je predstavljal resno ranljivost. Če bi poplavilo, bi lahko ladja zlahka potonila.

Morska plošča novembra 1960 vstopila v aktivno službo s pacifiško floto in v začetku naslednjega leta opravila svojo prvo uradno patruljo, ki se je pridružila štirim SSG v rotaciji, ki je potrebna za stalno ohranjanje štirih strateških raket. Do takrat so bili težki križarji umaknjeni iz misije Regulus - s Los Angeles zadnja, ki je šla leta 1961 - podmornice so pustile same. Nekoliko ironično, čeprav se je Regulus II pri končnem preizkušanju izkazal za uspešnega, so proračunski pritiski preprečili vsa nadaljnja naročila in ga nikoli niso uporabili. Tako je podsonični Regulus I v celotnem obdobju teh prvih odvračilnih patrulj po morju ostal orožje izbire.

Pravzaprav je sinergija dveh novih vojaških tehnologij-kompaktnih jedrskih bojnih glav in velikih raketnih motorjev na trdo gorivo-pomenila hiter konec ere Regulus. Skupaj so omogočili oblikovanje razmeroma majhnih izstrelkov na trda goriva, ki lahko nosijo jedrske bojne glave na medcelinske razdalje in tako ugotovili izvedljivost balistične rakete s podmornico (SLBM). V skladu s tem je bil novembra 1955 ustanovljen Urad za posebne projekte mornarice, ki je pod vodstvom RADM Williama F. Raborna hitro napredoval v razvoju Polaris SLBM in razreda podmornic z balističnimi raketami na jedrski pogon za njegovo nošenje. Le pet let kasneje, prav tako Morska plošča novembra 1960 se je pridružil pacifiški floti, prvemu novemu razredu, USS George Washington (SSBN-598), odšla s svojo prvo patruljo Polaris v Atlantiku.

Kombinacija SSBN/Polaris je v enem potezu odpravila vse pomanjkljivosti sistema Regulus: površinsko izstrelitev, tekoče gorivo, odvisnost od aktivnega sledenja in vodenja, omejen doseg, majhno kapaciteto hangarja in številne druge pomanjkljivosti. S podvodnim izstrelitvijo, skoraj neomejeno vzdržljivostjo in skoraj neranljivostjo je novo strateško odvračanje hitro nadomestilo Regulus in SSG/SSGN. Šele decembra 1964 pa je USS Daniel Boone (SSBN-629) je opravil prvo patruljo Polarisa v Pacifiku, ki je tistega meseca zapustila Guam. Tako je odvračanje Regulusa v zahodnem Pacifiku ohranjeno do maja 1964, ko Morska plošča vodil zadnjo patruljo serije. Do takrat je pet čolnov Regulus od oktobra 1959 izvedlo skupaj 40 odvračilnih patrulj WESTPAC in s tem začelo eno od osrednjih strateških paradigm hladne vojne. Sledili sta dve generaciji SSBN.

Podmornice. Kje so zdaj? Od dveh nekdanjih ladij flote, Barbero je bil prvi razgrajen in junija 1964 izbrisan s seznama mornarice. Tunny maja 1965 se je vrnila na SS-282, vendar je njen veliki hangar Regulus oktobra 1966 omogočil njeno pretvorbo v podmornico, ki je nosila čete, na novo imenovano APSS-282. V tej vlogi je leta 1967 sodelovala v številnih posebnih operacijah. ob vietnamski obali. Kasneje, Tunny je bil junija 1969 dokončno razgrajen in le leto kasneje potopljen kot tarča.

Podobno, ko je bila njena namestitev Regulus odstranjena, Greyback služil kot amfibijski transport (LPSS-574) od maja 1969 do sredine leta 1980. Ladja je bila januarja 1984 izbrisana s seznama mornarice, leta 1986 pa je potopila kot raketna tarča. Morska plošča je bila okoli leta 1965 spremenjena v preskusno platformo in se je navidezno uporabljala pri razvoju reševalnega vozila za poglobljeno potopitev (DSRV), dejansko pa za bolj tajne projekte, dokler ni bila junija 1976 razgrajena.

Najsrečnejša usoda je bila rezervirana za Growler, ki je bil maja 1964. razgrajen in uvrščen v rezervo. Izgubljen s seznama mornarice avgusta 1980, je Growler zdaj ohranjen v skoraj izvirnem stanju kot del USS Neustrašen Muzej morje-zrak-vesolje v New Yorku skupaj s primerom rakete Regulus I. David K. Stumpf Regulus - pozabljeno orožje (Turner Publishing, 1996) ponuja verodostojen in podroben opis celotnega programa Regulus in z njim povezanih platform.
Whitman je višji urednik Revija Undersea Warfare.


Slavni sorodnik

Bill Nye lahko šteje Walta Disneyja za enega od njegovih bratrancev, kar se mu zdi primerno Družba Walt Disney je bil eden njegovih producentov oddaj. Med slavne sorodnike Billa Nyeja spadajo tudi kolegi televizijske osebnosti Johnny Carson, voditelj Nocojšnja predstava, in Lucille Ball, zvezda Ljubim Lucy. Drugi znani sorodniki so filmska igralka Raquel Welch, pevka in tekstopisec Taylor Swift, model prevlek za kopalke Sports Illustrated Kate Upton in filmski igralec Matt Damon.

Glede na to, da je Bill Nye napisal več knjig, je zanimivo videti, da ima med sorodniki številne literarne ikone, med njimi pesnika Ralph Waldo Emerson in Emily Dickinson ter avtorja Edgar Rice Burroughs in Nathaniel Hawthorne.


Zgodovina in prihodnost ciljanja na ciklin odvisne kinaze pri zdravljenju raka

Rak predstavlja patološko manifestacijo nenadzorovane delitve celic, zato je bilo dolgo pričakovano, da bo naše razumevanje osnovnih načel nadzora celičnega cikla povzročilo učinkovite terapije raka. Predvsem naj bi bile ključne terapevtske tarče, odvisne od ciklin odvisnih kinaz (CDK), ki spodbujajo prehod skozi celični cikel, ker številni tumorigenski dogodki navsezadnje spodbujajo proliferacijo tako, da vplivajo na komplekse CDK4 ali CDK6 v fazi G1 celičnega cikla. Poleg tega so motnje v kromosomski stabilnosti in vidiki nadzora faze S in G2/M, ki jih posredujejo CDK2 in CDK1, ključni tumorigenski dogodki. Prevajanje tega znanja v uspešen klinični razvoj zaviralcev CDK je bilo v preteklosti izziv, številni zaviralci CDK pa so v kliničnih preskušanjih pokazali razočaranje. Tu pregledujemo biologijo CDK, utemeljitev za terapevtsko usmerjanje diskretnih kompleksov kinaze in zgodovinske klinične rezultate zaviralcev CDK. Razpravljamo tudi o tem, kako so zaviralci CDK z visoko selektivnostjo (zlasti za CDK4 in CDK6) v kombinaciji s stratifikacijo bolnikov povzročili večjo klinično aktivnost.

Številke

Slika 1. Napredovanje celičnega cikla ...

Slika 1. Napredovanje celičnega cikla, ki ga poganjajo CDK

Mitogeni signali stimulirajo ciklin odvisno kinazo ...

Slika 2. Regulativni moduli G1 – S in ustreznost ...

Slika 2. Regulativni moduli G1 – S in pomembnost za raka

Nadzor prehoda G1 – S je ...

Slika 3. Povzetek bioloških funkcij ...

Slika 3. Povzetek bioloških funkcij kompleksov CDK

Povzetek različnih…

Slika 4. Deregulacija regulatornih genov CDK ...

Slika 4. Deregulacija regulatornih genov CDK pri raku

Frekvence genetske amplifikacije ...

Slika 5. Izbrani zaviralci CDK

Slika 5. Izbrani zaviralci CDK

Kemične strukture več pan-ciklin-odvisnih kinaz (CDK) in CDK4-…


Nepojasnjen pojav morja

Moje plovilo je šlo skozi Hormuško ožino, namenjeno Indiji. Mali Quoin je. Svetloba je bila še vedno vidna na desni četrtini, ki je nosila 305 ° T, razdalja 20 milj. Noč je bila svetla in jasna, z zelo dobro vidljivostjo, brez lune. Tretji kolega me je poklical na most in rekel, da je opazil nekaj, kar je mislil, da bi jaz morala videti.

Približno štiri točke na pristaniškem loku, proti iranski obali, je bilo svetleče pasovje, ki je utripalo. Njegov videz je nakazoval na polarno sijo, a v bistvu na obzorju ali pod njim. Pregled z daljnogledom je pokazal, da je svetlobno območje vsekakor pod obzorjem, v vodi in se približuje plovilu. S približevanjem tega pojava je postalo očitno, da se zdi, da se utripanje začne v sredini pasu in teče navzven proti njegovim okončinam.


Vsebina

Na prvi pogled bi kdorkoli menil, da je Regulus popolnoma neopazen posameznik. Njegov obraz ni imel opaznih potez in imel je zlate oči, ki so bile običajno mračne in nezainteresirane, a so se začele iskrivati, ko se je strastno ukvarjal s svojimi dolgimi monologi. Njegov skromno čeden obraz ni bil posebej privlačen ali neprivlačen, njegova višina in postava pa sta bila povsem povprečna. Kot bi pričakovali, tudi njegovi lasje niso posebej izstopali, saj niso bili niti kratki niti dolgi in brez izrazitega sloga, kljub njegovemu mladostnemu videzu ΐ ] pa so bili naravno beli. Regulusova bela koža, ki ni imela nobenega videza porjavelosti, skupaj z belimi lasmi in pretežno belimi oblačili, se mu je zdelo, kot da je utelešenje bele barve. Pravzaprav je popolna odsotnost barv, ki jih je pokazal Regulusov fizični videz, dajala vtis bolne osebe, ki ji je vsa barva odtekla. Na splošno je bil Regulus Corneas v nasprotju s svojo osebnostjo in dejanji videti kot povsem običajen človek, ki se je kljub pomanjkanju barve zlahka stopil v množico.

Regulusova oblačila, podobno kot njegove obrazne poteze in oblika telesa, niso bila niti ekstravagantna niti otrpana, temveč so predstavljala vtis povprečnosti. Njegov primarni kos oblačila je bil čisto bel plašč v slogu greca, ki mu je segal do gležnjev in imel manšete z zlatim robom, komplet petih zlatih gumbov, ki so se spuščali po trupu njegovega sprednjega dela, kar je običajno zagotavljalo, da je bil plašč zaprt zgoraj bok in zlato poudarjen rob. Notranjost plašča je bila črna in z navpičnimi zlatimi črtami, ki potujejo po celotnem plašču. Najbolj vpadljiv del njegovega plašča je bil razkošen zlato-črni ovratnik z visokim izrezom, na katerem je bil vpisan simbol neskončnosti, kar morda odraža naravo oblasti Regulusa. Pod plaščem je imel oblečeno srajco globoko modre barve z dolgimi rokavi, bele snežno bele hlače in par belih čevljev, od katerih sta bila oba v istem odtenku kot lasje in plašč. Običajno je bilo videti le manšete obleke, saj je Regulusov dolg plašč skoraj popolnoma zatemnil. Regulus je imel en sam temno modri uhan v obliki solze, ki je bil iste barve kot njegova srajčna obleka in je zaradi tanke zlate verige, ki ga je pritrdila, visel z desnega ušesnega režnja.

Med poroko z Emilijo v Arc 5 se je Regulus pojavil v bolj formalni poročni obleki. Nosil je beli smoking, z dolgim ​​hrbtom, ki se mu je spuščal skoraj do pete, modro -belo črtasto srajco s črno -zlatim črtastim trakom, bele rokavice in bele čevlje. Barvna paleta smokinga je bila enaka njegovi običajni obleki.


Zgodovina USS Growlerja

Edina raketna podmornica na svetu, ki je na ogled javnosti!

USS Growler je edina preživela podmornica Regulus. Pristani v muzeju Intrepid Sea-Air-Space v New Yorku, vsako leto gosti več sto tisoč obiskovalcev in javnost izobražuje o podmornicah in hladni vojni.

In 1996 historian David K. Stumpf, Ph.D. published the book Regulus: The Forgotten Weapon. As a direct result of his research, Regulus veterans received long overdue recognition. While the book is currently out of print, used copies can sometimes be obtained through Amazon.com. (Update: As of October 2005, the publisher indicates the book may be re-printed soon. Check back for more information.)

Thanks to Dr. David Stumpf, we are proud to present the history of the USS Growler as it appears in his book.

Power from the Depths: The Career of the USS Growler

Excerpted from Regulus: The Forgotten Weapon by Dr. David Stumpf. Published by Turner Press 1996

Contents Copyright 1996 Turner Publishing and Dr. David Stumpf

The USS Growler, like USS Grayback (SSG 574), was an improved 563 Class submarine. Built at Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, Kittery, Maine, Growler had a similar outward appearance to Grayback but was quite different in her internal layout aft of the missile guidance center the layout was nearly identical to the smaller USS Darter (SS-576). Growler was launched on 5 April 1958 at Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, Kittery, Maine and commissioned on 30 August 1958 with Lieutenant Commander Charles Priest, Jr., assuming command.

Growler began her sea trials on 4 November 1958 in the traditional submarine test area off the Isle of Shoals. A successful first day was spent on the surface conducting full power runs, testing various ship systems and cycling all masts. At dawn on 5 November 1958, the Growler crew prepared to conduct the first test depth dive. After submerging to periscope depth, she then proceeded deeper, leveling off at 50 foot increments as the crew checked all systems and hull fittings subject to sea pressure. As Growler passed the fleet-type submarine test depth of 475 feet, the majority of her crew were in new territory, never having been this deep before. Everything was fine until Growler reached 75 feet short of her test depth.

Radioman Leonard Powers was in the Radio Shack directly across the passage way from the Sonar Room. Powers remembers hearing a loud pop and looking across the passage way towards the source of the sound only to find a stream of water roaring down from an empty one-half inch cable fitting in the overhead of the Sonar Room. Captain Priest immediately ordered “Emergency Surface” while everyone nearby grabbed buckets and began collecting the water, passing it along to the galley for disposal. Most of the water was flowing into bilges or staying within the four- inch deck coaming that surrounded the Sonar Room. Unlike most of the crew’s experience on the fleet-type submarines, where the compressed air rushed into the ballast tanks during an emergency surface evolution, at this much greater depth the air seemed to barely hiss. Lieutenant(jg) Robert Duke, the Communications Officer, was monitoring the depth gauge in the Chief Petty Officer’s quarters and recalls the strange sensation of Growler slowly rising to the surface with a slight down angle due to the flooding. Growler surfaced with only superficial damage. The Portsmouth Naval Shipyard Planning Superintendent, Lieutenant Commander Hank Hoffman, went topside and determined that an unused cable fitting opening had been plugged with a temporary blank for dockside tests which had not been replaced prior to sea trials. With all the time lost and additional costs if they returned to port, Hoffman suggested to Captain Priest, Jr. that a solution was readily available on board. The cable hole was slightly smaller than the diameter of a nickel and with two nickels sandwiching a rubber gasket, Hoffman was able to securely plug the hole. A compartment air pressure test indicated no leakage present and the trials resumed with torpedo firing and other ship’s system tests. The temporary plug was removed in the shipyard, mounted on a plaque with the label “The Cheapest Repair in Shipyard History,” and was the start of the ship’s commemorative plaque collection.

On 15 November 1958 Growler conducted her first missile operation test when she launched a 56 foot long, 13 ton dummy mass sled balanced to simulate a Regulus II missile. Much to the chagrin of shipyard officials, the first three attempts failed due to electrical problems. On the fourth try, the sled was successfully launched, splashing into the ocean 2,000 yards away as planned.

With acceptance trials completed, Growler headed south for her shakedown cruise. After successful completion of torpedo firing trials, Growler headed for Naval Air Station Roosevelt Roads, Puerto Rico and the start of her Regulus I launch operations. Growler’s first missile launch took place 24 March 1959. Since the BPQ-2 Trounce guidance equipment was not yet installed, USS Runner (SS 476), a Regulus guidance submarine, took control immediately after launch and guided the missile during the 30 minute flight. The next flight was a two-boat Trounce guidance operation in combination with USS Argonaut (SS 473) and Runner and was again successful.

Growler completed another three launches, all successful, over the next two weeks. Missile operations were then brought to an abrupt halt by a failure in the launcher elevation mechanism. The Short Rail Mark 7 (SR MK 7) launcher was overly complicated due to automatic sequencing and safety controls. Elevation was controlled by limit switches that were positioned to prevent the elevation screws from over extension. These switches failed and the launch rails were forced off the screws, stripping the top of the threads in the process. Repair was seemingly impossible since the boat did not have the necessary tools to re-cut the stripped threads. Captain Priest remembers that, without being asked, off-duty crew members would come topside to take turns trying to repair the threads by filing them back into shape with hand files. He realized his efforts to bring to the crew the team spirit so necessary to successful operation of a submarine had been successful.

Growler returned to Portsmouth for post-shakedown availability. The launcher was modified to prevent the recurrence of the limit switch failure. The BPQ-2 Trounce guidance radar and electronic equipment installation was also completed. During this time period Growler received orders to her new home port, Pearl Harbor. One guidance submarine, USS Medregal (SS 480) and the other East Coast Regulus I launch boat, USS Barbero (SSG 317), were also moving to Pearl Harbor as all Regulus I operations were being consolidated in the Pacific. Growler departed Norfolk 27 July 1959. After several days in Key West, Florida, where she put on several missile ram-out demonstrations, Growler left 14 August 1959 for transit to Pearl Harbor via the Panama Canal.

During the long and slow transit the crew and had one memorable swim call. On 26 August 1959, Captain Priest and the Executive Officer, Lieutenant Commander John C. “Pete” Burkhardt decided it would be appropriate to make a movie, from the surface, of Growler at periscope depth, snorkeling and then surfacing, ramming out a missile and running the missile engine up to full power. A life raft was inflated and a volunteer crew consisting of Lieutenant(jg) Robert Duke, Lieutenant(jg) William Lindeman, Torpedoman First Class John Haney and Commissary Steward Oscar Weigant, paddled 50 yards off to start filming. While submerged and circling the raft, Priest recalls observing the raft and seeing everyone waving quite energetically. He took this to mean that the filming was working out well. When they surfaced and recovered the raft, Priest learned the rest of the story. Duke recalls:

“It was very, very quiet and actually pretty lonely in the raft, even with three fellow volunteers. After successfully filming Growler as she submerged, we were preoccupied with trying to ward off shark attacks. While we were watching for the periscope, I felt a heavy rippling along the bottom of the raft. After the second time, I asked Lindeman, Haney and Weigant if they felt it. They had and as we talked I looked over the side of the raft and saw a six-foot shark pass under the raft, turning to try to take a bite out of the raft’s underside. I calmly asked for the shark repellent and received a reply: ‘There is no shark repellent, Sir.’ I then asked for the flare gun and received the word: ‘There is no flare gun, Sir.’ We were completely ill-equipped and were about to face the consequences. I took an oar, ready to hit the shark the next time it made a pass. Meanwhile, Weigant was standing up, waving a shirt at the periscope he had just spotted. I felt sure we were all about to be dumped into the water. After I got Weigant to sit down and, with Haney paddling like mad towards the periscope, the shark made another pass and this time I managed to give it a good rap on the nose. Much to my amazement, the shark disappeared for the next five minutes.

Meanwhile, Growler surfaced 100 yards off the raft and prepared to ram out the missile. The movie camera was on the floor of the raft, bouncing around in the salt water, useless. The shark returned but this time he had a friend which was quite a bit larger. The newcomer never made a run on the raft but the smaller one continued to worry us. As Growler approached to recover us, the sharks, of course, disappeared and everyone on board remained skeptical of our story.”

Growler arrived at Pearl Harbor 7 September 1959 and was assigned to Submarine Squadron ONE. Missile operations resumed on 2 October 1959 with the first Trounce guidance flight for the Growler guidance team. The operation was successful and the missile recovered at Bonham Auxiliary Landing Field on the Island of Kauai. Growler’s first tactical missile operations took place in late October with two highly successful and accurate terminal dives to impact. Her first unsuccessful launch occurred 8 December 1959 when the missile did not program over to cruise settings and splashed astern. Over the next three months she launched an additional three missiles, including two tactical missiles for warhead development testing. Prior to her first deterrent strike patrol, in nine launch operations Growler had lost one missile at launch and none while in flight.

Regulus Deterrent Patrols 1960-1964

Growler’s first deterrent patrol began on 12 March 1960. A major problem during transit to her assigned patrol station was the gradual loss of both aluminum sheet metal fairings around the missile hangar doors. Started by corrosion due to electrolysis between the aluminum and steel and exacerbated by the heavy seas encountered in the miserable North Pacific winter weather, the aluminum fairings disintegrated and were lost overboard. During this first mission, Lieutenant John J. “Joe” Ekelund, Executive Officer and Navigator, developed an innovative method to determine the submarine’s position in the assigned operating area. The technique was quite simple and similar to that used by submarines to determine the range of a target ship. Using navigation charts, Ekelund identified mountain peaks and their height as listed. He then observed the mountain through the periscope and, utilizing the built-in periscope stadimeter, he could superimpose the image of the base of the mountain on its peak. This double image and known peak height provided a good approximate range to the mountain that was read on the stadimeter dial. Using the range so determined, one can could calculate the amount of height which was not seen (was below the horizon) and correct the charted height to the observed height. Using the observable height a second, more accurate range could then be measured. Three iterations of this sequence would yield a navigationally useful range. Using more than one peak, he could accurately determine his position.

Ekelund remembers that the first “interesting” experience on this patrol involved the Number One periscope. Growler was snorkeling at night and the Conning Officer reported to Ekelund that he had sighted a white object. With no sonar contacts reported and no ice seen during the previous several hours, a complete sweep of the horizon revealed white objects completely surrounding the boat. They had sailed into an ice field. Immediately all masts were lowered but not before the periscope was hit by a large ice flow, damaging it enough to render useless. Priest and Ekelund both recall that from then on the mission was routine, except when it came time to head back to Pearl Harbor. On 2 May 1960 the mission was extended three days after Gary Powers’ U-2 aircraft was shot down over the Soviet Union. Morale sagged temporarily when this announcement was made. After seven weeks on station in terrible weather, even three days was a major burden. Growler returned to Pearl Harbor on 12 May 1960.

Priest was relieved by Lieutenant Commander Robert Crawford on 7 June 1960. Crawford had served on Regulus guidance submarines on the West Coast and was returning to submarine duty after completing a tour in the Bureau of Aeronautics at the submarine-launched guided missile desk. The day Crawford reported for duty was the same day a catastrophic fire occurred on USS Sargo (SSN 583). Ekelund recalls that at about 1700 hours he heard a fire alarm sounding on the base. He went to the bridge and saw columns of smoke over the buildings in the direction of nearby piers. Sargo was on fire, with the flames being fueled by a break in the oxygen transfer line in the stern compartment. The fire was finally extinguished by flooding the stern compartment.

Growler and her crew became involved when Crawford was asked to be host of the King of Thailand during his State Visit since Sargo was now no longer available. A good part of the rest of the night was taken in making all of the myriad of preparations, including meals during the cruise, planning for proper honors, alerting all of the crew that the uniform would be Full Dress Whites with swords. The day went perfectly and the crew and officers of Growler were justifiably proud that when COMSUBPAC needed something done well without prior planning, they had been selected.

One month later Growler was awarded the Battle Efficiency “E” for overall excellence in Submarine Squadron ONE during the previous year. Launch operations resumed in August with two fleet training missile flights and then a tactical missile low-level profile flight. This flight was somewhat different in that the Growler missile team launched the missile on shore at Bonham and transferred control to the Growler guidance team on board the submarine for the remainder of the flight. The missile was expended as planned.

Growler’s second deterrent mission began 10 November 1960 and she returned to Pearl Harbor 18 January 1961. After two months upkeep and two successful missile launches, she left 18 March 1961 on her third mission. Lieutenant Commander Robert Owens had reported to Growler as Prospective Executive Officer in February and was serving as Assistant Ordinance Officer. He recalls that the transit to Adak, Alaska for refueling and then to the assigned station was uneventful. One morning he went up to the bridge to shoot the morning star sight. Unfortunately, dense fog lay on the water surface and there was no discernible horizon. The bridge was above the fog layer while the deck, perhaps 20 feet below, was completely hidden. Suddenly the electronic countermeasures alarm began to blare from the speaker on the bridge. The operator realized it as being transmitted from a Soviet ship. Due to the intensity of the transmission it was determined that the ship was close aboard. Crawford and Owens simultaneously observed a radar mast suddenly appear above the low lying fog. Apparently Growler was inside of possible radar detection range. Crawford made the decision not to dive in order to avoid possible sonar detection. Growler changed course to head directly away from the contact and escaped undetected.

Growler returned to Pearl Harbor 12 May 1961. Lieutenant Commander Donald Henderson relieved Crawford 24 June 1961. During the change of command ceremonies Growler was awarded a Submarine Force Unit Citation by Rear Admiral Roy S. Benson, ComSubPac, for her previous mission. Growler immediately entered Pearl Harbor Navy Shipyard for overhaul. One addition was the installation of a Sperry Gyroscope Mark I Mod 0 Ships Inertial Navigation System (SINS) and the first LORAN C navigation system. A second modification during overhaul was an attempt to improve the handling characteristics of Growler at periscope and snorkeling depth. The problem was one of fluid hydrodynamics. The top of the missile hangar fairings were nearly one-half the height of the sail. At periscope depth this made for some difficult handling and a roller coaster ride as the Bernoulli effect caused the hangar deck area to act like an airplane wing and make the boat move towards the surface. This was especially apparent in rough weather. While Grayback and Growler had nearly identical exteriors, Grayback had a slightly different shape to her missile hangars that lessened this unwanted Bernoulli effect. By adding 10 feet to the height of Growler’s sail, the hangar surfaces would be 10 feet deeper at periscope depth and in theory, depth keeping problems would be somewhat mitigated. This also meant adding 10 feet to each of the periscopes, communications and radar masts as well as the electronic countermeasures equipment and snorkel. This was not a small undertaking by any means. The additional height of the sail changed considerably the metacentric height, a measure of ship’s stability. To prevent excessive rolling on the surface, additional saddle ballast tanks was added outboard of the main ballast tanks.

A welcome modification was also made to the missile launching equipment. The original trainable and transversable launcher that had been designed to launch both Regulus I and II missiles was removed and replaced with one that simply transversed to either missile hangar for missile ram out. Launch was forward over the missile hangars. The removal of the myriad of microswitches and associated hydraulics greatly simplified launcher operation and made this launcher much more reliable. Growler completed her overhaul in early December 1961.

After eight weeks of refresher training, Growler left Pearl Harbor on her fourth deterrent patrol on 11 February 1962, arriving at Midway Island five days later to disembark a sick crewman. Leaving Midway Island the next day, Growler arrived at the patrol area on 24 February 1962. Growler departed for the forward refit base one month later, arriving. 24 April. After a four week repair and upkeep period, Growler departed 24 May 1962. Arriving on station in early June 1962, she commenced her fifth deterrent patrol. Growler returned to Adak on 23 July 1962, departing for Pearl Harbor the next day. Lieutenant Commander Gunn, now Executive Officer, had a battle flag that read “Black and Blue Crew, No Relief Required!” They were flying this banner upon return to Pearl Harbor on 1 August 1962. Rear Admiral Bernard A. Clarey, ComSubPac, joined Growler as she entered Pearl Harbor and upon seeing the unfurled flag flying on the mast, put his hand on Henderson’s shoulder and asked if they really meant it. Henderson responded that it was true, the Regulus submarine crews took great pride in the fact that they did not need the Blue and Gold two-crew system used in the Polaris submarines. Growler received a ComSubPac Unit Commendation for both the fourth and fifth patrols.

After a 30 day upkeep, Growler began her customary refresher training with both torpedo and missile firing exercises. Submarine officers who aspire to command of a submarine must undergo a series of rigorous qualifying tests, exams and practical evaluations, all under the watchful eyes of the senior officers on board. Henderson remembers a most memorable prospective commanding officer evaluation that took place at this time. One of the steps in the evaluation process requires that the candidate personally prepare an exercise torpedo for firing. This meant supervising the loading of the torpedo on board, acting as the Approach Officer (assuming the position of the Commanding Officer during the attack) and upon gaining a satisfactory firing solution, fire the torpedo.

The operating area was off of Barbers Point, Oahu. By seagoing standards, the area was reasonably close inshore but not dangerously so. Areas such as this were frequently utilized to reduce the transit time for torpedo recovery vessels. The assigned target was a Pearl Harbor- based submarine rescue vessel. Lieutenant Gene Wells, the ship’s Torpedo Officer, was being evaluated and had done very well up this particular day. His fire control party attained a firing solution on the target’s speed course and range. Well’s fired his personally prepared torpedo and just like in the movies, he started a stopwatch to time the period of the torpedo run to determine when it should intercept the target and in this case, locate the torpedo after the run. Exercise torpedoes were set to run in one of two modes, either high speed short range or low speed and long range. Usually one would select the high speed option to minimize the opportunities for targets sighting the torpedo and maneuvering to avoid being hit.

Wells selected the high speed option but, due to equipment malfunction, it was not entered into the torpedo. For reasons that were never clear, the torpedo ran the low speed, long range run. Henderson recalls everyone counting down the time with no result, i.e., the torpedo could still be heard whining away. It kept running and running and running and then the sound finally stopped. Both Wells and Henderson were at the periscopes and were astonished at what they saw. To their amazement, as the whining sound stopped, they saw the torpedo break the water surface and run up the beach, finally coming to rest between two large fuel storage tanks in the Barber’s Point fuel farm!

One can only imagine the initial response of the torpedo retrieval team back at the base when Growler requested a cherry-picker retrieval crane to proceed to the middle of the naval air station fuel farm. Wells passed his torpedo firing test since on the balance, the shore-based fuel facility was considered a worthwhile target.

Growler’s sixth deterrent patrol, the third with Henderson in command, began on 24 November 1962. Weather in the assigned station area was again miserable. For Christmas dinner Henderson decided to go deep so the crew could enjoy the meal in relatively stable conditions. A thousand foot floating wire antenna permitted Growler to submerge to three hundred feet and still receive messages. While wave motion could still be felt at 300 feet, the meal was really much more enjoyable. A novel relief during this patrol was contributed by a Quartermaster Second Class who had been on board Growler for all six patrols. Traditionally, daily routine reports are made to the Commanding Officer at 0800, 1200, 1600 and 2000 hours. The 1200 hours report consisted of fuel and water on board, magazine and missile hangar temperatures, average specific gravity of both the forward and aft battery cells, ship’s position and that all chronometers (precision time pieces set to Greenwich Mean Time) had been wound and compared with each other. This report was normally made to the Commanding Officer during lunch. The other officers present paid little attention since it was usually so monotonous and routine. On this particular day this Quartermaster Second Class gained everyone’s full attention when he recited the following poem in place of the routine report:

Good afternoon Captain and the rest of you
Here’s the good word from the O.D. and the crew.
The chronometers wound just about nine
Then checked and compared with Greenwich Mean Time.
1 … 2 … 5 … 2 is the gravity now
And since we’ve submerged its bound to go down.
The magazines checked and found to be well.
With temperature normal, 51 sounds swell.
Now I don’t wear a mask and I don’t hide my face.
The noon reports lately have been a disgrace.
So I’ll make this poetic to keep up the pace.
Now thanks for your patience in hearing me out
I’ll see you tomorrow, on that there’s no doubt.

Needless to say, this got everyone’s attention and a lavish round of applause. Growler returned to Pearl Harbor on 11 February 1963 and received a COMSUBPAC Unit Commendation for this patrol. In addition, CINPACFLT issued a Unit Citation to all officers and men of Submarine Division ELEVEN for the period 1 November 1961 to 27 June 1963.

Lieutenant Commander Robert Owens relieved Henderson on 1 June 1963. Growler conducted two more deterrent missions, 14 June 63 to 12 August 63 and 14 October 63 to 13 December 63. In early 1964 the decision was made to decommission Growler and Grayback. Growler and Grayback sailed for Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California together and were decommissioned in May 1964.

Post Regulus: The Growler Museum

After decommissioning on 25 May 1964, Growler was placed in the Inactive Reserve Fleet at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Washington. Twenty- five years later it was decided that she was a burden to the annual budget and the Navy decided to use her as a torpedo test target for nuclear attack submarines. Fortunately these tests were never conducted. Instead, through the efforts of Mr. Zachary Fisher, of New York, and by an act of Congress, on 8 August 1988, Growler was assigned to become part of the Intrepid Sea-Air-Space Museum in New York City. In early 1989, Growler departed Puget Sound under tow. Proceeding through the Straits of San Juan de Fuca, she began a journey of six thousand nautical miles. After transiting the Canal, Growler was towed to a civilian shipyard on the west coast of Florida. While in the shipyard, Growler received both exterior and interior hull repairs, most important of which were the changes made between the missile hangars and the hull. These changes were made to facilitate access for visitors at the museum. On 18 April 1989, Growler was moored to the north side of Pier 86 in the Hudson River, her final “Home Port.” The entire cost of this operation was absorbed by Mr. Fisher, founder and chairman of the Intrepid Sea- Air-Space Museum. On 26 May 1989 Growler was “re-christened” at Pier 86 and is now one of the most popular exhibits of the Intrepid Museum complex.

N.B.: The Regulus missile on display at USS Growler is a “dummy” which lacks JATO bottles.

Growler Missile Deterrent Patrols:

12 Mar 60 – 17 Mar 60
10 Nov 60 – 18 Jan 61
18 Mar 61 – 24 May 61
11 Feb 62 – 24 Apr 62
24 May 62 – 01 Aug 63
24 Nov 62 – 11 Feb 63
14 Jun 63 – 12 Aug 63
04 Oct 63 – 13 Dec 63



Komentarji:

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