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Oddelek Mary Humphry

Oddelek Mary Humphry


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Mary Augusta Arnold, vnukinja dr. Thomasa Arnolda, se je rodila v Hobartu na Tasmaniji leta 1851. Hči Toma Arnolda, profesorja književnosti, dva njena strica sta bila Matthew Arnold in William Forster. Mary se je leta 1856 z družino vrnila v Anglijo in odraščala v Oxfordu.

Marija je bila težak otrok. Tom Arnold je zapisal, da je imel "z njo redno bitko približno enkrat na dan ... zaradi njenega dominantnega duha celo njena prijaznost sodeluje pri zatiranju." Druga oseba, ki jo je poznala, jo je opisala kot "strastno in namerno" in da je hitro izgubila živce.

Pri desetih letih je bila poslana na šolo za mlade dame Rock Terrace v Shifnalu. Leta 1864 se je preselila v šolo v Cliftonu. Kasneje je zapisala: "Ničesar se nisem temeljito ali natančno naučila in nemščina, francoščina in latinščina, za katere sem kmalu po poroki odkrila, da so bistvena za tisto literarno delo, ki sem ga želela opravljati, so morala biti vse prej, preden so se lahko naučila. bi mi bil resnično koristen. "

Leta 1871 je Mary spoznala Thomasa Humphryja Warda, 25-letnega učitelja in novoizvoljenega sodelavca na Brasenose College. Mary je rekla pritrdilno, ko je Thomas predlagal poroko, in velečasni Charles Dodgson (Lewis Carroll), ki je Marijine mlajše sestre uporabljal kot otroške manekenke, je posnel njihove zaročne fotografije. Poročila sta se leta 1872.

Mary Humphry Ward je kasneje zapisala: "Kmalu po poroki je postalo jasno, da bo najino literarno partnerstvo ... naši trije majhni otroci so prišli leta 1874, 1876 in 1879 in ves čas sem bral, poslušal, govoril in začel resno pisati - večinoma za sobotno revijo.

Leta 1881 so Thomasu Humphryju Wardu ponudili delo vodilnega pisca Časi. Par se je preselil v London in kmalu zatem je Mary dobila svojo prvo knjigo, Millie in Olly (1881) objavljeno. Njen drugi roman, Gospodična Bretherton pojavila leta 1884. Te knjige so bile slabo prodane, toda njen naslednji roman, Robert Elsmere (1888) je bil takojšen uspeh in v enem letu je bil prodan v več kot 500.000 izvodih, v naslednjih nekaj letih pa je bil preveden v več različnih jezikov.

Knjige, kot so Zgodovina Davida Grieveja (1892), Marcella (1894), Sir George Tressaday (1896) in Helbeck iz Bannisdalea (1898) uveljavil Warda kot enega najbolj priljubljenih britanskih romanopiscev. Računi njenega založnika razkrivajo zelo visoko prodajo, saj je vsak nov roman v prvih šestih tednih po objavi prodal več kot 100.000 izvodov.

Mnoge Wardove knjige so se nanašale na potrebo po pomoči manj srečnim v družbi. Kljub sočutju do ubogih pa je popolnoma nasprotovala volilni pravici žensk. Leta 1908 sta Lord Cromer in Lord Curzon pristopila k Mary Humphry Ward in jo prosila, da postane prva predsednica Lige proti volilnim pravicam. Mary se je strinjala in 8. julija 1908 je organizacija objavila svoj manifest. Vsebovalo je naslednje: "Čas je, da se ženske, ki nasprotujejo odstopu parlamentarne franšize ženskam, v celoti in na široko slišijo. Zadeva je nujna. Razen če tisti, ki menijo, da bi uspeh volilnega prava žensk Angliji so pripravljene sprejeti takojšnje in učinkovite ukrepe, sodba se lahko zgodi privzeto, naša država pa se odpravi proti pomembni družbeni in politični revoluciji, še preden se zaveda nevarnosti. "

Mary Humphry Ward je na razpravah na Newnham College in Girton College argumentirala primer proti volilni pravici žensk. Nekoč vzor za izobražene mlade ženske je prejela sovražen sprejem študentov, ko jim je povedala, da je "proces emancipacije zdaj dosegel meje, ki jih določa telesna konstitucija žensk". Po razpravi o Girtonu je v svoj dnevnik zapisala, da sta "ogenj in bes velika", in obtožila osebje, ki ga je obtožila "vroče volilne pravice".

Nekatere naprednejše osebnosti v literaturi so napadale njene staromodne poglede. Virginia Woolf je trdila, da je branje njenega dela "gripa gripe", Lytton Strachey pa jo je opisal kot "tisto brezoblično maso nesmiselnega mesa - vse staro in nepomembno".

John Sutherland, avtor knjige Gospa Humphry Ward: ugledna viktorijanka (1990), daje tri razloge za svojo odločitev, da nasprotuje volilnim pravicam žensk: "Groza militantnosti, strah, da bi bile ženske videti smešne kot politične osebnosti, in težnja, da bi jih zlahka laskali močni moški, kot so tisti, ki so jo prepričali sodelujte pri tej vaji. "

Liga proti volilnim pravicam je zbrala podpise proti glasovanju žensk in na seji 26. marca 1909 je Mary objavila, da je peticijo podpisalo več kot 250.000 ljudi. Naslednjega junija je poročala, da ima gibanje 15.000 članov plač in 110 podružnic, število podpisnikov peticije pa je doseglo 320.000.

Humphry Ward je postala urednica revije Anti-Suffrage Review in napisala veliko člankov na to temo, več njenih romanov, zlasti Testiranje Diane Mallory (1908) in Delia Blanchflower (1915) je kritiziral volivce volilnih pravic žensk.

Njen sin, Arnold Ward, poslanec konservativcev za Watford, je imel pomembno vlogo v spodnjem domu, da bi ženskam preprečil glasovanje. Tudi med prvo svetovno vojno, ko so drugi vodilni zagovorniki, kot sta Lord Cromer in Lord Curzon, umaknili svoje ugovore, je Ward še naprej glasoval proti temu, da bi ženskam dali franšizo.

Trdili so, da je bila Mary Humphry Ward do leta 1914 najbolj znana Angležinja v Ameriki. Charles Masterman in Sir Gilbert Parker iz vladnega urada za vojaško propagando sta predlagala, da bi Mary Humphry Ward morda želela napisati knjigo, ki bi ameriško javnost spodbudila k podpori britanskih vojnih prizadevanj. Odgovorila je, da bi, če bi ji vlada lahko nadomestila finančne "izgube iz vojne in pritisk vojnega obdavčevanja". To je bilo dogovorjeno in marca 1915 je Mary postala prva novinarka, ki je obiskala Zahodno fronto. Kot rezultat obiska frontne črte je Mary napisala dve knjigi, Angleški napori (1916) in Proti cilju (1917).

Avtobiografija Mary Humphry Ward, Spomini pisatelja, je bila objavljena leta 1918. Njena zadnja leta so minila v skrbi za dolgove njenega sina Arnolda Warda, ki je bil kompulziven igralec na srečo. Mary Humphry Ward je umrla 26. marca 1920. Za plačilo upnikov Ward je moral Thomas Humphry Ward razprodati družinsko hišo.

Čas je, da se ženske, ki nasprotujejo odstopu parlamentarne franšize ženskam, v celoti in na široko slišijo. Razen če so tisti, ki menijo, da bi uspeh gibanja ženskih volilnih pravic Angliji prinesel katastrofo, pripravljeni na takojšnje in učinkovito ukrepanje, bi lahko sodba prišla privzeto in naša država bi se odpravila proti pomembni družbeni in politični revoluciji, preden se je zavedala vključene nevarnosti.

Volilna pravica žensk je nevarnejši korak v temi kot v šestdesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja zaradi velike rasti cesarstva, velikega povečanja imperialnih odgovornosti Anglije in s tem povečane kompleksnosti in tveganja za težave, ki so pred našimi državniki - ustavna , pravni, finančni, vojaški, mednarodni problemi - problemi moških, ki jih je treba rešiti le z delom in posebnim znanjem moških, in kjer bi morali moški, ki nosijo breme, ostati neovirani zaradi politične neizkušenosti žensk.

Ves ta čudovit dan, ko smo gledali nemški protinapad v Ypresu, ki se je izlival z enega od hribov jugovzhodno od Poperingheja, porušenega stolpa Ypresa, ki se je dvignil iz megle obzorja, je bila novica vmes z mano kot dolgočasno bolečino, ki se razbije nad navdušenjem in novostjo velikega spektakla okoli nas. Gledal sem po tleh, kjer je bil vsak centimeter posvečen mrtvim sinovom Anglije, umrlim zanjo; toda čeprav je njihov duhovit glas prišel glas Henryja Jamesa, ki se je duhovno boril v njihovem boju in trpel zaradi njihove bolečine.

V ponedeljek je gospa Humphry Ward spregovorila na sestanku Croydonove podružnice Nacionalne lige proti ženskam proti volilnim pravicam. Medtem ko je priznala, da se je dolgoročno nasprotovanje volilni pravici žensk obrnilo na temeljno dejstvo materinstva, je svoje očitke oprla na dve prepričanju: prvič, da je glasovanje v parlamentu del izvršilne oblasti in odgovornosti angleške demokracije v političnih zadevah in ne samo mnenje te demokracije, ampak tudi moč tega mnenja; drugič, da ženske niso patriotsko trdile, da imajo izvršilno oblast in odgovornost. Vse reforme, za katere je Mill dejal, da jih ni mogoče doseči brez glasovanja, so bile vztrajno pridobljene z močjo javnega mnenja; in če bi si želeli še veliko reform, ni bilo nikoli tako slabo in skrbno posvetovano z mnenjem žensk, kot je bilo danes. Za zaključek je gospa Humphry Ward predstavila rezultate nedavnega razglednice ženskih gospodinjstev v Southamptonu, Westminsterju, Central Finsburyju in Croydonu, v katerem se je večina proti-sufragististov gibala od devet do ena do približno tri proti ena. Ugotavljamo, da je istega dne gospodična Christabel Pankhnrst izjavila, da bi bile ženske, če bi zavrnile sprejetje spravnega zakona, izziv, da naredijo vse, kar je v njihovi moči.

Izdal nas je naš vodja Lord Curzon. Strahopetec! Po dolgem govoru proti volilnim pravicam, ob vsakem nastopu, ko je verjel v argumente proti glasovanju, ki ga je predstavil - je nenadoma objavil, da glede na resnost spora s skupnostjo v tem trenutku ne bo glasoval in svetoval plemenitim gospodom, naj ne glasujejo.

Brez sodelovanja naših vodilnih piscev bi bilo nemogoče opisati veliko nalogo razsvetljenja tujih držav glede pravičnosti zavezniške zadeve in obsega britanskih prizadevanj. delovanje v celoti in neobremenjeno.

Mary se bo po izbruhu prve svetovne vojne kmalu znašla na isti strani kot Emmeline Pankhurst. Kot avtorica je bila pozvana, da svoj poseben prispevek prispeva k vojnim prizadevanjem - knjigo, katere namen je prepričati Američane, naj se njihov narod pridruži vojni. Medtem ko si je Emmeline prizadevala za propagando na vzhodu, je v Rusiji Mary svoj literarni pokrovček postavila proti zahodu, proti ZDA. Epizoda se je začela s klicem na orožje nekdanjega ameriškega predsednika Theodoreja Roosevelta, ki ga je spoznala v ZDA na obisku leta 1908. Predlagal je, naj napiše vrsto člankov v podporo britanski kampanji, da bi Američane pripeljali Britanski vojni urad je odobril in Mary je bila poslana z Dorothy, da si ogleda zavezniška prizadevanja v Franciji, kjer so celo gledali bitko skozi očala. Opisal ga je kot 'čudovit dan ... gledal sem po tleh, kjer je bil vsak centimeter posvečen mrtvim sinovom Anglije. To je bil vrhunec njene vojne. Spodnja točka se je hitro približevala.

Do družine v Angliji je že prišla novica, da se je Arnold v Kairu, kjer je bil nameščen, znašel v težavah z nabiranjem iger na srečo. Znesek je bil okoli 6.000 funtov, Mary pa se je strinjala, da ga bo vsakih šest mesecev plačevala v obrokih po 500 funtov. Obstajata le dva možna načina za iskanje tako velike vsote - prodati delnice ali se jih držati, vendar razprodati njeno vsebino, da bi preživeli in plačali račune. Mary in Humphry sta verjela, da ne bosta dolgo živela, sta se odločila za slednjo možnost. Čeprav je Marijino vojno delo, Angleški napori, je bil uspeh, za katerega je vedela, da se ne more več zanašati na svoje romane, da bi ji prinesla denar, ki ga potrebuje za zaslužek. To je bil depresiven konec slavne kariere.

Mary pa je še vedno našla energijo za zadnji korak, ko je bil v parlamentu predložen predlog zakona, ki bi ženskam končno podelil pravico. V mnogih pogledih se je sprijaznila s tem, da je izgubila vojno sufrabe - že leta 1915 je Cromerju pisala, da se je včasih "v mojih skrivnih mislih spraševala, ali nismo že premagani." Pravzaprav je vojna spremenila njene poglede na to temo. in tudi ona, tako kot volilke, je čutila, da so jih vloge žensk na "Domovini" spremenile. V izjavi Lige proti volilnim pravicam, ki jo je podpisala, je bilo sklenjeno, da bi nekateri upravičeno mislili, da so "izkušnje, pridobljene med vojno, v zadevo vnesle nekaj novih elementov, ki jih je treba skrbno pretehtati".

Toda Mary in njeni kolegi se ne bodo predali brez vsaj navideznega boja, zato je Liga proti volilnim pravicam izdala izjavo, v kateri bo nasprotovala ukrepu. Januarja 1918 je Mary vodila poslanstvo v lordskem domu, da bi opozorila na "nepravičnost" uvedbe volilne pravice žensk, ne da bi predhodno izvedla posvetovalni referendum. Toda ton na zadnjem srečanju lige v Central Buildings, Westminster, je bil odstop. Mary je spregovorila in trdila, da bi antis morda zmagal tisti dan, če bi prej začeli aktivno kampanjo. Toda tudi v prihodnost je gledala z upanjem, da bi vojna morda pozitivno vplivala na tiste, ki bi jim glasovanje koristilo: "Več življenja - več priložnosti - več prostega časa - več lepote! - za množice navadnih moških in žensk , ki so bili v preteklosti tako goli, zdaj pa pravično in goreče trdijo o prihodnosti ". Predsedujoči Lord Weardale se je poklonil njeni energiji in velikodušnosti, češ da je storila "vse, kar bi v takšnih okoliščinah zmogla celo ženska". Da bi poškodoval še večjo žalitev, je bil Lord Curzon kot vodja Lordov prisiljen izvesti pilotni predlog zakona skozi Parlament.


Oddelek Mary Humphry - Zgodovina

Levo: "Hiša na Russell Squareu." Družina se je novembra 1881 preselila na 61. mesto (glej uporabno kronologijo v biografiji Sutherlanda, 411). Vir fotografije: Zapisi gospe Humphry Ward. Letnik II, izd. Houghton Mifflin, 1911, obrnjeno na str. Prav: "Oče, ne govoriš neumnosti?" Ilustracija gospe Alma-Tadema za sproščen počitniški piknik v prvem Wardovem romanu Milly in Olly. G. Norton je dražil svojo hčerko Milly, da bi pri veslanju "lovila rakovice", Olly pa ga pobere nanjo (obrnjena proti str. 98). [Kliknite na vse slike, da jih povečate.]

Leta 1881 so se Wards preselili v London, kjer je bil Humphry prevzet kot vodilni pisatelj in umetnostni kritik za The Times. Ward je sama pisala za ta in druge časopise in revije, tudi Macmillanove. Toda zdaj je prvič poskusila s pisanjem romanov. Macmillanova je objavila Milly and Olly: or, Praznik med gorami za božič 1881. To je bila otroška zgodba, v kateri so bili njeni lastni spomini na otroštvo prepleteni z materialom z nedavnega in precej bolj veselega družinskega obiska v Fox Howu, tukaj imenovanem Ravensnest. Dovolj običajno, razen vključitve otroške različice Beowulfa, ki prestraši štiriletnega Ollyja, je bil vseeno začetek. Temu je leta 1884 sledil njen prvi roman za odrasle, Miss Bretherton. Njen navdih je bila slaba uprizoritev ameriške igralke v Londonu, v predstavi, ki si jo je ogledala s Henryjem Jamesom. Na žalost roman ni bil zmagoslavje bolj kot igra sama. Toda še naprej je pisala, zdaj pa se je trudila za prevod v angleščino Henrija Frja in navdušenega in sladkega Amiela, melanholičnega, a navdihujočega Journal Intime. To se je končno pojavilo leta 1885 z Wardovim obsežnim in znanstvenim uvodom in zapiski. Dobila je odobritev Walterja Paterja, tesnega brasenoseškega povezovanja njenega moža, kot "[e] nemirnega, idiomatskega, pravilnega" (19), vendar ni dosegla strožjih standardov njenega strica Matthewa Arnolda (glej Sutherland, ga. Humphry Ward, 100).

Po teh napačnih začetkih je Ward končno uspel z naslednjim in še vedno najbolj znanim delom, Robertom Elsmerejem (1886). Na resnejšo temo, kot je gospodična Bretherton, in z nekaj globine Amielove revije je pritegnila veliko več bralcev kot njene prejšnje knjige. Pravzaprav je imela zgodba o mladem rektorju v Murewellu, ki je neusmiljeno izpostavljen verskim spraševanjem tistega časa, odreči svoje življenje in se odpeljati na East End, da bi tam odprl krščansko "bratstvo", je imela zelo specifičen odmev za pozno viktorijansko obdobje. Je tudi instinkt z občutkom. Leta 1876 se je Wardov oče Thomas Arnold ponovno spreobrnil v katolištvo, kar je družini spet povzročilo veliko stisko: v romanu tako Robert kot njegova žena Catherine trpijo zaradi njegove krize vere tako kot Wardovi starši. Roman se konča tragično, Robert se je na koncu sam zaposlil do smrti v službi poravnave, svojo mlado vdovo pa je pustil, da kljub njenemu trdnemu anglikanizmu nadaljuje z dobrodelnimi akcijami. Gladstone je sam v devetnajstem stoletju dolgo pregledal roman. Kljub temu, da Ward ni popolnoma odobraval domneve, da "nadnaravni element" krščanstva ni več vzdržen in da bi se morali zdaj osredotočiti na njegove družbene zapovedi, je v tem našel veliko pohvale in prišel do "resnične, a delne tolažbe" , če se je starodavno in neprekinjeno veroizpoved krščanstva v briljantnem in subtilnem razumevanju gospe Ward izmuznilo s svojega mesta, pa kljub temu nikakor ni izgubilo pravega, četudi nepriznanega, oprijema notranjega svetišča njenega srca «(17).

V času, ko so mnogi delili njene dvome o krščanski veri in niso bili tako vznemirjeni, kot je bil Gladstone pri napadu na njeno dogmo, je roman zadel pravi zvok. Pomagalo je tudi, da se je uveljavila celotna zamisel o naseljih med mestnimi reveži, čeprav je bila to manifestacija naraščajoče plime socializma, ki ji sama Ward ni bila všeč. Knjiga je bila velika uspešnica. Dejansko jo John Sutherland v svoji biografiji Ward opisuje kot "najbolje prodajalca stoletja" (108), čeprav je drugje kvalificirano in verjetno bolj zanesljivo trdil, da je to "najbolje prodajan" kakovosten "roman stoletju «(Longman Companion, 539). Požrli so ga tako v Ameriki kot v Veliki Britaniji, doma pa bi navdihnili druge romane East Enda, vključno na primer z romanom poravnave Walterja Besanta izpred stoletja, The Alabster Box-do tega trenutka, kar je precej pomembno, razred, ki grozi več kot religija.

Levo: prizori iz Wardovih romanov. Štirje so iz Davida Grieveja, ki je večinoma postavljen na severu Anglije. Na primer, prvi je Mermaid's Pool, četrti pa Fairbrook Clough, oba v okrožju Peak. Preostala na dnu prikazuje Torre Amiato iz "čudovite Eleanorske Italije" (Hamel 144). Vir: Hamel 145. Leta 1903, ko je bil objavljen Hamelov članek o priljubljenih ozadjih, je bil Ward še vedno zelo priljubljen.

Ward je s prstom pisala na (verski) utrip svojega časa in ji dala ime oziroma bolje rečeno ime moža z Elsmere. Kljub vseživljenjskim težavam s pisateljskim krčem, enakovrednim današnjim težavam, ki jih povzroča tipkovnica, je v rednih časovnih presledkih začela rojevati romane. Naslednja, Zgodovina Davida Grievea (1892), z regionalnimi in radikalnimi prameni ter z močnimi ostrinami strasti in vere, se je kljub nekaterim grenkim kritikam dobro prodala. Naslednji romani so bili zdaj brez sape pričakovani, njihov nastop je bil napovedan kot glavna novica dneva. V naslednjem desetletju so hitro prišle: delno avtobiografska Marcella (1894) Zgodba o Bessie Costrell (1895) Sir George Tressady (1896, nadaljevanje Marcelle) Helbeck iz Bannisdalea (1898, eden njenih najboljših , kritik Stephen Gwynn (65) "brez zadržkov" pohvalil Eleanor (1900, še en velik uspeh) Hči Lady Rose (1903, najbolj prodajani roman tistega leta v Ameriki) Poroka Williama Asheja (1905, spet najboljši) -prodajalec leta za leposlovje v Ameriki) in Fenwickova kariera (1906), ki je bila prodana v skoraj 65.000 predhodnih izvodih (glej Korda 3 in 10 ter Sutherland, gospa Humphry Ward, 270).

Kasnejši romani so vključevali anti-volilno preizkušanje Diane Mallory (1908), nadaljevanje Roberta Elsmereja z naslovom The Case of Richard Meynell (1911) precej slaba paritev Lidije (1913) Lady Connie (1916), uspešen vojni roman Missing (1917) ) in žetev (1920). Čeprav so bili vsi na splošno preveč odvisni od zapletov, Ward ni izgubila strasti do ukvarjanja s pomembnimi družbenimi vprašanji: na primer v Harvest se poleg nasilnega kriminala ukvarja z novimi vzorci ženskega življenja in spreminjajočim se obrazom podeželska Anglija. Sutherland v svoji biografiji Ward imenuje roman "izredno zanimiv" (367).

"Zaloge, podeželski dom gospe Ward", ki so ga nenehno drago prenavljali. Vir: Zapisi gospe Humphry Ward, letn. XIV, izd. Houghton Mifflin, 1911, obrnjeno na str.124.

Toda interes javnosti za Wardovo delo je začel upadati. V času, ko so to storili drugi, v svojem pisanju ni odkrivala novih področij, kar je povzročilo "čuden pojav poznega viktorijanca, ki je bil stalna tarča antiviktorijanizma" (Keating 177). Njen literarni konzervativnost je bil obtožen njenega spoštovanja do takšnih mentorjev in prednikov, kot je George Eliot, ki ga je spoznala in občudovala. Obstaja tudi ne tako majhna zadeva prekomerne proizvodnje, ki jo zahtevajo večja finančna bremena. Oddelki so se radi zabavali v slogu in so se leta 189 preselili v elegantno hišo na Grosvenor Placeu. Zdi se, da so bile delnice, njihov ljubljeni podeželski dom v Aldburyju blizu Tringa v Hertfordshireu, pregovorna denarna jama. Še več, leta 1913 so morali rešiti svojega sina Arnolda, ki je razvil zelo resno igro na srečo. Da bi vse skupaj omejili, se Wardove ponudbe za bogastvo s scenskimi prilagoditvami niso nikoli izplačale. Svoje romane je morala še naprej pisati in to ni bil čas za eksperimentiranje z njimi, tudi če bi to hotela.

Sčasoma so tudi njene teme začele zastajati: pereča vprašanja poznega viktorijanskega obdobja niso več skrbela za njeno bralstvo. Še huje, pri enem od novejših vprašanj, s katerimi se je ukvarjala, volilni pravici žensk, je bila zelo na strani poražencev. Njeno proti-volilno stališče jo je očitno stalo številnih mlajših bralcev. V Ameriki, kjer je imela nekoč ogromno privržencev, je neuspeh The Case of Richard Meynell označil strm padec priljubljenosti.

"Globoko obžalujem, da vas moram obvestiti, da je vaš mož prijavil ranjenega in pogrešanega." Vir: Frontispiece, avtorja C. Allana Gilberta, "Missing" (1917), ganljiva zgodba o izgubi mladega poročenca, ki je Ward do konca pisateljeve kariere osvojila novo priznanje.

Vendar so Wardovi obiski jarkov v Franciji med prvo svetovno vojno privedli do treh knjig o vojnih poročilih, ki so, tako kot pogrešani, veliko pripomogle k osvežitvi njene podobe. Najboljši je verjetno prvi, Angleški trud - šest pisem ameriškemu prijatelju, ki ga je k napisanju spodbudil predsednik Roosevelt (1916). Med drugimi stroški "truda" opisuje ganljivo izgubo mnogih mladeničev vseh rangov, ne citira Sassoona ali Owena, ampak Juliana Grenfella iz Balliola, čigar pesem "Into Battle", napisana tik preden je prejel svojo usodne rane, ki govorijo o neustrašni zavezanosti in ne o bridkosti ali usmiljenju. Preostali dve knjigi sta bili proti cilju z Rooseveltovim predgovorom in v obliki pisem do njega (1917) in polj zmage (1919), skupaj z "ilustracijami, barvnim zemljevidom in zložljivo statistično karto", ki "predstavljajo" resnično merilo vloge Britanskega cesarstva in britanske vojske v sklepnih vojnah "(vii-viii). Ward na koncu poziva k prenehanju sovraštva in nezaupanja ter k mednarodnemu sodelovanju v Evropi. To je bil zadnji njen osebni prispevek k vojnim prizadevanjem.

Doslej so se že pojavili njeni bolj osebni spomini pisatelja. Tudi tukaj piše v spravnem duhu. Njena nesrečna otroška leta "ni nihče kriv," pravi. "Moji starši so bili zelo revni in so se ves čas gibali. Vsak je naredil vse, kar je mogel" (I: 134). Kar se tiče očetovih verskih pretresov, je zdaj videla, da je njegovo katolištvo varno pristanišče, v katerega se je moral vrniti. Dotaknili so se je, ko sta jo on in njegova druga (katoliška) žena obiskala med bivanjem tik pred Rimom leta 1899, kar mu je dalo priložnost, da si mesto ogleda na lastne oči in »poklekne pri svetem Petru« (II: 219) prvič. Zdaj se je ozrla na njegovo življenje kot na "stalno delo in veliko zmedenih upanj", ki pa sta ga osvetlila njegova vera in ljubezen do učenja in pisem (II: 222). Knjiga, serijalizirana na obeh straneh Atlantika, v Harper's Magazine v Ameriki in Cornhill v Veliki Britaniji, je bila zelo brana.

Sorodni material

Viri

Gladstone, W. E. "Robert Elsmere" in Bitka za vero. New York: Anson D. F. Randolph, [1888]. Internetni arhiv. Splet. 3. november 2013.

Gwynn, Stephen. Gospa Humphry Ward. London: Nisbet, 1917. Internetni arhiv. Splet. 3. november 2013.

Hamel, F. "Prizori romanov gospe Humphry Ward." Knjigovodja: ilustrirana revija o književnosti in življenju. Letnik XVIII (september 1903-februar 1904): september 1903: 144-151. Internetni arhiv. Splet. 3. november 2013.

Keating, Peter. Študija z duhovi: družbena zgodovina angleškega romana, 1875-1914. London: Secker & amp Warburg, 1989. Tisk.

Korda, Michael. Seznam: Kulturna zgodovina ameriškega uspešnika, 1900-1999. New York: Barnes & amp Noble, 2001. Predogled v Google Knjigah. Splet. 3. november 2013.

Pater, Walter. "Amiel's 'Journal Intime'" (Pregled). Eseji iz Guardiana. London: Macmillan, 1901. 19-37. Internetni arhiv. Splet. 3. november 2013.

Sutherland, John. Longmanov spremljevalec viktorijanske fantastike. London: Longman, 1988. Tisk.

_____. Gospa Humphry Ward: ugledna viktorijanka, pred-ugledna edvardijanka. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990. Tisk.

Ward, gospa Humphry. Polja zmage. New York: Scribner's, 1919. Internetni arhiv. Splet. 3. november 2013.

_____. Milly in Olly: ali, Počitnice med gorami. London: Macmillan, 1881. Internetni arhiv. Splet. 3. november 2013.

_____. Manjka. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1917. Internetni arhiv. Splet. 3. november 2013.

_____. Spomini pisatelja. Letnik I. New York in London: Harper, 1918. Internetni arhiv. Splet. 3. november 2013.

_____. Spomini pisatelja. Letnik II. New York in London: Harper, 1918. Internetni arhiv. Splet. 3. november 2013.

_____. Spisi gospe Humphry Ward. Letnik II. Boston & amp New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1911. Internetni arhiv. Splet. 3. november 2013.

_____. Spisi gospe Humphry Ward. Letnik XIV. Boston & amp New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1911. Internetni arhiv. Splet. 3. november 2013.


Oddelek Mary Humphry - Zgodovina

ary Augusta Ward, n & eacutee Arnold (1851-1920), je bolj znan kot pokojna viktorijanska romanopiska gospa Humphry Ward. Najstarejša vnukinja dr. Arnolda iz Rugbyja, rojena je bila kot intelektualka in ljubiteljica: njen oče Thomas bi postal Oxford, njen stric Matthew, pesnik in literarni in kulturni kritik, pa bi postal profesor poezije na Oxfordu, v katerega bi se poročila njena sestra Julia. klan Huxley. V svojem času bi bila pod svojim uradnim poročenim imenom tako slavna kot katera od teh, verjetno še bolj: "Nemogoče je oceniti število ljudi, ki so prebrali knjige gospe Ward," je napisal sodobni biograf, " in prav tako je nemogoče najti Angleža ali Slovenko, poštene izobrazbe, ki nikoli nista prebrali nobene od njiju. Zato se ni treba čuditi velikemu vplivu, ki so ga imeli, to je naravni rezultat velikega uspeha " (Walters 202). Tako kot pri nekaterih njenih sodobnikih je tudi Wardov ugled s padcem pozne viktorijanske dobe dramatično upadel, vendar so njeni romani še vedno fascinantni zaradi svetlobe, ki jo osvetljujejo to obdobje, in vsaj štirje ali pet jih je bistveno več kot zgodovinsko zanimanje. Kljub vseživljenjskemu boju s slabim zdravjem se je Ward ukvarjal tudi neposredno z družbenimi vzroki in si tudi tukaj zasluži priznanje za nekatere pomembne zapuščine.

I: Otroštvo in zgodnje poročeno življenje

Levo: "Mary Arnold 1863." Vir: Collins, frontispiece of A Writer's Recollections, 3rd ed., Collins, 1919. Desno: "Fox How, Westmorelandov dom Arnoldov." Vir: A Writer's Recollections, Vol.I, Harper ed., 1918, soočeno s str. 80. [Kliknite na vse slike, da jih povečate.]

Wardovo otroštvo je bilo kljub njenemu znanemu ozadju težko. Najstarejša od osmih otrok Thomasa in Julije Arnold, rojena je bila leta 1851, ko je njen oče, ki se je poročil na Tasmaniji, tam še vedno delal kot inšpektor šol. To mesto je moral opustiti leta 1856, ko je prestopil v katolištvo, ob vrnitvi družine v Veliko Britanijo pa je najstarejšo in očitno namerno in neposlušno hčerko postavil v internat. Najprej so jo poslali v majhno šolo v Amblesideu v okrožju Lake, kjer je njen dedek imel svojo desetletno hišo iz sivega kamna Fox How, nato v ustanove v Shropshireu in Cliftonu blizu Bristola. Glede na to, kar pravi v svojih piscih spominih, je bila zelo podobna uporniški istoimenski junakinji Marcelle (1894) in se je zelo dobro odrezala kot ta nesrečna junakinja, s "grobo okolico in primitivnim poučevanjem" v ustanovi Shropshire in mladostnico " vznemirjenja «na naslednji (Marcella, 21). "Kar zadeva intelektualno usposabljanje, je bilo mojih devet let, od sedem do šestnajst, praktično zapravljenih," je kasneje zapisala Ward in se na to obdobje svojega življenja ozrla kot na "lačen in precej nesrečen" čas spominov (Harper, izd. 129, 133). ).

Ko pa so njenega očeta sprejeli nazaj v ustaljeno cerkev in se ustalili v akademskem življenju v Oxfordu, so njegovo najstarejšo hčerko nazadnje trajno obnovili v družinskem domu. Zdaj je izgubljeni čas nadoknadila s študijem na Bodleian pod vodstvom Marka Pattisona, erudiranega rektorja Lincoln Collegea, ki je bil eden od kustosov knjižnice. Zanimivo je, da je študirala zgodnjo špansko zgodovino in književnost, morda zato, ker je bilo to področje, na katerem je lahko odkrila sama in v majhni meri tudi lastno znamko (glej Sutherland, gospa Humphry Ward, 34–35).

Fotografija gospe Ward Lewisa Carrolla v poročni obleki, album iz leta 1872. in kopija Nacionalne galerije portretov.

Ward je v Oxfordu našla tudi prijazno družbo svojih let. V začetku leta 1871 so v hišo povabili bistrega mladega sodelavca Brasenose College. Ime mu je bilo Thomas Ward, vendar je uporabil drugo ime Humphry. Oba sta se poročila naslednje leto, na datum, ki se ga je ljubeče spominjala, ko je svoje pisateljeve spomine posvetila "T. H. W. (v spomin na 6. april 1872)". Trdno se je uskladila z možem, ki ji je po pogosto osamljenem otroštvu dal nov status in popolnoma nov začetek, zato je za svoje pisanje sprejela ne le njegov priimek, ampak tudi njegovo krščansko ime. Morda je obstajal dolgotrajen občutek, da ženska potrebuje zaščito, ki bi jo lahko zagotovilo moško ime. Vsekakor njena izbira sploh ni bila nenavadna: na misel prideta tudi gospa S [amuel] C [arter] [Anna Maria] Hall (1800-1881) in gospa Henry [Ellen] Wood (1814-1887). Vendar pa napoveduje njeno poznejšo proti-volilno držo, ki bi ji sčasoma izgubila veliko podpore med novo generacijo bralcev.

For Humphry too marriage involved a change of status. In those days, college fellows were required to be bachelors, and he was not offered any chance of getting round this. Perhaps, like Robert Elsmere, the eponymous hero of what was to be his wife's best-known novel, "[h]e was neither dull enough nor great enough for a striking Oxford success" ( Robert Elsmere I: 111). Instead, he was left to depend on tutoring and whatever writing work he could get. This made the couple's early married years less comfortable than they might have been (see Sutherland 57-58).

Left: "Mrs Ward's House in Oxford": No. 17 (formerly 5) Bradmore Road, where the Wards lived from 1872-81. Source: Writings of Mrs Humphry Ward , Vol. VIII, Houghton Mifflin ed., 1911, facing p.144. Right: Somerville College, as it was in 1903. [Click on this image for its source.]

Yet, despite this, and the demands of parenthood as their three children came along — despite even the failure of most of her early writing projects — Ward later described this as a happy time. She wrote nostalgically of the "[t]he joys of one's new home, of the children that began to patter about it, of every bit of furniture and blue pot it contained. the life of the University town . , those intellectual and religious movements, that were like the meeting currents of rivers in a lake and the pleasure of new friendships, where everybody was equal, nobody was rich, and the intellectual average was naturally high" ( Recollections , Harper ed., 201-02). Not wholly taken up with the family, and revelling in the heady ambience of progressive thought, she became deeply involved in the movement for women's access to higher education. She took an active and leading role in the founding of what began as Somerville Hall, and became Somerville College, serving as one of the Somerville Committee's two original secretaries. This was not a short-term involvement: Ward would be on the college council from 1881 to 1898, until her anti-suffrage stance alienated her from it.

Ward also rose to the challenge of preparing a large number of scholarly accounts of early Spanish ecclesiastics for the Dictionary of Christian Biography . This was not work that would put her on the literary map yet, but it gave her a useful training in doing research, organising material, and developing other writerly skills, and she credited it later with leading "directly" to her break-through novel of 1888, Robert Elsmere ( Recollections , Harper ed., 202). With some justice, though, the blue plaque on the Wards' former home in Bradmore Road identifies her as "Social Reformer" first, "novelist" second. At this stage, her writing career had yet to take off.

Sorodni material

Viri

Sutherland, John. Mrs Humphry Ward: Eminent Victorian, Pre-Eminent Edwardian . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990. Print.

Walters, John Stuart. Mrs. Humphry Ward: Her Work and Influence . London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co., 1912. Internet Archive . Splet. 3 November 2013.

Ward, Mrs Humphry. Helbeck of Bannisdale . 7th ed. London: Smith, Elder & Co., 1908. Internet Archive . Splet. 3 November 2013.

_____. A Writer's Recollections . 3. izd. London: Collins, 1919. Internet Archive . Splet. 3 November 2013.

_____. A Writer's Recollections . Letnik I. New York and London: Harper, 1918. Internet Archive . Splet. 3 November 2013.

_____. Marcella , Vol. I. Writings of Mrs Humphry Ward . Letnik V. Boston & New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1911. Internet Archive . Splet. 3 November 2013.

_____. Robert Elsmere , Vol. I. Writings of Mrs Humphry Ward . Letnik I. Boston & New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1911. Internet Archive . Splet. 3 November 2013.

_____. Writings of Mrs Humphry Ward . Letnik VIII. Boston & New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1911. Internet Archive . Splet. 3 November 2013.


--> Thomas Humphry Ward, 1845-1926, Mary Augusta Ward, 1851-1920, Dorothy Ward, 1874-1964, Arnold Sandwith Ward, 1876-1950

Thomas Humphry Ward, who married Mary Augusta Arnold in 1872, was a Fellow of Brasenose College Oxford, where he was Tutor from 1870 to 1881, when the family moved to London. There Humphry Ward wrote leaders for The Times, while his wife reviewed books for the Pall Mall Gazette and for The Times itself, as well as writing articles for Macmillan's Magazine. In 1884 Mrs Humphry Ward's novel Miss Bretherton appeared, to be followed by Robert Elsmere, her first major novel, in 1888, and by over twenty-five other novels. In 1908 Mary Ward was one of the founders of the Women's National Anti-Suffrage League. During the First World War, Mary Ward was asked by Theodore Roosevelt to undertake a series of articles to explain to Americans what England was doing during the war. After Eton and Oxford, Arnold Ward acted as Special Correspondent for The Times in Egypt, the Sudan and India from 1899 to 1902. He then studied for the Bar and in 1910 became M.P. for West Hertfordshire. In 1914-15 he served with the Hertfordshire Yeomanry in Egypt and Cyprus. Dorothy Ward helped with the work of the Passmore Edwards Settlement (now Mary Ward House) which her mother founded, and with children's play centres and a school for invalid children. She accompanied her mother to visit war zones in France during the First World War.

From the guide to the Ward Family Papers, 1871-1955, (University College London)

Relation Ime
associatedWith Ward Arnold Sandwith 1876-1950 oseba
associatedWith Ward Dorothy 1874-1964 oseba
associatedWith Ward family družina
associatedWith Ward Mary Augusta 1851-1920 oseba
associatedWith Ward Thomas Humphry 1845-1926 oseba
associatedWith Women's National Anti-Suffrage League corporateBody

Person

Ark ID: w6mf43mq

SNAC ID: 37381696

Variant Names

Shared Related Resources

Thomas Humphry Ward, 1845-1926, Mary Augusta Ward, 1851-1920, Dorothy Ward, 1874-1964, Arnold Sandwith Ward, 1876-1950


Mrs. Humphry Ward

Mrs. Humphry Ward
English Novelist
1851 – 1920 A.D.

Mrs. Ward is of the illustrious family of Arnolds, Dr. Thomas Arnold of Rugby being her grandfather. He had two sons, Matthew and Thomas. Mrs. Ward is daughter of the last named. After his studies were completed at Oxford, he became inspector of schools for Tasmania (island south of Australia). There he married Miss Julia Lovell, and Mary Augusta was born to them.

Mr. Arnold became a Catholic, and returning to Great Britain was appointed professor in the University of Dublin.

Miss Arnold married Mrs. Humphry Ward.

Her earliest work was Milly and Olly, or a Holiday Among the Mountains. Next came Miss Bretherton, the heroine of which is said to be represent Mary Anderson, “a study of the extent to which ignorance may smother even the true dramatic genius, and of the power of that genius, when aroused, to break through the enveloping and suffocating medium.

Other productions are, Robert Elsmere, The History of David Grieve, Marcella, Sir George Tressady, Helbeck of Bannisdale, in Eleanor.

Robert Elsmere produced a great stir in the reading world. Within a few months it passed through several editions in England, and half a million copies were sold in America in less than three years. It was also translated into German, Dutch, and Danish. The burning questions as between the old faith and the new faith or not faith at all, are handled without hesitation. Mrs. Ward is a keen critic. She has a wealth of diction and of thought. The book took hold of not mere novel readers but of deep thinkers of the time. One English writer said of the book, “It is hard reading and requires toil and effort. Yet if it be difficult to persist, it is impossible to stop.”

Mrs. Ward, in 1890, became identified with a scheme known as “University Hall,” London. Here are given lectures in the interest of modern theism and the liberal views of the Bible. Coupled with this there is carried on a work for the poor.

Referenca: Woman: Her Position, Influence and Achievement Throughout the Civilized World. Designed and Arranged by William C. King. Published in 1900 by The King-Richardson Co. Copyright 1903 The King-Richardson Co.


The History of David Grieve

I enjoy a bit of Victorian literature and this really did not disappoint. There was also the novelty value of seeing my name in print all the way through it!

The story of the eponymous David Grieve is told in 4 parts. Growing up in rural Derbyshire, setting up business as a bookseller in Manchester, spending time and falling in love in Paris and finally married and living in Manchester again.

The story itself is well told, interesting and descriptive. It is also a faccinating glimpse into the peop I enjoy a bit of Victorian literature and this really did not disappoint. There was also the novelty value of seeing my name in print all the way through it!

The story of the eponymous David Grieve is told in 4 parts. Growing up in rural Derbyshire, setting up business as a bookseller in Manchester, spending time and falling in love in Paris and finally married and living in Manchester again.

The story itself is well told, interesting and descriptive. It is also a faccinating glimpse into the people and places of the day. It was written in 1892 and is set in the 1860s/70s. She writes the heavily accented speech of the Derbyshire peasantry phonetically which can be hard to read. Thankfully, David loses his accent when he moves to Manchester.

The themes of the book are religion and unsatisfactory marriage. No-one seems to have a genuinely happy marriage apart from the very poorest couple, and theirs is blighted by tragedy. The best that can be hoped for is for an unsuitable marriage to be made to work at least on some level, with a degree of real love. Religion appears throughout the book with people dropping in and out of it and some with ongoing religiious fervour. This element seems to be overplayed although clearly it is reflecting the mood of the times.

I had never heard of Mrs Humphry Ward until finding out about this book, and that was only because of the title, but I am very glad I have read it. . več


The centre was founded by Mary Augusta Ward, a Victorian novelist and founding president of the Women's National Anti-Suffrage League, better known by her married name Mrs Humphry Ward. The original name of the institution was the Passmore Edwards Settlement, as it was part of the settlement movement, and was financed by John Passmore Edwards. The settlement began in 1890 as University Hall, located in Gordon Square. [1]

Now named the Mary Ward Centre, it is located in Bloomsbury, an area of central London known for its literary and educational heritage. Its original 1898 building - still named Mary Ward House - is located just off Tavistock Square, was designed by Arnold Dunbar Smith and Cecil Claude Brewer and is considered to be a masterpiece of late Victorian architecture [2] [3] and is considered to be one of the best Arts and Crafts buildings in London.

In a speech to mark the opening of the Settlement in 1898 Mary Ward stated its mission as: “education, social intercourse, and debate of the wider sort, music, books, pictures, travel”. She added: “It is these that make life rich and animated, that ease the burden of it, that stand perpetually between a man and a woman and the darker, coarser temptations of our human road”. [2] According to the Mary Ward House Conference and Exhibition Centre it is a listed Grade 1 building. [3]

Over time the activities at the Settlement expanded to include fully equipped classrooms for children with disabilities, one of the first in England pioneering the importance of play within children's education. [1] the equivalent of an after school club youth club for teenagers and a centre for pre and ante natal advice, among many others. [2] It was the site of the historic debate on women's suffrage between Millicent Garrett Fawcett and Mrs Humphry Ward in February 1909, when the host was decisively defeated. In 1920 Mary Ward died and the following year the Settlement was renamed as the Mary Ward Settlement in memory of her work. [2] In addition to the educational centre, the organisation includes the Mary Ward Legal Centre.

The Mary Ward Adult Education Centre is based at 42 Queen Square, and runs over 1000 classes. The Mary Ward Legal Centre is based nearby at 10 Great Turnstile, also in Holborn. The Mary Ward Legal Centre provides free, independent advice to people who live and work in London to help them access their legal rights and entitlements. A small number of classes such as dance, movement and counselling take place at 10 Great Turnstile.

In late 2018, The Mary Ward Adult Education Centre announced in a letter to students their plans to move to new premises in Stratford, East London. In the letter, students were told the organisation had purchased a new building in Queensway House on Stratford High Street, citing the "unaffordable" cost of their current location and the need for specialist educational provision in East London as factors influencing their decision to move. [4]

The Mary Ward Centre houses the painting John Passmore Edwards (1823–1905) by Felix Moscheles. [5] Also on display are two works by Marc Breen, Untitled in Rooftops of Queen Square, as well as a 1904 portrait in chalk of Mary Ward by Albert Sterner. [5]


Mrs. Humphry Ward

Mrs. Humphry Ward
English Novelist
1851 – 1920 A.D.

Mrs. Hymphry Ward, an English novelist, daughter of Thomas Arnold, and niece of Matthew Arnold, the poet, born in Hobart, Tasmania. Mary Augusta Arnold began her literary career at Oxford, and in 1872 was married to Thomas Humphry Ward, an English author and journalist.

In 1880 they settled in London, and Mrs. Ward contributed to several biographical introductions to her husband’s English Poets. Her story, Miss Bretherton, published in 1884 showed much promise, and in the following year she brought out her excellent translation of Amiel’s Journal. In 1888 she attracted the attention of the English-speaking world by her novel, Robert Elsmere, a suggestive presentation of widely discussed religious problems of the day, which achieved an immense vogue, and was translated into several languages. The book was an attempt to represent the struggle of a soul in its voyage towards newer theistic aspirations after losing the landmarks of the old faith. It started, as no academic work could have done, a popular discussion on historic and essential Christianity. Its phenomenal success was due to the fact that it was a genuine product of an age of spiritual unrest, when men were everywhere looking for a sign. Profound spiritual insight, broad human sympathy, and strong thinking are manifest throughout, but as a work of art it is marred by diffuseness, and lack of power to make the characters live rather than preach.

Late works of hers are The History of David Grieve, Marcella, Sir George Tressady, Lady Rose’s Daughter, The Marriage of William Ashe, in The case of Richard Maynell.

All of Mrs. Ward’s novels reveal a high conception of the art of fiction, a strong grasp of intellectual and social problems, and an intensity of moral purpose, so that her books have had considerable influence upon the social and ethical thought of England and the United States.

Her activities have not been entirely confined to literature. She was the originator in England of the Vacation Schools, which have done much to educate the poorest children of the community upon rational lines. She also took a leading part in the movement for opposing the grant of the parliamentary suffrage to women, whilst encouraging their active participation in the work of local government

Reference: Famous Women An Outline of Feminine Achievement Through the Ages With Life Stories of Five Hundred Noted Women By Joseph Adelman. Copyright, 1926 by Ellis M. Lonow Company.


The suffragettes' unlikeliest enemy

O ver the last weeks there has been a slew of books, articles and even a TV sitcom commemorating the victorious fight for women's votes, leading up to the centenary of Emily Wilding Davison's protest at the Epsom Derby. But one name has been singularly missing: that of the person who impeded women getting the vote for seven long years, Mrs Humphry Ward, as she defiantly called herself.

"Ma Hump", as satirists called her, came into public life with impeccable liberal credentials. A self-made woman, she was the highest earning novelist in England after the success of her 1888 novel of faith and doubt, Robert Elsmere. William Gladstone, no less, gave it a 10,000-word review, and publishers queued up to give her £10,000 for her next novel. Her uncle, Matthew Arnold, was the high priest of cultural liberalism. Another uncle, William Forster, was responsible for the Universal Education Act 1870, which rendered Britain's children minimally literate and numerate.

Newly married in Oxford to Humphry (then a progressive don), Mary Ward launched the "lectures for women" programme. It was the stepping stone to university entrance for her sex. Mary's much-loved brother, William Arnold, was a leader writer on the Guardian and a particular favourite of CP Scott. Her favourite nephew was Aldous Huxley (named after the hero of one of her novels).

Ma Hump's influence is felt even today. Inspired by the American example she set up the play centre for children movement, which enabled lower-class women in menial jobs to work full-time. She successfully pressed parliament for decent educational provision for invalid children. Other authors have left blue plaques round London. Ma Hump left the Mary Ward Centre, which still does good works in Queen's Square.

Mrs Humphry Ward's ticket to oblivion began in 1908, when a hardcore of parliamentarians, alarmed by the growing support for votes for women, decided it would be a demon wheeze to set up a Women's National Anti-Suffrage League. They needed a figurehead and invited Mrs Ward, now at the height of her Edwardian eminence. Fatally for her, she accepted.

Initially the ploy was hugely successful. It enabled successive governments to back-burner any extension of the franchise with an airy, "the most sensible of our women do not want the vote". Ward spoke, indefatigably, all over the country at public meetings, ignoring the disruptions of suffragette stink-bombs and heckling. She drummed up hundreds of thousands of female signatures petitioning against any extension.

Two men were her frontline weapons of war. Her husband, by then a senior Times journalist, reinforced that newspaper's resolute "anti" stance. And her son, Arnold, whom she got into parliament, introduced a series of "anti-suffrage" amendments which effectively clogged any move to reform.

Why did Mrs Humphry Ward do it? Not all her reasons were discreditable. She wanted IOUs from men in power to get further measures for her children's causes. She honestly, if wrongly, saw the suffragettes (the "physical forcers" of the suffrage campaign) as terrorists, Fenians in skirts. The Oscar Wilde scandal was still suppurating. She, like other "antis", had dark doubts about the suffragettes' "womanliness".

The fact that there were lesbians among the suffragette activists horrified her. Most powerful on the platform was her appeal to "patriotism". The empire depended on men's willingness to sacrifice their lives for their country. Women were required to make no such sacrifice. The vote was the male sex's payoff.

Her short-term tactical success, in helping keep any reform in a permanent "may happen one day but not now" limbo, cost her dearly. Worse than even being condemned as a traitor to her sex, she has been rendered in effect historically invisible.

She did harm. But every mother who drops her child off at a play centre before going to work, or takes her special needs child to school, or makes an appointment at the Mary Ward clinic for legal advice, or enrols for one of the centre's excellent courses, should mutter a silent benediction for Ma Hump, a wrong-headed but well-intentioned woman. And some of the novels are pretty good, too.


Mrs Humphry Ward (1851-1920)

Mary Augusta Ward (née Arnold) was born in Hobart, Tasmania into a veritable Victorian dynasty: the Arnolds. Her grandfather was the infamous Dr Thomas Arnold of Rugby and her uncle was Matthew Arnold, affectionately known as Uncle Matt. Dr Arnold had an astonishingly strong work ethic, much parodied by Lytton Strachey in Eminent Victorians, and this both inspired and alarmed his family. Although he rather undermined his own teachings by dying at the age of just 47, he continued to exert a powerful influence over the other Arnolds.

As is often the case, his strength of character was not inherited by his eldest son, Tom (Mary’s father), who was permanent state of vacillation. His conversion to Catholicism scuppered his chances of a plum job in Australia, and the family were forced to move to England. His outraged wife vented her frustration by hurling a brick through the window of the local Catholic cathedral. Although Tom finally landed a job in Oxford and set up home there, Mary was banished to boarding school for eight years, while her siblings were allowed to remain in the bosom of the family. There appears to be no evidence to suggest why she was effectively quarantined, but her tempestuous nature might have been deemed to be a bad influence. There is one documented incident where she was discovered flinging buttered slices of bread at her governess. This exclusion during her formative years unsurprisingly left its mark on Mary, and she craved affection and approval throughout her life.

Denied the opportunity to attend university, Mary instead married Humphry Ward, through whom she enjoyed a vicarious higher education. Although not quite the useless cipher of a husband with whom many Victorian women novelists were lumbered, Humphry had an unremarkable career, and the family soon became reliant on Mary’s writing. He managed to eek out a living as a journalist, but would fritter away more money than he earned on largely unsuccessful art speculations. Perhaps to compensate for his failure, Mary was keen to subsume her identity into that of her husband – styling herself throughout her career as Mrs Humphry Ward, what her biographer John Sutherland calls her “chattel name”.

Ward’s status as a writer was finally endorsed when she established that all-important room of her own when the family moved to London in 1881. It was here in 1885 that she conceived her most famous work, Robert Elsmere. She wrote to her publisher that she had the novel all planned and that she would take “five quiet months in the country to write it. It will be in two volumes.” The gestation period of what she referred to as her “baby” was actually three years, and the first draft weighed in at an eye-watering 1,358 pages – around three times the length of the average triple decker. Pruned to a more manageable 800 pages, Ward’s story of religious doubt soon ignited debate. Časi called it “a clever attack upon revealed religion”, and William Gladstone’s copy was annotated with objections to Mrs Humph’s heterodoxy.

In the Victorian age, nothing was more likely to generate publicity than religious controversy, and Robert Elsmere became a runaway success. Mrs Humph made around £4,000 in royalties, which would today put her in the millionaire author bracket. She would have earned more if it weren’t for the absence of international copyright laws when Robert Elsmere was first published. Many cheap US editions were hurriedly produced to cash in on its success. Some were sold as loss leaders for just 4 cents, and other copies were given away free with every cake of Maine’s Balsam Fir Soap, conveying the idea that cleanliness was next to godliness. Estimates vary, but it is likely that Robert Elsmere sold in excess of one million copies. This extraordinary success enabled Ward to command huge advances for her subsequent novels. For Sir George Tressady (1896), Ward received £10,000, equalling Disraeli’s record advance for Endymion. David Grieve (1892) brought her a whopping £9,425, although disappointing sales meant a more modest advance of £5,000 for Helbeck of Bannisdale (1898). During this productive decade, Ward is likely to have banked around £45,000 (nearly £3m).

Her body finally gave up on her in 1920, after many years battling debilitating pain and gynaecological problems for which she took liberal quantities of cocaine (“It works like magic”). Virginia Woolf commented: “Mrs Ward is dead poor Mrs Humphry Ward and it appears that she was merely a woman of straw after all – shovelled into the ground and already forgotten.” There is perhaps an element of truth in this characteristically unkind assertion, but Mrs Humph has left a legacy as powerful as that of her grandfather. Aside from her variable literary output (some of it truly great), she made laudable progress in the field’s of women’s education and the treatment of disabled children. The Passmore Edwards Settlement still exists, now as the Mary Ward Centre, and Somerville College enabled women to educate themselves for paths other than marriage.

In addition to maintaining her prodigious literary output, Mrs Humph was also involved with a number of causes. She was the moving spirit behind the establishment of Somerville College, and chose the name as an homage to the mathematician Mary Somerville. She also masterminded the establishment of the Passmore Edwards Settlement, an invalid school, and by 1906 there were 23 special schools for disabled children. Unfortunately, her extraordinary achievement in this hitherto neglected area was greatly undermined by her rather repellent views in other areas. Like many people, she became increasingly conservative with advancing years and became manifest in her anti-Boer, anti-Home Rule and anti-female suffrage stance. It was the latter position that severely affected her transition from Victorian to Edwardian. Somerville College was eventually moved to disown her, as her ante-diluvian views were hardly compatible with an institution seeking the advancement of women.

Unperturbed, Ward helped establish The Women’s National Anti-Suffrage League in 1908 and campaigned extensively against the suffragists, also using several of her novels, including Daphne in Delia Blanchflower, to criticise them. Through writing patriotic propaganda, Ward enjoyed a resurgence in popularity during World War One, but her novels were not to the taste of the new generation. Falling sales and the new super tax relieved her of much of her fortune her husband and son did their best to relieve her of the rest. Her body finally gave up on her in 1920, after many years battling debilitating pain and gynaecological problems for which she took liberal quantities of cocaine (“It works like magic”). Virginia Woolf commented: “Mrs Ward is dead poor Mrs Humphry Ward and it appears that she was merely a woman of straw after all – shovelled into the ground and already forgotten.” There is perhaps an element of truth in this characteristically unkind assertion, but Mrs Humphry Ward has left a legacy as powerful as that of her grandfather. Aside from her variable literary output (some of it truly great), she made laudable progress in the fields of women’s education and the treatment of disabled children. The Passmore Edwards Settlement still exists, now as the Mary Ward Centre, and Somerville College enabled women to educate themselves for paths other than marriage.

Although contradictory, and often frustrating, Mrs Humphry Ward left a strong legacy and was one of the most successful writers of the Victorian age.

For a Mrs Humphry Ward bibliography, please see the Victorian Fiction Research Guides.


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Komentarji:

  1. Lisle

    Do analogues exist?

  2. Radi

    Oprostite za to, kar moram posredovati ... podobna situacija. Povabilo na forumu. Pišite tukaj ali v PM.

  3. Oran

    What a graceful thought

  4. Mihn

    Najlepša hvala. Very useful information

  5. Bohdan

    Čisto prav! I think this is a very good idea. Popolnoma se strinjam s tabo.



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