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1. januar 1965 - Nader objavlja nevarno pri vsaki hitrosti - zgodovina

1. januar 1965 - Nader objavlja nevarno pri vsaki hitrosti - zgodovina


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1. januar 1965- Nader pri vsaki hitrosti objavi nevarno

Ralph Nader je objavil Unsafe at Any Speed- poročilo, ki je bilo zelo kritično do varnosti avtomobilov. Z objavo Unsafe at Any Speed ​​se je začela kampanja za izboljšanje varnosti avtomobilov v ZDA. Začela je tudi Naderjevo kariero kot zagovornica potrošnikov.


Razvoj ameriške uredbe o avtomobilski varnosti

Čeprav bi radi mislili na Ameriko kot na središče avtomobilskega vesolja, so v Franciji do leta 1769 že začeli eksperimentirati z vozili na lastni pogon (prvo cestno vozilo na parni pogon, zgrajeno za francosko vojsko), leta Škotska leta 1832 (električni voziček) in verjetno prvi pravi avtomobil, ki ga poganja bencinski motor z notranjim izgorevanjem: nemški inženir Karl Benz je do leta 1885 patentiral "motorwagen".

Stoletna razstava leta 1876 v Filadelfiji je predstavila ogromen motor z notranjim zgorevanjem, ki ga je izdelal izumitelj George Brayton. "Brayton's Ready Motor" je navdihnil Georgea B. Seldena, nejevoljnega patentnega zastopnika in poslovneža iz Rochesterja v New Yorku, da se je lotil izdelave manjše, lažje različice, za katero je vložil patent maja 1879. Selden je zaslužen za patentiranje prvega motor z notranjim zgorevanjem v kombinaciji s nosilcem.

Kmalu zatem se je začela truditi novopečena avtomobilska industrija, ki jo vodi Henry Ford iz Detroita, in rodila se je ameriška ljubezen do avtomobilov.

Več avtomobilov = več zakonov

· 1901. Connecticut sprejme prve državne prometne zakone, ki omejujejo hitrosti motornih vozil

· 1910. New York uvaja prve državne zakone, ki voznike kaznujejo za upravljanje vozila pod vplivom alkohola

· 1930. Tribarvni semafor je uveden v ZDA

Edward J. Claghorn iz New Yorka je leta 1885 podelil prvi patent za varnostni pas, vendar je bil njegov izum edinstvena aplikacija za slikarje ali gasilce - ljudi, ki jih je treba zavarovati, medtem ko jih dvignejo in spustijo ter pritrdijo s kavlji na fiksni predmet .

Šele v zgodnjih petdesetih letih je nevrolog dr. C. Hunter Shelden začel raziskovati razmerje med varnostnimi pasovi in ​​vse večjim številom poškodb glave, ki prihajajo skozi urgenco. Njegova preiskava je v te poškodbe in smrt vključila primitivne zasnove varnostnih pasov. Svoje ugotovitve je objavil leta 1955 Revija Ameriškega zdravniškega združenja (JAMA) v članku, v katerem ni priporočil le zložljivih varnostnih pasov, temveč tudi vgradne volane, ojačane strehe, roloje, ključavnice vrat in pasivne zadrževalne sisteme, kot so zračne blazine.

Avtomobilska proizvajalca Nash in Ford sta kot možnost ponudila varnostne pasove, ko pa je bil Saab GT 750 predstavljen na avtomobilskem salonu v New Yorku leta 1958 z varnostnimi pasovi kot standardno opremo, je praksa postala običajna.

Leta 1959 je Kongres v veliki meri zahvaljujoč delu dr. Sheldena sprejel zakonodajo, ki od vseh avtomobilov zahteva, da izpolnjujejo določene varnostne standarde.

Po nesreči z motornim vozilom, ki je prisilila hitro ukrepanje, da bi zadržala svojo mlado hčerko, je industrijski inženir John W. Hetrick navdihnil, da je oblikoval napihljiv „sklop blazin“, ki bi ga namestili na armaturno površino za potnike in ga namenili za uporabo ob nenadni ustavitvi ali udarcu vozilo. Leta 1953 je patentiral svoj izum - zračno blazino.

Varnost zahteva celovit nadzor

Naraščajoči obseg prometa, povečane hitrosti in pomanjkanje vladnega nadzora nad avtomobilsko proizvodnjo so prispevali k zaskrbljujočemu povečanju nesreč in smrtnih žrtev na avtocestah našega naroda. Leta 1965 je mladi odvetnik in zagovornik potrošnikov Ralph Nader objavil "Nevarno pri vsaki hitrosti", ostre obtožbe ameriške avtomobilske industrije in njenih nevarnih izdelkov. Nesreče na avtocestah so leta 1965 terjale 50.000 življenj, junija 1966 pa je ameriški senat sprejel nacionalni zakon o varnosti prometa in motornih vozil skupaj s to zakonodajo, senat je v treh letih namenil približno 465 milijonov dolarjev za državne in mestne prometne programe, ki vključujejo izobraževanje voznikov in izdajanje dovoljenj, avtomobilski pregledi, projekti avtocest in izvrševanje prometne zakonodaje - oba sta predsednik Lyndon B. Johnson podpisala septembra septembra.

Tudi leta 1966 je kongres ustanovil ameriško ministrstvo za promet z poslanstvom "... zagotoviti hiter, varen, učinkovit, dostopen in priročen prometni sistem, ki ustreza našim vitalnim nacionalnim interesom in izboljšuje kakovost življenja ameriškega ljudstva ..."

S sprejetjem nacionalnega zakona o varnosti prometa in motornih vozil je bila ustanovljena agencija pod izvršno vejo vlade ZDA, ki bi od leta 1968 določila varnostne standarde za vsa nova motorna vozila. Ta agencija? Nacionalna uprava za varnost v cestnem prometu www.nhtsa.gov Ministrstva za promet (DOT).

Varnost na prvem mestu

NHTSA je zadolžena za grozljiv izziv varovanja voznikov in potnikov na ameriških cestah - zmanjšanje telesnih poškodb, smrti in gospodarskih izgub zaradi prometnih nesreč.

NHTSA že desetletja nadzoruje integracijo reševalnih tehnologij, kot so varnostni pasovi, otroški varnostni sedeži in zračne blazine, v regulacijo in proizvodnjo novih vozil. NHTSA pogosto zamenjuje in zasenči njen bolj razkošen bratranec, NTSB (National Transportation Safety Board), za razliko od NHTSA, NTSB je ločen od DOT in preiskuje incidente letal, železnic, morja, cevovodov in nevarnih materialov (HAZMAT). Rezultati teh preiskav pogosto spodbujajo nova varnostna priporočila, med drugim tudi NHTSA.

Kot že omenjeno, so prvi zvezni varnostni standardi za avtomobile začeli veljati 1. januarja 1968. Novi standardi pomagajo zaščititi voznike pred nerazumnim tveganjem za nesreče ali poškodbe, ki so posledica oblikovanja, izdelave ali delovanja motornih vozil. To se doseže z določitvijo in uveljavljanjem standardov varnostne učinkovitosti za vozila in opremo. NHTSA prav tako preiskuje varnostne napake v motornih vozilih, določa in uveljavlja standarde ekonomičnosti porabe goriva, spodbuja uporabo varnostnih pasov, otroških varnostnih sedežev in zračnih blazin, preiskuje goljufije števcev kilometrov, vzpostavlja in uveljavlja predpise o kraji vozil ter zagotavlja informacije o varnosti motornih vozil .

Mejniki NHTSA

Leta 1977 je NHTSA ustvarila simbol Zvezde življenja za identifikacijo reševalnih vozil, nujne medicinske opreme, obližev ali oblačil, ki jih nosijo ponudniki storitev nujne medicinske pomoči (EMS).

Leta 1978 je NHTSA začela testirati in ocenjevati vozila za zaščito pred čelnimi trki z uporabo podatkov iz lutk za preskus trka.

Leta 1984 je država New York sprejela prvi ameriški zakon, ki zahteva uporabo varnostnih pasov v osebnih avtomobilih.

Tudi leta 1984 kongres sprejme Zakon o kazenskem pregonu kraje motornih vozil, da bi zmanjšal pojavnost tatvin motornih vozil in olajšal sledenje in izterjavo ukradenih vozil in njihovih delov.

Eden najbolj nepozabnih in priljubljenih oglasov v javnih službah v zgodovini je bila predstavitev Vincea in Larryja, ikoničnih lutk za preizkus trka pri trditvah NHTSA, iz leta 1985 z nepozabnim slogom oglaševalske akcije: "Lahko bi se veliko naučili od lutke", namenjenega spodbujanju uporabe varnostnih pasov. .

Oborožena z varnostnimi informacijami o čelnih, stranskih in prevračalnih preskusih trčenja, ki so se začela v sedemdesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja, je NHTSA leta 1993 uvedla svoj program s 5 zvezdicami, da bi potrošnikom pomagala pri informirani izbiri varnosti pri nakupu motornih vozil: ena zvezdica je najnižja varnostna ocena-pet, najvišji.

Leta 1998 je vseh 50 držav in okrožje Columbia sprejelo zakone ničelne tolerance za voznike, mlajše od 21 let, ki upravljajo motorno vozilo s koncentracijo alkohola v krvi (BAC) 0,02 grama na deciliter ali več.

Izum zračnih blazin Johna Hetricka iz leta 1953 je navdihnil Zakon o intermodalni površinski učinkovitosti iz leta 1991, ki je končno začel veljati 1. septembra 1998–45 let po tem, ko so ga predstavili vsem večjim proizvajalcem motornih vozil tistega časa. Zakon zahteva, da imajo vsi avtomobili in lahki tovornjaki, prodani v ZDA, zračne blazine na obeh straneh sprednjega sedeža.

Raziskovalci ocenjujejo, da zračne blazine za 30%zmanjšajo tveganje za smrt v čelnem trku, in se strinjajo, da so vrečke od poznih osemdesetih let rešile več kot 10.000 življenj. Danes so standardna oprema v skoraj 100 milijonih avtomobilov in tovornjakov.

Leta 2003 je NHTSA -ina kampanja »Click It or Ticket« postala nacionalna in ostaja tema še danes. Ta program uveljavljanja varnostnih pasov nadaljuje prizadevanja za povečanje uporabe varnostnih pasov v vseh 50 državah.

Nadaljnji programi in zakonodaja NHTSA so poskušali slediti tehnološkemu napredku, ki povečuje in ovira varnost. Izboljšave programa s 5 zvezdicami, ki vključuje spletno iskanje odpoklica in posodobljene varnostne podatke, ponujajo priložnost za bolj obveščene potrošnike. Komunikacijski napredek, kot so pametni mobilni telefoni, GPS, satelitski radio in vgrajeno pretakanje filmov, je meja med varnostjo in motenjem.

Izzivi za NHTSA

Medtem ko se NHTSA dobro bori za varnost prevoza, študije kažejo, da ZDA zaradi varnosti voznikov zaostajajo za drugimi državami zaradi več dejavnikov.

David Millward iz Telegraf citira Brucea Hamiltona, vodjo raziskav pri Fundaciji Ameriške avtomobilske zveze za varnost v prometu, ki pravi: "Kar zadeva varnostno kulturo, zaostajamo za Evropo." Želi si, da bi uporaba mobilnega telefona ali pošiljanje sporočil za volanom postala družbeno nesprejemljiva kot vožnja pod vplivom alkohola, kar nakazuje, da bi to ustvarilo politično voljo za spremembo zakona. Hamilton navaja tudi državno cestno infrastrukturo: "Mnoge naše avtoceste so bile zgrajene v štiridesetih in petdesetih letih, ko je bilo veliko manj prometa, ki se je gibal veliko počasneje kot danes."

Hitrost in alkohol ostajata največja morilca na ameriških cestah. Russ Rader z Zavarovalnega inštituta za varnost na cestah meni, da odsotnost kamer za nadzor hitrosti vzdolž cest na podeželju ali redko poseljenih območjih prispeva k nenavadno visoki smrtnosti. Rader pravi: »Pri uveljavljanju omejitev smo bili veliko bolj ohlapni kot v drugih industrializiranih državah. Prav tako vidimo, da se hitrosti povečujejo na raven, ki je še nismo videli, saj je ena cestninska cesta v Teksasu določila omejitev 85 km / h! "

Glede na to, kar je morda največja ovira NHTSA doslej, Kara Macek, direktorica komunikacij pri Guverners Highway Safety Association, nakazuje, da bi lahko bila ameriška varnost motornih vozil v nasprotju s pravicami posameznikov. "Mislim, da imajo Američani na stvari državljanske svoboščine," je komentirala. "Obstajajo države, kjer obstajajo močni občutki proti zakonom o varnostnih pasovih in čeladah za motorna kolesa. Obstaja celo vprašanje o tem, kaj se obravnava kot stanje varuške. "

New Hampshire, država "Live Free or Die", nima zakonske zahteve za uporabo varnostnih pasov, drugih 16 držav nalaga le majhne globe, nato pa le, če voznika ustavijo zaradi drugega prekrška. Kljub več kot 3.000 smrtnim žrtvam v nesrečah z "moteno vožnjo" je le 12 držav prepovedalo uporabo ročne mobilne naprave za volanom, medtem ko sedem držav še vedno dovoljuje pošiljanje sporočil za volanom.

Dejansko bi lahko kultura, ki posamezne pravice presegajo javno varnost, največji izziv NHTSA doslej. Ostani na vezi.


Združene države in ameriška zgodovina: v začetku leta 1966

-Uporaba drog, ki spreminjajo zavest, zlasti marihuane in LSD, je pridobila nacionalno pozornost. Maja je bil LSD predmet zaslišanj senata in zvezne prepovedi. Septembra je dr. Timothy Leary, zgodnji raziskovalec LSD in kasneje zagovornik njegove uporabe, ustanovil Ligo za duhovna odkritja, ki je neuspešno poskušala legalizirati LSD in marihuano kot verske zakramente. Čeprav natančne ocene o uporabi LSD ne obstajajo, so zvezne oblasti do leta 1970 porabile več kot 8 milijonov uporabnikov marihuane.

-Leta 1966 je v prometnih nesrečah umrlo rekordnih 52.500 Američanov in 9 milijonov jih je bilo ranjenih. Ralph Nader, mladi odvetnik, ki je konec leta 1965 objavil Unsafe at Any Speed, je bil vodilni v boju za nove varnostne predpise. General Motors je najel preiskovalce, ki so zaslišali več kot 50 Naderjevih prijateljev in sosedov o njegovem osebnem življenju, da bi ga diskreditirali, kar pa je samo poslabšalo GM med zaslišanji v senatu.

10. januar Gruzijski zakonodajalec je zavrnil sedež Juliana Bonda, 25-letnega temnopoltega pacifista in člana SNCC, zaradi nasprotovanja politiki ZDA v Vietnamu in izražanja naklonjenosti osnutkom uporovnikov. Ponovno je bil izvoljen in 5. decembra je vrhovno sodišče soglasno odločilo, da mora sedeti, saj je bila izražanje njegovih političnih stališč njegova ustavna pravica.

13. januarja je predsednik Johnson imenoval dr. Roberta Weaverja za prvega člana črne vlade v zgodovini ZDA. Weaver, diplomant s Harvarda in vodja Agencije za stanovanjske zadeve in stanovanjske finance od leta 1961, je postal sekretar novega oddelka za stanovanjski in urbani razvoj (HUD), ko je to potrdil senat 17. januarja.

19. april Bill Russell je bil imenovan za trenerja Boston Celticsa in postal prvi temnopolti trener velike profesionalne ekipe. Leta 1967 je vodil Celticse do naslova lige NBA.

Maja se je kongresno nasprotovanje vietnamski vojni okrepilo, ko je senator Fulbright obtožil, da ZDA "podlegajo aroganci oblasti". Prvi odziv predsednika Johnsona je bil umirjen, "ne aroganca, ampak agonija", toda po novem valu protivojnih protestov je vojne kritike označil za "Nervozne živce" in dodal: "Če je zaveza Amerike v Vietnamu omalovažena, je sramota v 40 drugih zvezah, ki jih imamo narejeno. " Medtem je naslovni republikanski voditelj Goldwater prosil Fulbrighta, naj odstopi s položaja predsednika odbora za zunanje odnose, ker je "pomagal in tolažil sovražnika".

16. maja je bil za predsednika SNCC izvoljen Stokely Carmichael, ki je začel premik od državljanskih pravic do "Black Power" v črnem gibanju. Zamisel je bila, da bi črnci organizirali črnce v svoje politične skupine-"prositi črnce, da vstopijo v demokratično stranko, je enako kot prositi Jude, naj se pridružijo nacistični stranki" (Carmichael)-in belci, da bi organizirali belce proti rasizmu, če želel. Julija je CORE podprl tudi "črno moč" in "samoobrambo", vendar sta NAACP in SCLC (skupina Martina Lutherja Kinga) "črno moč" zavrnila kot separatistično gibanje.


Kako si bo zgodovina zapomnila zakonodajalce o pravicah orožja?

ZAPRTO

Med 3.000 in 4.000 ljudi se je odzvalo na sneg in mraz, da so sodelovali v & quotMarch for our Lives & & quot; protestirali proti zakonodaji o orožju v Des Moinesu.

Kupi fotografijo

Skupina žensk, prijateljev in sosedov v skupnosti upokojencev Scottish Rite Park v Des Moinesu koraka v znak solidarnosti s srednješolci v Parklandu na Floridi. V šolah so dajali protestne znake, ki so nasprotovali orožju. (Fotografija: Kyle Munson/Register) Buy Photo

Leta 1965 je po raziskavi na tisoče smrtnih žrtev prometnih nesreč odvetnik Ralph Nader objavil "Nevarno pri vsaki hitrosti", v katerem je proizvajalce avtomobilov izpostavil, da dobiček postavljajo pred varnost potrošnikov. Odgovor družbe General Motors je bil, da najamejo zasebne detektive, da bi poskušali diskreditirati Naderjev ugled.

"Nevarno pri kakršni koli hitrosti" je kongres spodbudilo k sprejetju nacionalnega zakona o varnosti prometa in motornih vozil. Še vedno imamo avtomobile. Preprosto so varnejši, kot so bili nekoč, zdaj pa proizvajalci odgovarjajo za to varnost.

Predstavljajte si, če bi Nader po zavedanju hude malomarnosti avtomobilske industrije lobiral za utrjevanje pravic proizvajalcev avtomobilov do proizvodnje nevarnih avtomobilov, namesto da bi postal prvak v sodobni varnosti vozil, po katerem je danes znan.

Prav to s svojimi računi za orožje poskušajo zakonodajalci Iowe Jake Chapman, Skyler Wheeler in Matt Windschitl. Ob nacionalni krizi se ljudje, ki podpirajo te račune, ne trudijo zaščititi Iovcev. Ščitijo svoje osebne strasti in poslovne interese. Windschitl je usposobljen orožnik, njegovi družinski člani pa so preprodajalci orožja.

Odrasel sem v Tiptonu, Ia. Za svoj 11. rojstni dan sem prejel enkraten strel 20. Vsi moji sorodniki so bili vzgojeni okoli orožja. Pištole, s katerimi smo odraščali, so namenjene lovu na divjad. Ne ljudje.

Zdaj smo s hitrostrelnim orožjem na enaki stopnji kot z nevarnimi vozili-povzročajo nesporno, ogromno grožnjo javni varnosti. Enajst strelskih strelov v prvih 23 dneh leta 2018. Sedem množičnih streljanj v tednu streljanja v Vegasu, ki je v 1735 dneh označilo 1.526. množično streljanje v Ameriki. V povprečju vsakih 10 dni izvedemo devet množičnih streljanj. Kljub temu, da je najbogatejša država na svetu, je stopnja nasilja z orožjem primerljiva z najrevnejšimi, najbolj skorumpiranimi, nasilnimi državami na Zemlji - 27 -krat višja od držav s podobno socialno -ekonomsko ekonomijo, kot so Danska, Kanada in Norveška.

Po množičnem streljanju pred 22 leti je Avstralija prepovedala hitrostrelno orožje, kupila in uničila 600.000 v obtoku, tako da je davek na medicinsko oskrbo zvišala z 1,5 na 1,7% samo za eno leto. Od takrat v Avstraliji ni prišlo do množičnega streljanja.

Podatki so jasni in nesporni. Vsak odgovorni javni uslužbenec bi rešitve iskal z regulacijo in omejitvami, ne pa z zaščito statusa quo. Ne za širitev pravic do orožja.

Naš drugi amandma je nastal v času nestabilnosti našega naroda, ko sta si skupni lovec in državna milica delila najbolj izpopolnjeno orožje tistega časa: mušketo. Tisti, ki še vedno verjamejo, da potrebujejo zaščito pred tiransko vlado, morajo lobirati za pravice do vojaških brezpilotnih letal, ne pa za pravico do AR-15.

Državljani Iowe ne potrebujejo zaščite pred zatiralsko vlado, ampak pred hitrostrelnim orožjem. Zakonodajalci v Iowi, ki podpirajo širitev pravic do orožja, so povzročitelji današnje nacionalne krize, ne pa tisti, ki jih bodo prihodnje generacije oznanjale za junake, ki so bili pionir v varnejšem svetu za naše otroke.

Brian Vogel je diplomant Univerze Drake, delal pa je kot dekorator na filmu in televiziji v Hollywoodu, preden se je leta 2011 vrnil v Iowa City.


Kampanja GM

Reklama General Motors, ki hvali prizadevanja za nadzor onesnaževanja zraka, 18. april 1970

Kritik avtomobilske industrije Ralph Nader

govori na U-M-u, 1970.

30. novembra 1965 je objavil odvetnik Ralph Nader Nevarno pri kateri koli hitrosti: Predvidene nevarnosti ameriškega avtomobila, knjigi, v kateri je kritiziral avtomobilsko industrijo zaradi proizvodnje nevarnih vozil, ki so ogrožala javnost in onesnaževala narodni zrak. Knjiga je postala uspešnica spomladi 1966, septembra pa je predsednik Lyndon B. Johnson podpisal nacionalni zakon o varnosti prometa in motornih vozil. Skrb javnosti je v zakonodajo vnesla nove varnostne standarde, vendar proizvajalci avtomobilov še vedno niso imeli mandata vlagati v izboljšave, ki bi zmanjšale vplive njihovih vozil na okolje.

Navdihnjena z Naderjevo trditvijo, da so "korenine problema nevarnih vozil tako utrjene, da se stanje lahko izboljša le s kovanjem novih instrumentov ukrepanja državljanov", je skupina pravnikov ustvarila Projekt o korporativni odgovornosti za začetek kampanj za reformo javnosti korporacije, kot je General Motors. 8. februarja 1970 je Nader napovedal nacionalno kampanjo skupine, s katero naj General Motors postane odgovorna, ali "kampanjo GM", ki je zahtevala, da GM sprejme ukrepe, s katerimi bo javnost imela glas v svojih korporativnih politikah. Eden od voditeljev skupine je v pismu povzel trditve Campaign GM -a:

»Zaskrbljeni smo zaradi neštetih načinov, na katere odločitve General Motors vplivajo na življenja skoraj vseh Američanov - na področjih od avtomobilska varnost za popravila računov, onesnaževanje okolja, zaposlovanje manjšin ter zdravje in varnost delavcev. Preveč preteklih korporacijskih odločitev družbe General Motors je bilo sprejetih s pogledom na njihovo kratkoročno donosnost in ne na njihove družbene učinke. "

Campaign GM je družbi General Motors poslal seznam devetih predlogov, ki obravnavajo te pomisleke, in zahteval, naj jih objavi kot posredniško izjavo, ki bo poslana delničarjem. GM je to zavrnil, vendar je zvezna komisija za vrednostne papirje in borzo družbi naročila, naj vključi dva. Prvi predlog bi v upravni odbor GM dodal tri predstavnike javnosti, drugi pa bi ustanovil odbor za preučevanje prispevkov GM pri vprašanjih javnega interesa, vključno z množičnim prevozom, varnostjo in onesnaževanjem. S temi spremembami bi GM, največja svetovna korporacija, postala bolj odgovorna javnosti.

Michigan Daily, Marec 1970.

Kampanja je črpala moč študentskih okoljskih skupin na univerzitetnih kampusih, ker so odmevale z njenim sporočilom proti avtomobilu in onesnaževanju. Te skupine in voditelji kampanje GM so pritiskali na univerze, ki so skupaj imele milijon in pol delnic delnic GM, da glasujejo za predloge. Phillip Moore, izvršni sekretar Campaign GM, je pozval Univerzo v Michiganu, "naj z resnično zavezo" nadaljuje svojo podporo okoljskemu poučevanju. Člani ENACT so predsedniku Flemingu poslali pismo, v katerem so univerzo pozvali, naj z 28.000 delnicami glasuje za predloge. The Michigan Daily podprl kampanjo GM in pozval UM, naj stori enako:

"Dokler se univerza še naprej pasivno strinja s politiko GM, mora deliti krivdo, ki je posledica dejanj GM."

Ralph Nader je govoril na predavanju o okolju marca 1970 in izkoristil priložnost, da je zbral podporo kampanji. Kljub razširjenemu navdušenju nad kampanjo GM v kampusu se je konec aprila UM-ov odbor regentov odločil glasovati proti predlogom kampanje Campaign GM za reformo družbe General Motors.

Glasilo o okoljskih ukrepih

članek o porazu Campaign GM.

Skupščina delničarjev 22. maja v Detroitu je trajala šest ur in sedemindvajset minut, kar je najdaljše v zgodovini GM-a. Med sejo je predsednik GM James Roche pred več kot 3000 množicami odgovarjal na vprašanja - med drugim tudi kot Michigan Daily poročala, "ženska, oblečena v plinske maske, maha z zastavo in poziva k odstopu [Rocheja]." Na srečanju so prevladovala vprašanja GM oglaševalske akcije. Gibanje je pritegnilo široko pozornost, vendar je bila med delničarji GM njegova podpora omejena. Zaradi tega ni bilo presenetljivo, da sta oba predloga Campaign GM spodletela, pri čemer je vsak dobil glasove manj kot treh odstotkov od 285 milijonov delnic GM -ovih delnic.

Čeprav predlogi niso bili sprejeti, so voditelji GM -a svoje gibanje videli kot uspešno. Povzročili so nacionalni pogovor o odgovornosti korporacij, da delujejo v javnem interesu. Samo srečanje je javnosti omogočilo pritisk na GM. Pred majskim sestankom so bili v upravnem odboru GM le beli moški. Nekaj ​​mesecev po srečanju je GM na odbor dodal afroameriškega pastorja in žensko. Naslednje leto je GM ustanovil odbor za javno politiko, ki je odboru svetoval o načinih, kako so njegove politike prispevale k težavam, kot sta onesnaženost zraka in varnost.

Med kampanjo GM je zunanja skupina poskušala spremeniti avtomobilsko industrijo z ustvarjanjem pritiska javnosti. Druge skupine, kot so United Auto Workers, so jo poskušale reformirati od znotraj.


Ralph Nader Hitra dejstva

Predsedniški kandidat Zelene stranke v letih 1996 in 2000 Neodvisni kandidat v letih 2004 in 2008.

Govori arabsko, kitajsko, portugalsko, špansko in rusko.

Sin libanonskih priseljencev.

Časovnica

Zgodnje šestdeseta leta Odvetniško prakso opravlja v mestu Hartford, Connecticut.

1961-1963 Predavanja na univerzi Hartford.

1964 Najema ga pomočnik sekretarja za delo Daniel Patrick Moynihan kot svetovalec za avtomobilsko varnost.

1965 Objavlja “Unsafe at Any Speed, ” obtožnico proti avtomobilski industriji v Detroitu. Nader očita proizvajalcem avtomobilov, da pri oblikovanju svojih avtomobilov postavljajo slog pred varnost. Osredotoča se zlasti na Chevrolet Corvair.

10. februar 1966 Priča pred pododborom senata za avtomobilsko varnost.

Marec 1966 – James Roche, predsednik družbe General Motors, se opravičuje pred senatom, ker je najel zasebne preiskovalce za vohunjenje nad Naderjem.

9. september 1966 Predsednik Lyndon B. Johnson podpiše zakon o nacionalnem zakonu o varnosti prometa in motornih vozil.

1967 Lobbies Kongres za sprejetje zakona o polnovrednem mesu, ki povečuje inšpekcijske preglede klavnic in obratov za predelavo mesa.

1967-1968 Predavanja na univerzi Princeton.

1969 Pomaga pri ustanovitvi Centra za odzivno pravo, neprofitnega podjetja, ki se ukvarja s potrošniškimi vprašanji.

1970 Poravna tožbo zoper GM zaradi 425.000 USD.

29. december 1970 Kongres ustanovi upravo za varnost in zdravje pri delu (OSHA), za katero je Nader močno lobiral.

1971 Ustanovlja Public Citizen Inc., skupino za lobiranje potrošnikov.

19. avgust 1996 Je nominiran za stranko Zelenih in kandidata za predsednika#8217.

Novembra 1996 Na predsedniških volitvah prejme 685.000 glasov (0,71%).

25. junij 2000 Spet je nominiran za kandidata stranke Zelenih za predsednika.

Novembra 2000 Na predsedniških volitvah leta 2000 prejme 2,8 milijona glasov, kar je približno 2,75% glasov. Na volitvah je v 33 državah in okrožju Columbia kot kandidat stranke Zelenih in je na glasovnicah osmih držav naveden kot neodvisen.

Januarja 2001 Ustanavlja Ligo navijačev, projekt športne reforme in zagovorništva.

22. februar 2004 Napoveduje, da se bo kot neodvisni kandidiral za predsednika.

9. avgust 2004 V Pennsylvaniji sta vloženi dve tožbi v imenu demokratičnih volivcev, ki izpodbijajo peticije Naderja, da bi se uvrstili na glasovanje v Pensilvaniji, in trdijo, da je na tisoče podpisov ponarejenih ali izmišljenih.

13. oktober 2004 Državno sodišče odstrani Naderja s predsedniškega glasovanja v Pensilvaniji in navaja na tisoče goljufivih podpisov.

2. november 2004 Na predsedniških volitvah dobi 411.304 glasov (1%). Na volitvah je v 34 državah in okrožju Columbia.

Januarja 2005 Sodnik odredi Naderju in njegovemu sotekmovalcu Petru Cameju, da plačata več kot 80.000 ameriških dolarjev odvetniških stroškov, ki jih je utrpela skupina, ki je izpodbijala Naderjeve peticije, da pridejo na glasovanje v Pensilvaniji.

30. oktober 2007 Toži Demokratični nacionalni odbor, kampanjo Kerry-Edwards, PAC America Coming Together in druge na višjem sodišču v okrožju Columbia, češ da so se zarotili, da bi ga v več državah odstranili z glasovanja in od “odvzema glasov ” nominiranemu John Kerry na predsedniških volitvah leta 2004.

27. november 2007 – Tožba Vrhovnega sodišča DC Nader ’s DC proti Demokratičnemu nacionalnemu odboru in drugim je prestavljena na zvezno okrožno sodišče okrožja Columbia.

3. december 2007 Sodnica Jennifer Anderson pred prvo konferenco o razporejanju zavrže tožbo na zveznem okrožnem sodišču Nader ’s DC proti Demokratičnemu nacionalnemu odboru in drugim.

30. januar 2008 Odpre spletno stran predsedniškega raziskovalnega odbora za volitve 2008.

24. februar 2008 Nader napoveduje, da se kot neodvisni kandidat poteguje za predsednika.

28. februar 2008 Nader za svojega tekmeca izbere nekdanjega predsednika nadzornega sveta San Francisca Matta Gonzaleza.

Maja 2008 Nader je pri Zvezni volilni komisiji vložil upravno pritožbo proti Demokratičnemu nacionalnemu odboru in drugim, da so nameravali njemu in njegovemu kandidatu v številnih državah onemogočiti dostop do glasovnic kot kandidatov za predsednika in podpredsednika na splošnih volitvah leta 2004. je v nasprotju z zveznim zakonom o volilni kampanji iz leta 1971.

4. november 2008 Nader izgubi na predsedniških volitvah z malo ali nič vpliva na volilni zemljevid.

Novembra 2009 Nader vloži tožbo višjega sodišča v okrožju Washington v zvezni državi Maine proti Demokratičnemu nacionalnemu odboru, Demokratični stranki Maine, kampanji Kerry-Edwards in drugim, v katerih trdi, da so obtoženci z nezakonito taktiko poskušali zadržati Naderja pred glasovanjem v Maineu in drugih državah.

11. junij 2010 Nader izgubi pritožbo proti FEC maja 2008 in vloži tožbo proti zvezni volilni komisiji na zveznem okrožnem sodišču DC.

16. november 2010 Sodnik v Maineu je zavrnil tožbo, ki jo je novembra 2009 vložil Nader in obtožuje demokrate, da so se nameravali izogniti glasovanju na predsedniški tekmi leta 2004.

Junija 2011 Obnovil je Ligo oboževalcev, svoj projekt reforme športa in se v okviru 11-delnega športnega manifesta obljubil, da bo vložil protimonopolno tožbo proti Bowl Championship Series.

9. november 2011 Nader izgubi zvezno tožbo junija 2010 zoper FEC in vloži pritožbo.

19. april 2012 Vrhovno sodno sodišče v Maineu je razveljavilo tožbo Vrhovnega sodišča iz leta 2010 zoper Demokratični nacionalni odbor in druge.

20. september 2012 Sodnik višjega sodišča v Maineu Kevin M. Cuddy odloča, da bo tožba proti Demokratičnemu nacionalnemu odboru in drugim iz leta 2009 obravnavana.

Aprila 2012 Neuradno podpira nekdanjega župana Salt Lake Cityja Rockyja Andersona za predsednika na novinarski konferenci.

23. maj 2013 – Vrhovno sodišče v Maineu odredi zavrnitev tožbe Naderja proti Demokratični stranki.

19. marec 2014-danes – Cohosts the Ralph Nader Radio Hour na Pacifica Radio Network.

29. april 2014 – Objavlja novo knjigo “ Unstoppable: Nastajajoča levo-desna zveza za razgradnjo korporacijske države. ”

27. september 2015 – Nader odpre Ameriški muzej odškodninskega prava v svojem domačem kraju Winsted, Connecticut.

21. julij 2016 – Naderja sprejmejo v avtomobilsko dvorano slavnih.

30. junij 2020 – V pismu New York Timesa uredniku se Nader odzove na članek, ki obsoja odziv Trumpove administracije na izbruh koronavirusa. Nader poziva predsednika Donalda Trumpa in podpredsednika Mikea Pencea, naj odstopita in pustita poklicnim strokovnjakom za javno zdravje, da upravljajo zvezna prizadevanja proti pandemiji Covid-19. ”


Ralph Nader Hitra dejstva

Predsedniški kandidat Zelene stranke v letih 1996 in 2000 Neodvisni kandidat v letih 2004 in 2008.

Govori arabsko, kitajsko, portugalsko, špansko in rusko.

Sin libanonskih priseljencev.

Časovnica

Zgodnje šestdeseta leta Odvetniško prakso opravlja v mestu Hartford, Connecticut.

1961-1963 Predavanja na univerzi Hartford.

1964 Najema ga pomočnik sekretarja za delo Daniel Patrick Moynihan kot svetovalec za avtomobilsko varnost.

1965 Objavlja “Unsafe at Any Speed, ” obtožnico proti avtomobilski industriji v Detroitu. Nader obtožuje proizvajalce avtomobilov, da pri oblikovanju svojih avtomobilov postavljajo slog pred varnost. Osredotoča se zlasti na Chevrolet Corvair.

10. februar 1966 Priča pred pododborom senata za avtomobilsko varnost.

Marec 1966 – James Roche, predsednik družbe General Motors, se opravičuje pred senatom, ker je najel zasebne preiskovalce za vohunjenje nad Naderjem.

9. september 1966 Predsednik Lyndon B. Johnson podpiše zakon o nacionalnem zakonu o varnosti prometa in motornih vozil.

1967 Lobbies Kongres za sprejetje zakona o polnovrednem mesu, ki povečuje inšpekcijske preglede klavnic in obratov za predelavo mesa.

1967-1968 Predavanja na univerzi Princeton.

1969 Pomaga pri ustanovitvi Centra za odzivno pravo, neprofitnega podjetja, ki se ukvarja s potrošniškimi vprašanji.

1970 Poravna tožbo zoper GM zaradi 425.000 USD.

29. december 1970 Kongres ustanovi upravo za varnost in zdravje pri delu (OSHA), za katero je Nader močno lobiral.

1971 Ustanovlja Public Citizen Inc., skupino za lobiranje potrošnikov.

19. avgust 1996 Je nominiran za kandidatko stranke Zelenih za predsednika.

Novembra 1996 Na predsedniških volitvah prejme 685.000 glasov (0,71%).

25. junij 2000 Spet je nominiran za kandidata stranke Zelenih za predsednika.

Novembra 2000 Na predsedniških volitvah leta 2000 prejme 2,8 milijona glasov, kar je približno 2,75% glasov. Is on the ballot in 33 states and the District of Columbia as the Green Party candidate and is listed as an Independent on the ballots of eight states.

Januarja 2001 Establishes the League of Fans, a sports reform and advocacy project.

February 22, 2004 Announces he is running for president as an Independent.

August 9, 2004 Two lawsuits are filed in Pennsylvania on behalf of Democratic voters challenging Nader’s petitions to get on Pennsylvania’s ballot, alleging that thousands of the signatures are forged or fictitious.

October 13, 2004 A state court removes Nader from Pennsylvania’s presidential ballot, citing thousands of fraudulent signatures.

November 2, 2004 Gets 411,304 votes (1%) in the presidential election. Is on the ballot in 34 states and the District of Columbia.

January 2005 A judge orders Nader and his running mate, Peter Camejo, to pay over $80,000 in legal fees incurred by a group who challenged Nader’s petitions to get on the Pennsylvania ballot.

October 30, 2007 Sues the Democratic National Committee, the Kerry-Edwards campaign, the PAC America Coming Together and others in District of Columbia Superior Court, alleging that they conspired to keep him off the ballot in several states and from “taking votes away” from nominee John Kerry in the 2004 presidential election.

November 27, 2007 – Nader’s DC Superior Court lawsuit against the Democratic National Committee and others is moved to District of Columbia federal district court.

December 3, 2007 Nader’s DC federal district court case against the Democratic National Committee and others is dismissed by Judge Jennifer Anderson before the initial scheduling conference.

January 30, 2008 Launches a presidential exploratory committee website for the 2008 election.

February 24, 2008 Nader announces that he is running for president as an independent.

February 28, 2008 Nader chooses former San Francisco Board of Supervisors president Matt Gonzalez as his running mate.

May 2008 Nader files an administrative complaint with the Federal Election Commission against the Democratic National Committee and others that they “conspired to deny him and his running mate ballot access in numerous states as candidates for President and Vice President in the 2004 general election” which they say is against the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971.

November 4, 2008 Nader loses in the presidential election with little to no impact on the electoral map.

November 2009 Nader files a Superior Court lawsuit in Washington County, Maine against the Democratic National Committee, the Maine Democratic Party, the Kerry-Edwards campaign, and others alleging the defendants used illegal tactics to attempt to keep Nader off the ballot in Maine and other states.

June 11, 2010 Nader loses his May 2008 complaint against the FEC and files charges against the Federal Election Commission in DC federal district court.

November 16, 2010 A judge in Maine dismisses a November 2009 lawsuit filed by Nader that accuses Democrats of conspiring to keep him off the ballot in the 2004 presidential race.

June 2011 Relaunches the League of Fans, his sports reform project, and as part of an 11-part sports manifesto, pledges to bring an antitrust suit against the Bowl Championship Series.

November 9, 2011 Nader loses his June 2010 federal case against the FEC and files an appeal.

19. april 2012 Maine Supreme Judicial Court overturns the 2010 dismissal of the 2009 Superior Court lawsuit against the Democratic National Committee and others.

20. september 2012 Maine Superior Court Justice Kevin M. Cuddy rules that the 2009 lawsuit against the Democratic National Committee and others will go to trial.

April 2012 Informally endorses former Salt Lake City Mayor Rocky Anderson for president during a press conference.

May 23, 2013 – The Maine Supreme Court orders that Nader’s lawsuit against the Democratic Party be dismissed.

March 19, 2014-present – Cohosts the Ralph Nader Radio Hour on Pacifica Radio Network.

April 29, 2014 – Publishes a new book, “Unstoppable: The Emerging Left-Right Alliance to Dismantle the Corporate State.”

September 27, 2015 – Nader opens the American Museum of Tort Law in his Winsted, Connecticut, hometown.

July 21, 2016 – Nader is inducted into the Automotive Hall of Fame.

June 30, 2020 – In a New York Times letter to the editor, Nader reacts to an article condemning the Trump administration’s response to the Coronavirus outbreak. Nader calls for “President Trump and Vice President Mike Pence to step aside and let professional public health specialists manage the federal effort against the Covid-19 pandemic.”


Ralph Nader Fast Facts

Here's a look at the life of consumer advocate and former candidate for president .

Here's a look at the life of consumer advocate and former candidate for president Ralph Nader.

Personal: Birth date: February 27, 1934

Kraj rojstva: Winsted, Connecticut

Birth name: Ralph Nader

Oče: Nathra Nader

Mother: Rose (Bouziane) Nader

Izobraževanje: Princeton University, A.B., 1955, Harvard Law School, L.L.B., 1958

Military: US Army, 1959

Other Facts: Writer and attorney.

Green Party presidential candidate in 1996 and 2000 Independent candidate in 2004 and 2008.

Speaks Arabic, Chinese, Portuguese, Spanish and Russian.

Son of Lebanese immigrants.

Timeline: Early 1960s - Practices law in Hartford, Connecticut.

1961-1963 - Lectures at Hartford University.

1964 - Is hired by Assistant Secretary of Labor Daniel Patrick Moynihan as a consultant on auto safety.

1965 - Publishes "Unsafe at Any Speed," an indictment of the auto industry in Detroit. Nader accuses car makers of putting style ahead of safety in the design of their cars. He focuses specifically on the Chevrolet Corvair.

February 10, 1966 - Testifies before a Senate subcommittee on auto safety.

March 1966 - James Roche, president of General Motors, apologizes in front of the Senate for hiring private investigators to spy on Nader.

September 9, 1966 - President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act into law.

1967 - Lobbies Congress to pass the Wholesome Meat Act, increasing inspections of slaughterhouses and meat processing plants.

1967-1968 - Lectures at Princeton University.

1969 - Helps establish the Center for Responsive Law, a non-profit studying consumer issues.

1970 - Settles a harassment lawsuit against GM for $425,000.

December 29, 1970 - Congress establishes the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), which had been strongly lobbied for by Nader.

1971 - Founds Public Citizen Inc., a consumer lobbying group.

1983 - Founds the US Public Interest Research Group.

August 19, 1996 - Is nominated as the Green Party's candidate for president.

November 1996 - Receives 685,000 votes ( .71%) in the presidential election.

June 25, 2000 - Is again nominated as the Green Party candidate for president.

November 2000 - Receives 2.8 million votes in the 2000 presidential election, approximately 2.75% of the vote. Is on the ballot in 33 states and the District of Columbia as the Green Party candidate and is listed as an Independent on the ballots of eight states.

Januarja 2001 - Establishes the League of Fans, a sports reform and advocacy project.

February 22, 2004 - Announces he is running for president as an Independent.

August 9, 2004 - Two lawsuits are filed in Pennsylvania on behalf of Democratic voters challenging Nader's petitions to get on Pennsylvania's ballot, alleging that thousands of the signatures are forged or fictitious.

October 13, 2004 - A state court removes Nader from Pennsylvania's presidential ballot, citing thousands of fraudulent signatures.

November 2, 2004 - Gets 411,304 votes (1%) in the presidential election. Is on the ballot in 34 states and the District of Columbia.

January 2005 - A judge orders Nader and his running mate, Peter Camejo, to pay over $80,000 in legal fees incurred by a group who challenged Nader's petitions to get on the Pennsylvania ballot.

October 30, 2007 - Sues the Democratic National Committee, the Kerry-Edwards campaign, the PAC America Coming Together and others in District of Columbia Superior Court, alleging that they conspired to keep him off the ballot in several states and from "taking votes away" from nominee John Kerry in the 2004 presidential election.

November 27, 2007 - Nader's DC Superior Court lawsuit against the Democratic National Committee and others is moved to District of Columbia federal district court.

December 3, 2007 - Nader's DC federal district court case against the Democratic National Committee and others is dismissed by Judge Jennifer Anderson before the initial scheduling conference.

January 30, 2008 - Launches a presidential exploratory committee website for the 2008 election.

February 24, 2008 - Nader announces that he is running for president as an independent.

February 28, 2008 - Nader chooses former San Francisco Board of Supervisors president Matt Gonzalez as his running mate.

May 2008 - Nader files an administrative complaint with the Federal Election Commission against the Democratic National Committee and others that they "conspired to deny him and his running mate ballot access in numerous states as candidates for President and Vice President in the 2004 general election" which they say is against the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971.

November 4, 2008 - Nader loses in the presidential election with little to no impact on the electoral map.

November 2009 - Nader files a Superior Court lawsuit in Washington County, Maine against the Democratic National Committee, the Maine Democratic Party, the Kerry-Edwards campaign, and others alleging the defendants used illegal tactics to attempt to keep Nader off the ballot in Maine and other states.

June 11, 2010 - Nader loses his May 2008 complaint against the FEC and files charges against the Federal Election Commission in DC federal district court.

November 16, 2010 - A judge in Maine dismisses a November 2009 lawsuit filed by Nader that accuses Democrats of conspiring to keep him off the ballot in the 2004 presidential race.

June 2011 - Relaunches the League of Fans, his sports reform project, and as part of an 11-part sports manifesto, pledges to bring an antitrust suit against the Bowl Championship Series.

November 9, 2011 - Nader loses his June 2010 federal case against the FEC and files an appeal.

19. april 2012 - Maine Supreme Judicial Court overturns the 2010 dismissal of the 2009 Superior Court lawsuit against the Democratic National Committee and others.

20. september 2012 - Maine Superior Court Justice Kevin M. Cuddy rules that the 2009 lawsuit against the Democratic National Committee and others will go to trial.

April 2012 - Informally endorses former Salt Lake City Mayor Rocky Anderson for president during a press conference.

May 23, 2013 - The Maine Supreme Court orders that Nader's lawsuit against the Democratic Party be dismissed.

April 29, 2014 - Releases a new book, "Unstoppable: The Emerging Left-Right Alliance to Dismantle the Corporate State."

September 27, 2015 - Nader opens the American Museum of Tort Law in his Winsted, Connecticut, hometown.

July 21, 2016 - Nader is inducted into the Automotive Hall of Fame.


Ralph Nader: Crusader or spoiler?

For more than a quarter-century, Ralph Nader was an advocate for the rights of consumers not to be incinerated in a Chevrolet Corvair or by the meltdown of a nuclear power plant. He was both saint and scold, unleashing his furies upon America’s corporate giants and on lowly hot dogs, which he once described with a straight face during congressional testimony as “missiles of death.” Nader couldn’t help himself. He was under oath.

In the documentary “An Unreasonable Man,” Nader often appears to be a man who can’t help himself, a tilter at windmills whose campaigns have led to safer cars, cleaner drinking water and, to hear his aggrieved critics in the Democratic Party tell it, the election of George W. Bush.

Nader’s run for the presidency in 2000 is described by one of his still-smoldering former allies as “worse than naive, it borders on the wicked.” Even Jimmy Carter is shown taunting his former political ally, suggesting that Nader “go back to examining the rear end of automobiles.”

Ralph (as most people in the film call him) became not merely famous but legendary in 1965, when he published “Unsafe At Any Speed,” his book on the “designed in” flaws of the Corvair, setting off a loony attempt by General Motors to discredit him by investigating his private life. The only thing the investigation revealed was that Nader didn’t have a private life, and the subsequent financial settlement from GM for invading his privacy provided the financial underpinnings for a decade or more of activism by Nader’s Raiders.

The first half of the movie is an absorbing study of this part of Nader’s public life, and then it switches – as he did – to politics, where the results for both him and the picture are less cheerful. His third-party campaigns for the presidency infuriated so many of his old allies from the left that, during a montage of audio clips about the disastrous effects of his political career, we hear someone ask how many deaths in the Iraq war should be blamed on Nader.

Moments later, we are given an estimate of the number of lives saved by the seat belts for which Nader agitated in the 1960s. In the film, this makes the slaughter and salvation he is supposed to have caused play out like a zero sum game.

Nader moved from his position as the government’s unofficial conscience during the Carter administration to a period of eclipse as Ronald Reagan’s banishment of government from the American backside dismantled two decades of Nader’s work. Bill Clinton’s ceaseless conciliations with industry moved the Democratic Party so close to the political center that Nader finally concluded the two-party system itself was broken.

“An Unreasonable Man” arrives just as George Bush’s poll numbers are testing new lows, and on the heels of Al Gore’s sanctification at the Oscars, which limbers up the tongues of Nader’s critics – such as liberal columnist Eric Alterman and Columbia Professor Todd Gitlin – who cast Nader not merely as political spoiler, but as despoiler of American history.

Most of the second half of the film is given over to a now-7-year-old discussion of whether Nader engineered Gore’s defeat, and though this debate has generated enough ozone-depleting gases of its own to render Gore’s Oscar victory carbon-neutral, it is not without its wonkish fascinations. Longtime political analyst and “West Wing” producer Lawrence O’Donnell, for instance, notes that Nader’s candidacy was judged not significant enough during the 2000 race to qualify for the debates, yet Gore’s team (and many Democrats) have flayed Nader ever since as the najbolj significant factor in Gore’s defeat.

Some of this invective would be dismaying if it weren’t so silly. Alterman insists that Nader should have dropped out of the race on the eve of the election, presumably giving the victory to Gore, though there is plenty of evidence to suggest that Nader’s voters would simply have stayed home without him.

It’s hard to say what any of this debate proves. Co-directors Henriette Mantel and Steve Skrovan allow enough of Nader’s critics – including former Nader’s Raiders who turned against him during his presidential bids – to testify against him that they can’t be accused of glossing over his faults. But Mantel worked as an office manager in one of Nader’s law centers in the late 󈨊s, and sometimes the appearance of objectivity in a documentary is just that – more apparent than real.

“An Unreasonable Man” gives the appearance of even-handedness, but its larger concern is burnishing Nader’s legacy by subtly rebutting the conventional wisdom about him with a chorus of critics of his critics.

At the end of the film, Nader wearily says he cares nothing for his own legacy, then immediately ticks off a list of his accomplishments as a consumer advocate. (He also helped promote the film, suggesting he may be up for a little legacy polishing after all.)

If he has political plans for 2008, he doesn’t mention them. At 73, Nader finally appears to be slowing down, but as GM and Al Gore – as unlikely a confederation of victims as ever there was – can attest, he remains unsafe at any speed.

Ocenjeno: No MPAA rating, but could be PG-13 for profanity

Cast: Ralph Nader, Joan Claybrook, Eric Alterman, Todd Gitlin, Pat Buchanan


General Motors Fast Facts

Here’s a look at General Motors, one of the Big Three US automakers.

Dejstva

Major GM automobile brands in the United States are Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet and GMC.

Domestic and international subsidiaries at one time included Oldsmobile, Pontiac, Hummer, Saturn and Saab.

GM is one of the largest vehicle manufacturers and marketers in the world, with operations on six continents.

GM is headquartered in Detroit.

Časovnica

September 16, 1908 – General Motors Company is founded under the leadership of William Durant. The new company brings together several car companies, including Buick. Olds Motor Works (Oldsmobile) is bought by GM later in 1908.

1908 – General Motors acquires the Rapid Motor Vehicle Company, a truck company. It later evolves into GMC.

1909 – GM acquires Cadillac Motor and Oakland Motor Car Company (later renamed Pontiac).

1910 – When the company has financial difficulties, Durant is ousted.

1911 – Durant co-founds Chevrolet Motor Company.

1915 – Durant becomes GM’s largest shareholder.

1916 – Durant returns as president of GM.

1918 – Chevrolet becomes a division of GM.

1918 – GM joins the war effort during World War I, retooling 90% of the GMC truck production line for military use. More than 8,500 trucks are sold to the US Army for use in the war.

1920 – With GM on the verge of bankruptcy, Durant retires as president. He starts another car company, Durant Motors, but loses his fortune in the 1929 stock market crash. Durant lives until 1947, surviving on a pension from GM.

1923-1956 – Alfred P. Sloan Jr. serves as president and later chief executive of GM.

1925 – General Motors expands internationally by purchasing Vauxhall Motors, a British company.

1929 – GM takes a majority stake in German car maker Adam Opel AG. During World War II, the German government nationalizes Opel, but GM regains control after the war ends.

1936-1937 – A drawn-out strike at GM plants leads the company to sign its first agreement with the United Auto Workers labor union.

1942-1945 – GM produces vehicles and weapons for use by the US military during World War II.

1954 – General Motors accounts for 54% of the auto market in the United States, up from 12% in 1921.

1965 – Activist Ralph Nader publishes “Unsafe at Any Speed” with a section critical of the Chevrolet Corvair. GM hires detectives to investigate Nader. Later GM’s president is forced to publicly apologize and pay Nader $425,000 to settle a lawsuit.

1980 – GM reports a net loss of more than $700 million, its first unprofitable year since 1921.

1980-1990 – GM’s share of the US market falls from 45% to 35%.

1984 – GM purchases Electronic Data Systems Corporation, started by Ross Perot, for $2.5 billion.

1998 – A 54-day strike by the United Auto Workers (UAW) union costs GM approximately $2 billion in profits.

2008 – GM announces that it lost $38.7 billion in 2007, a record loss for the company.

December 2008 – GM receives a bailout of $13.4 billion from the US Treasury, through the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP).

March 30, 2009 – CEO Rick Wagoner announces that he is resigning at the request of the Obama administration.

April-May 2009 – General Motors receives another $6 billion in bailouts from TARP.

May 29, 2009 – GM stock closes at less than $1 a share for first time since the Great Depression.

June 1, 2009 – GM files for bankruptcy. It receives another $30 billion in government funding to assist with restructuring. After bankruptcy, the company will be 60.8% owned by the US government, 11.7% by the Canadian government, 17.5% by the UAW union and unsecured bondholders will have a 10% share.

July 10, 2009 – General Motors emerges from bankruptcy after 39 days. It is now known as General Motors Company instead of General Motors Corporation.

December 1, 2009 – CEO Fritz Henderson resigns after less than a year in the position.

January 25, 2010 – Chairman Edward Whitacre Jr. is named CEO of General Motors.

April 7, 2010 – GM announces that the company lost $3.4 billion in the fourth quarter of 2009.

August 12, 2010 – CEO Ed Whitacre announces that he will be stepping down on September 1, 2010.

November 18, 2010 – GM raises $20 billion with its initial public offering at $33 a share.

February 24, 2011 – GM announces that the company made $4.7 billion in 2010, its first profit since 2004.

January 19, 2012 – GM is officially the top automobile manufacturer in the world. Nine million vehicles sold in 2011 helped to make it the largest automaker in China also.

December 9, 2013 – The US Treasury sells its remaining shares of GM stock, closing the book on the 2009 bailout. The United States only recouped about $39 billion of the approximately $50 billion it put into GM.

December 10, 2013 – Mary Barra is named the first female CEO of GM.

February 26, 2014 – GM expands a recall of compact cars to 1.37 million vehicles built between 2003 and 2007, due to possible ignition problems. Thirteen people have died in accidents.

March 28, 2014 – The recall of GM vehicles with ignition issues is expanded to 2.6 million vehicles.

March 31, 2014 – GM recalls 1.3 million vehicles due to a power steering issue.

May 15, 2014 – GM announces it is recalling another 3 million vehicles worldwide, and that it will take a $200 million charge for those repairs. The bulk of the latest recall applies to 2.4 million cars with a wiring problem that’s been tied to at least 13 accidents, two injuries and no deaths.

May 16, 2014 – The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) fines GM $35 million to settle a federal probe into the 10-year delay of its ignition switch recall. This is the maximum fine for a single violation. The money from the fine goes to the US Treasury, not to compensate crash victims. A separate FBI investigation is still underway.

May 20, 2014 – GM recalls another 2.4 million US cars and trucks. Spokesman Alan Adler says that no injuries or deaths are associated the recalls.

May 22, 2014 – CNN reports a total of 29 separate GM recalls since January 2014 covering 13.8 million US cars and trucks, and 15.8 million vehicles worldwide.

June 5, 2014 – GM releases the results of an internal probe relating to delayed recalls and the deaths of at least 13 people. GM Chief Executive Officer Mary Barra announces that 15 employees have been dismissed and five more have been disciplined. Barra also announces GM will create a program to compensate those injured or killed by the defective cars. Compensation expert Kenneth Feinberg will decide how victims will be paid.

June 16, 2014 – GM recalls another 3.36 million vehicles worldwide for a different ignition switch issue linked to eight crashes and six injuries. This brings the total number of cars recalled by GM this year to more than 20 million.

October 20, 2014 – The office of Attorney Ken Feinberg, who is administering the compensation program, announces that a total of 56 claims have been approved by his team, including 29 deaths, four serious injuries and 23 less serious injuries.

December 8, 2014 – Feinberg’s office releases a report on claims relating to GM’s faulty ignition switch recall. Thirty-eight deaths are now attributed to the defect, and are eligible for payment. Also eligible for payment are six cases of severe injury and 45 cases of other injury.

February 2, 2015 – Feinberg’s office releases an updated report, after the program’s January 31, 2015, deadline. More than 4,180 claims have been filed against General Motors, alleging the automaker’s vehicles with faulty ignition switches caused deaths and injuries. So far, 128 claims have been ruled eligible, including 51 deaths.

December 10, 2015 – GM’s faulty ignition switch caused 124 deaths, according to a final report from the attorney administering funds to accident victims.

December 15, 2016 – CEO Mary Barra announces GM will build autonomous Chevrolet Bolt electric cars in the Detroit area starting next year.

March 6, 2017 – Says it’s selling its European business for $2.3 billion to France’s PSA, the maker of Peugeot and Citroen cars, and announces it is laying off 1,100 workers in Michigan. It’s the fourth layoff GM has announced since November.

August 5, 2017 – Recalls about 700,000 Chevy and GMC trucks because of a potential software problem that can cause them to spontaneously lose their electric power steering assistance for about a second.

October 17, 2017 – GM’s self-driving arm, Cruise Automation, says it will begin testing its self-driving Chevy Bolts inside five square miles of Manhattan in early 2018.

January 12, 2018 – Cruise Automation unveils an autonomous vehicle that has no manual controls. Because the car is fully autonomous, the company says a steering wheel, accelerator and brake pedals aren’t needed.

3. april 2018 – GM announces it will no longer report monthly sales, ending a common practice in the auto industry. The company believes that quarterly sales reports are more effective metrics for investors.

June 13, 2018 – GM announces that Dhivya Suryadevara will be its new chief financial officer starting September 1, joining an exclusive club of companies that have both a female CEO and CFO. Mary Barra is the company’s current CEO.

October 3, 2018 – Honda commits to invest $2 billion over 12 years into GM’s autonomous vehicle subsidiary, Cruise.

November 26, 2018 – GM announces that it will shut down production at five facilities in North America and cut its staff, reducing its salaried workforce by 15%. This restructuring means GM will stop making sedans that the public no longer wants, including the Chevrolet Volt, Impala and Cruze and the Buick LaCrosse.

September 15, 2019 – Nearly 50,000 members of the United Auto Workers union go on strike against GM, the first work stoppage in the US auto industry in 12 years. It’s also the largest strike by any union against any business since the last strike at GM in 2007.

October 25, 2019 – The UAW union vote in favor of a four year labor deal, ending a 40 day strike.

February 16, 2020 – GM announces it will retire the Holden brand, which has existed in Australia for more than 160 years, by 2021. GM announces it will also be pulling its sales, design and engineering operations out of Australia and New Zealand.

March 20, 2020 – GM announces it is working with ventilator maker, Ventec Life Systems, to help increase Ventec’s production in response to the coronavirus outbreak.

April 8, 2020 – The US Department of Health and Human Services announce a nearly $500 million contract with GM under the Defense Production Act to produce 30,000 ventilators that will be delivered to the national stockpile to help treat coronavirus patients.

April 14, 2020 – GM announces that 600 ventilators will be shipped by the end of April, with the rest of the government’s 30,000 ventilator order completed by the end of August.

September 3, 2020 – GM and Honda announce an agreement that will entail the companies sharing basic vehicle designs to be sold under their respective brands. The car companies will use the same machinery and physical structures for their various models.


Poglej si posnetek: 1965 Chevrolet Corvair Corsa Convertible Restoration Project (Julij 2022).


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