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Yavuz Sultan Selim, 1918-1919

Yavuz Sultan Selim, 1918-1919


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Yavuz Sultan Selim, 1918-1919

Ta strogi pogled prikazuje Yavuz Sultan Selim (nekdanji SMS bojni križar razreda Moltke Goeben), nekoč v letih 1918-19. Ta pogled prikazuje, kako široka je bila, in tudi kako nizka je bila zadnja paluba. The Yavuz Sultan Selim je bila poškodovana januarja 1918 in je bila verjetno šele popravljena, ko je bila posneta ta slika.


Selim I.

Naši uredniki bodo pregledali, kar ste oddali, in ugotovili, ali želite članek popraviti.

Selim I., po imenu Yavuz ("Grim"), (rojen leta 1470, Amasya, Otomansko cesarstvo [zdaj v Turčiji] - umrl 22. septembra 1520, Çorlu), osmanski sultan (1512–20), ki je razširil cesarstvo na Sirijo, Egipt, Palestino in Hejaze ter Osmanlije povzdignil na vodstvo muslimanskega sveta.

Selim je prišel na prestol zaradi državljanskih sporov, v katere so bili vpleteni on, njegov brat in njihov oče, Bayezid II. Selim je odpravil vse potencialne pritožnike na sultanat, za svojega dediča pa je pustil le svojega najmočnejšega sina Süleymana. Nato se je obrnil proti vzhodu, kjer je Ismāʿīl I, ustanovitelj dinastije Safavid v Iranu, predstavljal politično in ideološko grožnjo, saj je zagovarjal šizizem (drugo največjo vejo islama) v nasprotju s sunitskim islamom Osmanov. Poleg tega so bili Kizilbaši (turkmenski privrženci Ismaila) v odprtem uporu v Anatoliji. Selim je podjarmil Kizilbash in nato sprožil veliko kampanjo proti Ismāʿīlu, ki je bil hudo poražen v bitki pri Chāldirānu, na vzhodni strani reke Evfrat (23. avgusta 1514). Selim se je nato obrnil proti anadolijskim kurdskim in turkmenskim kneževinam, ki jih je vključil v Osmansko cesarstvo.

Selimovo podjarmljenje kneževine Dulkadir (Dhū al-Qadr) v Elbistanu (zdaj v Turčiji) je Osmanlije pripeljalo v konflikt z mameluškimi vladarji Sirije in Egipta, ki so Dulkadir smatrali za svojega varovanca. Selim je premagal mameluško vojsko v bitkah pri Marj Dābiqu (severno od Alepa, 24. avgusta 1516) in Raydāniyyah (blizu Kaira, 22. januarja 1517), s čimer so Sirijo, Egipt in Palestino pripeljali pod osmansko oblast. Mehiški šerif je v Kairu Selimu podaril ključe tega svetega mesta, kar je simbolična gesta, ki Selima priznava kot vodjo islamskega sveta.

Uredniki Encyclopaedia Britannica Ta članek je nazadnje popravil in posodobil Adam Zeidan, pomočnik urednika.


Vojaška ladja sreda, 7. november

Tukaj v LSOZI-ju bomo vsako sredo odhajali na ogled stare mornarice steampunk/dieselpunk v časovnem obdobju 1866-1946 in bomo vsak teden profilirali drugo ladjo.

Vojaška ladja sreda, 7. november


Tu vidimo čudovitega novega bojno križarko SMS Goeben od Morje Kasierliche. Bila je druga od dveh Moltke-razredni bojni križarji cesarske nemške mornarice, izstreljeni leta 1911 in poimenovani po nemškem francosko-pruskem vojnem junaku generalu Avgustu Karlu von Goebnu.

SMS Goeben s torpednimi mrežami, zavitimi pred letom 1914, Kliknite za povečavo

Uradno je služila le dve leti v mornarici Kaiser ’, preden je povzročila opustošenje in razočaranje v Mediteranu, medtem ko je bežala od britanskih in francoskih bojnih ladij ob izbruhu prve svetovne vojne. Njen admiral William Souchon je odpotoval v Turčijo, kjer je bila ladja internirana in nato pa se je 16. avgusta 1914, nekaj več kot dva tedna po vojni, uradno predala turški mornarici. Vendar pa preimenovan v Yavuz Sultan Selim po osmanskem sultanu Selimu I. in s svojo nemško posadko v turškem fesu postala vodilna v osmanski mornarici.

Kot takšno je Turčijo potegnilo v vojno, ko je Souchon odplul čez Črno morje in bombardiral ruska pristanišča. Do konca vojne je zamenjala posnetke z občasno rusko bojno ladjo, izogibala se je skrivanjem britanskih podmornic in na splošno poskušala ostati le korak pred samimi Turki.

Goeben in Breslau. Kliknite za povečavo

Nemci so odšli leta 1918, toda Selim ostal. Leta 1936 je bila ponovno preimenovana v TCG Yavuz (“ Ladja Turške republike Yavuz“), saj je bilo staro otomansko ime passe.

Bojni križar Yavuz (Yavuz Selim) na Bosporju, 1931. Kliknite za povečavo

Yavuz je bila vodilna v turški mornarici, dokler ni bila razgrajena leta 1950. Odpravljena je bila leta 1973, potem ko je zahodnonemška vlada zavrnila povabilo, da jo od Turčije odkupi kot muzej. Bila je zadnja preživela ladja, ki jo je zgradila cesarska nemška mornarica, in najdaljša bojna križarka ali ladja tipa dreadnought v kateri koli mornarici, z nekaterimi.


Specifikacije:
Prostornina:

Zasnova: 22.979 t (22.616 dolgih ton)
Polna obremenitev: 25.400 t (25.000 dolgih ton)

Dolžina: 186,6 m (612 ft 2 in)
Širina: 30 m (98 ft 5 in)
Ugrez: 9,2 m (30 ft 2 palcev)
Vgrajena moč:

Zasnova: 52.000 KM (39.000 kW)
Največ: 85.782 KM (63.968 kW)

Pogon: 4 vijaki, parsonske parne turbine
Hitrost:

Oblikovanje: 25,5 kn (47,2 km/h 29,3 mph)
Največ: 28,4 kn (52,6 km/h 32,7 mph)

Domet: 4.120 nmi (7.630 km 4.740 mi) pri 14 kn (26 km/h 16 mph)
Dopolnilo: 43 častnikov
1.010 moških

10 × 28 cm (11 palcev) pištole SK L/50 (5 × 2)
Pištole 12 × 15 cm (5,9 palca)
Pištole 12 × 8,8 cm (3,5 palca)

Pas: 280–100 mm (11–3,9 inča)
Barbettes: 230 mm (9,1 palca)
Stolpi: 230 mm
Krov: 76,2–25,4 mm (3–1 palca)
Stezni stolp: 350 mm (14 palcev)


Osvajanje zunanjih sovražnikov

Ko je bil njegov prestol varen, se je Selim lahko osredotočil na širitev imperija. Njegov prvi spopad je bil s Safavidskim cesarstvom v Iranu, ki se je začelo krepiti okoli začetka 16. stoletja in je ogrožalo razmerje moči v regiji. Takrat je Safavide vodil šah Ismail, ki ga je Selim v bitki pri Kaldiranu leta 1514 odločno premagal. grožnja, kot so bile nekoč.

Osmanska miniatura bitke pri Kaldiranu iz 16. stoletja. ( Javna domena )

Naslednja Selimova tarča je bil egiptovski sultanat Mamluk, ki je vladal Egiptu in Levantu. Ko so na Levantu premagali Mameluke, so Selim in Osmanlije odkorakali naprej v Egipt. Februarja 1517 so Osmanlije stali pred vrati Kaira, Mameluki pa so nazadnje stali. Mamluki so bili poraženi in po enem poročilu je bilo okoli 800 ujetih Mamelukov odsekanih glave, položenih na ščuke okoli Selimovega taborišča, medtem ko so bila njihova telesa vržena v Nil.

Poraz Mamelukov je Egipt zmanjšal, kar je njegova lastna moč, v provinco Osmanskega cesarstva. Preživeli Mameluki pa so spoznali, da lahko, če so služili osmanskim sultanom, kot so služili mameluškim sultanom, še vedno ohranijo položaje moči v Egiptu in nadzor nad vlado. To so storili in Mameluki so naslednja tri stoletja še naprej tvorili vladajoči razred v Egiptu.

Druga pomembna posledica Selimove osvojitve Egipta je, da je bil zdaj najmočnejši vladar v islamskem svetu in da je veljal tudi za prvega osmanskega kalifa. Po eni zgodbi je prav v Kairu zadnji abasidski kalif al-Mutawakkil III svojo oblast prenesel na Selima. Ta zgodba pa se običajno šteje za poznejši izum. Poleg tega so bile nekatere relikvije preroka Mohameda prenesene iz Kaira v osmansko prestolnico v Carigradu.

Oris Osmanskega cesarstva iz Theatro d'el Orbe de la Tierra de Abraham Ortelius, Anvers, 1602, posodobljen iz izdaje 1570. ( Javna domena )


Selim I Yavuz (1512-1520) Ogromna osmanska širitev

Selim I Yavuz (Grim) je bil deveti sultan Osmanskega cesarstva. Rodil se je leta 1470 v mestu Amasya, najmlajši sin sultana Bayezida II in Gulbahar Sultane. Bayazid II je imel osem sinov, od katerih jih je pet umrlo med njegovo vladavino, pri čemer so ostali le Ahmed, Korkud in Selim. Selim je bil imenovan za guvernerja Trabzona leta 1481, ko je njegov oče prevzel prestol. Tam je ostal 29 let, do leta 1510.

Vsi njegovi bratje so dobili vodilne položaje, s čimer je postala tekma za oblast in prestol. Na začetku so imeli njegovi bratje prednost, saj je birokracija na Selima gledala kot na nasilnega in nerazumnega. Vendar je osvajanje Karsa, Erzuruma in Artvina brez dovoljenja njegovega očeta, ki je vladal pacifistično, naredil Selima priljubljenega med oboroženimi silami. Selim je s pomočjo janičarjev 25. aprila 1512 prisilil svojega očeta, naj odstopi in postal osmanski sultan. Da bi zavaroval svoj prestol, je Selim umoril vse svoje brate, nečake in njihove sinove, za dediča pa je pustil le Süleymana. Ko si je zagotovil prestol, se je vrnil k agresivni politiki svojega dedka Mehmeda Osvajalca. Njegov prvi spopad je bil z Ismāʿīlom I, ustanoviteljem dinastije Šafavid v Iranu. Začel je kampanjo proti podpornikom Ismaila I v vzhodni Anatoliji, pobil na tisoče in leta 1514 vodil veliko odpravo na ozemlje Safavid. V bitki pri Kaldiranu na vzhodni strani reke Evfrat je 23. avgusta 1514 premagal Ismāʿīla. Čeprav mu je uspelo zavzeti mesto Tabriz, se je Safavidski imperij nadaljeval. Pomanjkanje plena in zalog je zmanjšalo moralo njegovih vojakov, zaradi česar se je Selim umaknil.

Po tem se je obrnil k Mamlukom. V tem obdobju so Mameluki propadali. Nadzirali so bližnjevzhodni del starih mednarodnih trgovskih poti med Evropo in Vzhodno Azijo. Vendar so s portugalskim odkritjem morske poti v Indijo trgovske poti izgubile večino svojega pomena. Selim I. sem lahko v kratki kampanji (1516-1517) osvojil vso mameluško deželo. Večina mameluških uradnikov se je v zameno za obljubljena politična mesta obrnila na osmansko stran. Nezadovoljno prebivalstvo v Egiptu in Siriji je predalo garnizone Mamluk. 24. avgusta 1516 je premagal Mameluke v bitki pri Marj Dabiqu in 22. januarja 1517 v bitki pri Raydaniyahu pri Kairu.

S temi osvajanji je Selim I podvojil velikost svojega cesarstva. Nova ozemlja so z učinkovito upravo rešila finančne težave Osmanov. Osmansko cesarstvo je postalo zelo močno in bogato. Druga korist od osvajanja je bil nadzor nad svetimi kraji islama, zaradi česar je bil sultan najpomembnejši islamski vladar, Selim I. pa prvi osmanski kalif. Stare trgovske poti so bile zdaj pod njihovim nadzorom. Otomani so imeli tudi neposreden dostop do uprave, umetnosti in intelektualcev iz Abasidov in Seldžukov.

Selim, umrl sem leta 1520, verjetno zaradi raka. V svoji osemletni kratki vladavini mu je uspelo podvojiti velikost Osmanskega cesarstva in postati najbolj cenjen muslimanski vladar svojega časa. Velja za enega najuspešnejših osmanskih vladarjev.


Hibridne sanje: most Yavuz Sultan Selim na Bosporju

V očarljivi pokrajini Bosporske ožine se je pojavilo nekaj novega.

Vitki, naraščajoči in hkrati močni, sodobni in segajo v prihodnost, je to most Yavuz Sultan Selim, nova znamenitost modernosti, ki povezuje Evropo in Azijo.

V očarljivi pokrajini Bosporske ožine se je pojavilo nekaj novega. Vitki, naraščajoči in hkrati močni, sodobni in segajo v prihodnost, je to most Yavuz Sultan Selim, nova znamenitost sodobnosti, ki povezuje Evropo in Azijo. Prefinjena in visoko tehnološka zgradba, prikaz kiparskega inženiringa, kombinacija vzmetenja in mostu z vzpenjačo, spektakularna in zasnovana ne le kot struktura, ki deluje za prečkanje vode in povezuje okrožja Poyrazköy na azijski obali in Garipçe , na evropski strani, vendar kot element, ki predstavlja zapleten infrastrukturni sistem. Čez dan je videti kot megastruktura, vredna dela Land Art, v mraku pa spominja na vesoljsko postajo, ki je mojstrsko in s precejšnjimi inženirskimi in strukturnimi napori pristala med obema obalama velikega ustja, v skalnatem točka, kjer hribovit teren napreduje, kar ustvarja zožitev odseka vode med dvema nasprotjema obale.

Most, posvečen devetemu osmanskemu cesarju, ki vsekakor služi območju in mestu, vendar sega daleč čez regijo in se projicira proti obema celinama z dvojno avtocesto in hitro železniško povezavo. Funkcionalna množica, ki omogoča, da most Yavuz Sultan Selim, tretji most na Bosporju, velja za edinega visečega mostu na svetu, ki stoji na njegovem krovu, vse na isti ravni, osempasovna avtocesta in dve železniški progi, z neverjetno plitva največja višina 5,50 metra. Specifično mesto, ki si je prislužilo tudi rekord kot najširši viseči most na mednarodni sceni s širino 58,50 metra. Rezultat, ki je bil delno dosežen zaradi odločitve, da ga zamislimo kot hibridni viseči viseči most, podprt z dvema stebričkoma v obliki črke A, ki se povzpneta na 322 metrov višine, kar je še en rekord, ki zasenči celo znamenito turnejo po Eifflu v Parizu.

Zato je to struktura, ki je v različnih konstrukcijskih elementih daleč prehitela nedavne velike projekte po vsem svetu. Poleg tega je gradnja trajala neverjetno kratek čas: 39 mesecev od polaganja temeljnega kamna, zahvaljujoč prizadevanjem do deset tisoč ljudi na mestu, ki je zahtevalo organizacijo, podobno načrtovanju mest na obeh obalah, ki so vključena kot območja operacij v celoti v skladu z načrtovanim časom in proračunom. Finančni načrt, podprt z vključitvijo večjih turških bančnih skupin, ki so podprle ta projekt, v katerem je most Yavuz Sultan Selim pomemben del širše infrastrukturne sheme, zaupane veliki turški skupini IC Içtas (v posebej ustanovljenem konzorciju z italijanskim podjetjem Astaldi, imetniki 33,33-odstotnega deleža v formuli skupnega podjetja ICA), ki pa vključuje tudi gradnjo najmanj 150 kilometrov avtoceste Severni obroč (od Odayeri do Pasaköy), s strahospoštovanjem, navdihujoč sistem viaduktov, dolgih 25,40 kilometrov, in podzemnih predorov, namenjenih povezovanju evropskih in azijskih železniških prog. Naloga konzorcija je tudi, da kot nosilec koncesije naknadno upravlja celoten infrastrukturni projekt.

Gre torej za izjemno obsežno delovanje, katerega impresivni most Yavuz Sultan Selim je zagotovo ikoničen element, ki stoji na skrajnem severnem koncu Bosporja, tik pred njegovim izlivom v Črno morje. Mejnik, ki idealno in funkcionalno zaseda svoje mesto poleg prejšnjih dveh visečih mostov, ki povezujeta Evropo in Azijo, oba zgrajena v prejšnjem stoletju: most Temmuz Sehitler 15, prej znan kot Bogaziçi Köprüsü, prvi most čez ožino iz sedemdesetih, drugi pa Fatih Sultan Mehmet, zgrajen konec osemdesetih let. Mostovi, ki so kljub naraščajočim strukturnim linijam in funkcionalni vrednosti v primerjavi s pred kratkim zgrajenim tretjim mostom zdaj po velikosti in oblikovanju iz prejšnje generacije.

Prvi most čez Bospor, odprt 30. oktobra 1973, se razteza med okrožjema Ortaköy in Beylerbeyi. Zasnovan tako, da povezuje dve polovici mesta, je bil prvi stalni most, ki je povezoval obe celini, ki ga je izdelalo britansko podjetje, ki je v sodelovanju z Italijanom Almericom Meomartinijem vključilo storitve inženirjev Gilberta Robertsa in Williama Browna. V obdobju, ko je bil zgrajen ta večji most, se je močno povečalo tudi število prebivalcev Istanbula (danes skoraj 16 milijonov prebivalcev), ki je zaradi velikega priseljevanja začelo spreminjati svojo urbano postavitev glede na dve različni razvojnih področij, s širitvijo azijskega območja. V podporo potrebi po izgradnji tretjega mostu je treba upoštevati le, da trenutno most 15 Temmuz Sehitler vsak dan prečka 180.000 vozil v obe smeri, kar je precej primerljivo le z nekaj mostovi v Združenih državah.

Le 5 kilometrov severno od prejšnjega mostu in povezuje okrožja Rumelihisari in Anadoluhisari, kjer sta zelo osmanski utrdbi, je drugi most, Fatih Sultan Mehmet, posvečen osmanskemu sultanu iz 15. stoletja, ki je leta 1453 osvojil Carigrad. Ta viseči most, ki so ga oblikovali londonski? Rm Freeman Fox & amp Partners, leta 1988 pa ga je dokončalo japonsko podjetje, ima podobne lastnosti kot prvi. Posledično se zato, da bi reorganizirali tok avtomobilskega prometa med metropolo in njenim ozemljem, ob upoštevanju njene eksponentne rasti v zadnjih desetih letih, zdi, da se je odločitev o širitvi železniškega in avtocestnega sistema, ki se zbližuje na tretjem mostu, še bolj potrebno.

Skratka, mestna pokrajina Istanbula je prepredena z mostovi, izziv oblikovalske zasnove pa je postal značilen znak mesta, njegovih znamenitosti in njegovega ozemlja. Most Yavuz Sultan Selim se upravičeno pojavlja kot zadnji dokaz tega lajtmotiva, ki se nadaljuje skozi stoletja.

Tretji most čez Bospor je pravzaprav dedič posebne strukturne in oblikovalske tradicije, kiparske inženirstva, katere dva oblikovalca, Jean-François Klein in Michel Virlogeux, sta zagotovo dva najpomembnejša predstavnika te dobe. . Gre za oblikovalski pristop, pri katerem drzna izraznost strukture na koncu povrne prestiž infrastrukturnim delom in jih uvrsti med elito arhitekture. To je pot, ki so jo utrli predhodniki, kot so veliki inženirji betona iz 20. stoletja, od španskega, mehiškega po naturalizaciji, Félixa Candele do italijanskega Pier Luigija Nervija, pa tudi avtorji, kot je Eugène Freyssinet iz Francije. Rezultat je vrsta struktur, ki tako kot most Yavuz Sultan Selim pripovedujejo zgodbo.

Ta most je pravzaprav zgodba o strukturnem izzivu v razmerju med silami, obremenitvami in vzmetenji, pa tudi o raziskavah potenciala materialov - od jeklenic do betona - ter o pozorni in premišljeni pozornosti do zasnove delov, elementov, ki ga označujejo in naredijo edinstvenega. Na primer, v prvih načrtih je bil zelo tanek krov izdelan iz nosilcev na več ravneh z različnimi distribucijskimi rešitvami za železnico za visoke hitrosti, postavljene na spodnji krov, in avtocestnimi pasovi, osrednjim ali stranskim, na enem ali več nivojih . Kasneje so ga z več kot nekaj težavami in z veliko spretnostjo razvili z načrtovanjem dveh avtocestnih vozišč, od katerih ima vsak štiri štiri pasove širine 3,65 metra, ločene z osrednjim železniškim koridorjem, sestavljenim iz dveh sklopov tirov, širokih 5,25 metra za visoko -hitrostni in tovorni vlaki. Rezultat je najširši krov na svetu, s širino 58,50 metra in največjo višino 5,50 metra, ki mu ni enakih na svetu. Gre za sistem, ki je seveda opravil in vzdržal preskušanje v vetrovniku z uporabo vetra pri 300 kilometrih na uro, čemur je sledila dodatna obremenitev, ki so jo določili avtomobili, predvsem pa vlak pod tirnicami kateri armaturni elementi so bili postavljeni. S tem geometrijskim dimenzioniranjem je bila največja konstrukcijsko določena hitrost za oba avtocestna vozišča 120 kilometrov na uro, medtem ko bo za tranzitne vlake 80 kilometrov na uro za tovorni promet in 160 kilometrov na uro za hitre vlake. Tudi obliko "A" stebrov narekuje obremenitev vlaka, oblikovalci so jih tako zasnovali, tako da je bilo mogoče glavni kabel vstaviti v skladu s tirnicami, sekundarne kable pa postaviti tudi na sredino , in tako utrdi krov v železniški coni. Poleg tega je profil stebrov s trikotnim prerezom rezultat analize pojavnosti močnih vetrov, prisotnih v tem delu Bosporja na njihovi površini, pa tudi dejanske izbire zasnove od trikotne pro? le se bolje integrira z nagibom. To velja tudi za kable za zelo dolgo bivanje, ki so povezani z zunanjim delom krova, da postane bolj tog, kar je ravno zaradi njihove "številčnosti" pritrjeno s sistemom vzmetenja v omrežju, ki nasprotuje pravokotnim silam. Da bi se izognili nevarnostim zaradi močnega vetra in ne zaradi potresne aktivnosti, so bile oblikovane in vstavljene lopute, ki odpravljajo vibracije kablov za bivanje pri prehodu vlakov ali pri močnih vetrovih. Blažilniki so hidravlični izolatorji, ki vsebujejo vibracije (najdaljši kabel na mostu meri 597 metrov, jeklo ima trdnost 1.960 MPa in je tudi najdaljši kabel na svetu). S temi je bila sprejeta vrsta pomembnih stratagem, začenši s prvim korakom: identifikacijo mesta za temelje na kopnem na dveh majhnih rtovih, ki štrlijo v ožino. Tako je bilo mogoče preprečiti stik stebrov z vodo v odseku, ki ga prečkajo številni nasprotujoči si tokovi in ​​prometni pomorski promet. To je bila pozitivna odločitev, ki je poleg tega vključevala razmeroma plitvo izkopavanje temeljev (z globino 20 metrov in premerom 20 metrov) v kamnini brez zlomov, zato je bila še posebej primerna za sprejem betonskih stebrov, izdelanih z drsno obliko in sistemi za samodejno plezanje.

Hibridni viseči viseči most, kot je bilo že rečeno in sta ga dva oblikovalca upravičeno opredelila. Klein in Virlogeux sta se odločila, da združita sistem visečih mostov, ki se pogosto uporablja za številne evropske mostove, vključno z nekaterimi, zgrajenimi pred kratkim, in lahko zagotovi znatno stabilnost konstrukcije tudi proti obremenitvam, ki jih določajo močni vetrovi, značilni za Bospor, in zlasti , tisto območje ustja-s konstrukcijo z vzmetnim kablom, ki nas popelje nazaj v futuristične vizije zgodnjih litoželeznih mostov, ki jih je zgradil Gustav Eiffel (viradukt Garabit 1880-84) in kovinskih v Združene države, ki lahko prečkajo zelo široke razdalje in pokrivajo nepredstavljive razpone. Zato ima most Yavuz Sultan Selim dvojno identiteto. Po žici je po najboljši tradiciji, to je tisti strukturnega »žanra«, ki se je začel že davno konec 18. stoletja z mostom pri Freybergu (1784), delo nemškega mizarja Immanuela Löscherja in nadaljuje vse do danes skozi povojna leta z mostovi, ki jih je zasnoval Franz Dischinger, zlasti ikonični 183 m dolg most Strömsund (Švedska) leta 1955, pa tudi s futurističnimi poskusi italijanskega Riccarda Morandija na Maracaibu Laguna v Venezueli (1957-1962) ali nad Polcevero v Genovi (1960–1964). Kljub temu je to tudi viseči most v obliki "mreže", zasnovan v skladu s sistemom obremenitve, ki ga je konec devetnajstega stoletja preučil veliki katalonski arhitekt Antoni Gaudí, na katerem temeljijo naraščajoče strukture znamenite katedrale Sagrada Familia v Barceloni.

Vsekakor ima hibridna struktura, ki so jo oblikovalci mostu Yavuz Sultan Selim predlagali s polno zavestjo o težavah in drzno, »plemenitega« predhodnika v železnih mostovih iz 19. stoletja v San Franciscu in Brooklynu, pa tudi, zaradi njegovega prefinjenega konstrukcijskega koncepta v visoko razvitih poskusih mojstrov iz armiranega betona, med katerimi je zagotovo tudi Italijan Sergio Musmeci, s svojim projektom iz leta 1953 za most Messina, primer, ki ga je mogoče primerjati s tistim tretjega mostu na Bosporju leta pogoji kompleksnosti tako glede obremenitev zaradi vetrovnih razmer kot zaradi potrebe po pokrivanju širokega razpona. Za rešitev teh težav je Musmeci predvidel trikotna "jadra", zelo izviren prostorski sistem vzmetenja, ki bi okrepil strukturo in omejil pravokotne napetosti na samem mostu, inovativno idejo, ki se je v zadnjem času obudila za London Millennium Footbridge Normana Fosterja. Simbolni primer te zadnje rešitve, v skladu z raziskavami, izraženimi pri načrtovanju mostu Yavuz Sultan Selim, je tudi viadukt Millau v Franciji, dokončan leta 2004.

Vsak primer pa ostane ločen, ker je vsak dizajn izdelan za določen kontekst, čas in okolje ter pogoje, ki se med seboj vedno razlikujejo. Oblikovalci mostu Yavuz Sultan Selim so tudi izjavili, da je pot Kojima-Sakaide projekta Honshu Shikoku vir navdiha v smislu vpliva na pokrajino. Tukaj smo na Bosporju, posebnem ozemlju, z lepotno zgodovino, ki sega še pred sam Istanbul. Danes je še vedno pomembno mesto z naravoslovnega vidika zaradi razmnoževanja ptic, ki gredo skozi njo in se nato selijo, v neokrnjene in goste gozdove ter zaradi presenetljivo lepih skalnatih obal. Je tudi kraj močnih vetrov in močnih tokov, pokrajina in ozemlje, v katerem vsako dejanje ne more ne upoštevati sil narave in nepredvidljivosti dogodkov, jih spoštovati, spoštovati, spremljati in včasih izzivati . Posledično je ta tretji most in bo nekaj več kot sredstvo za povezavo in prehod, povezava s prihodnostjo.


Selim I Yavuz (1512-1520) Ogromna osmanska širitev

Selim I Yavuz (Grim) je bil deveti sultan Osmanskega cesarstva. Rodil se je leta 1470 v mestu Amasya, najmlajši sin sultana Bayezida II in Gulbahar Sultane. Bayazid II je imel osem sinov, od katerih jih je pet umrlo med njegovo vladavino, pri čemer so ostali le Ahmed, Korkud in Selim. Selim je bil imenovan za guvernerja Trabzona leta 1481, ko je njegov oče prevzel prestol. Tam je ostal 29 let, do leta 1510.

Vsi njegovi bratje so dobili vodilne položaje, s čimer je postala tekma za oblast in prestol. Na začetku so imeli njegovi bratje prednost, saj je birokracija na Selima gledala kot na nasilnega in nerazumnega. Vendar je osvajanje Karsa, Erzuruma in Artvina brez dovoljenja očeta, ki je vladal pacifistično, naredil Selima priljubljenega med oboroženimi silami. Selim je s pomočjo janičarjev 25. aprila 1512 prisilil svojega očeta, naj odstopi in postal osmanski sultan. Da bi si zagotovil svoj prestol, je Selim umoril vse svoje brate, nečake in njihove sinove, za dediča pa je pustil le Süleymana. Ko si je zagotovil prestol, se je vrnil k agresivni politiki svojega dedka Mehmeda Osvajalca. Njegov prvi spopad je bil z Ismāʿīlom I, ustanoviteljem dinastije Šafavid v Iranu. Začel je kampanjo proti podpornikom Ismaila I v vzhodni Anatoliji, pobil na tisoče in leta 1514 vodil veliko odpravo na ozemlje Safavid. V bitki pri Kaldiranu na vzhodni strani reke Evfrat je 23. avgusta 1514 premagal Ismāʿīla. Čeprav mu je uspelo zavzeti mesto Tabriz, se je Safavidski imperij nadaljeval. Pomanjkanje plena in zalog je zmanjšalo moralo njegovih vojakov, zaradi česar se je Selim umaknil.

Po tem se je obrnil k Mamlukom. V tem obdobju so Mameluki propadali. Nadzirali so bližnjevzhodni del starih mednarodnih trgovskih poti med Evropo in Vzhodno Azijo. Vendar so s portugalskim odkritjem morske poti v Indijo trgovske poti izgubile večino svojega pomena. Selim I. sem lahko v kratki kampanji (1516-1517) osvojil vso mameluško deželo. Večina mameluških uradnikov se je v zameno za obljubljena politična mesta obrnila na osmansko stran. Nezadovoljno prebivalstvo v Egiptu in Siriji je predalo garnizone Mamluk. 24. avgusta 1516 je premagal Mameluke v bitki pri Marj Dabiqu in 22. januarja 1517 v bitki pri Raydaniyahu pri Kairu.

S temi osvajanji je Selim I podvojil velikost svojega cesarstva. Nova ozemlja so z učinkovito upravo rešila finančne težave Osmanov. Osmansko cesarstvo je postalo zelo močno in bogato. Druga korist od osvajanja je bil nadzor nad svetimi kraji islama, zaradi česar je bil sultan najpomembnejši islamski vladar, Selim I. pa prvi osmanski kalif. Stare trgovske poti so bile zdaj pod njihovim nadzorom. Otomani so imeli tudi neposreden dostop do uprave, umetnosti in intelektualcev iz Abasidov in Seldžukov.

Selim, umrl sem leta 1520, verjetno zaradi raka. V svoji osemletni kratki vladavini mu je uspelo podvojiti velikost Osmanskega cesarstva in postati najbolj cenjen muslimanski vladar svojega časa. Velja za enega najuspešnejših osmanskih vladarjev.


Osebnost [uredi | uredi vir]

Po večini je bil Selim ognjen in je imel zelo velika pričakovanja od svojih podrejenih. Več njegovih vezirjev je bilo usmrčenih iz različnih razlogov. Znana anekdota pripoveduje, kako je drugi vezir igrivo zaprosil sultana za predhodno obvestilo o njegovi pogubi, da bi imel čas, da svoje zadeve uredi. Sultan se je zasmejal in odgovoril, da je res razmišljal o tem, da bi vezirja ubil, vendar ni imel nikogar, ki bi bil primeren, da bi ga nadomestil, sicer bi se z veseljem uslišal. Lord Kinross v svoji zgodovini Osmanov poroča, da je bilo življenje na dvoru sultana Selima polno priložnosti in da je bilo na najvišjih položajih vedno veliko prosilcev, ne glede na tveganje. Vendar je bilo priljubljeno osmansko prekletstvo: "Lahko si Selimov vezir", kot sklic na število vezirjev, ki jih je usmrtil. ⎞ ]

Selim je bil eden najuspešnejših in cenjenih vladarjev cesarstva, bil je energičen in zelo delaven. Skladno s tem je bilo njegovo sodišče dinamično in nagrade so bile velike kot tveganja. V osmih letih vladanja ni imel časa za počitek. Čeprav je bil vodja, je bil tudi zelo skromen in skromen. Njegovo vladanje je bilo kratko, vendar je morda Osmansko cesarstvo pripravilo na zenit po dosežkih svojega sina. ⎟ ] Priljubljena legenda pravi, da je Selim kraljevsko zakladnico napolnil do roba in jo zaklenil s svojim pečatom. Odločil je, da "lahko tisti, ki bo zakladnico napolnil več kot to, uporabi s svojim pečatom, da jo zaklene." Zakladnica je ostala zaklenjena s Selimovim pečatom do razpada imperija 400 in#160 let kasneje.

Selim je bil tudi ugleden pesnik, ki je pod vzdevkom napisal turški in perzijski verz mahlas Selimi zbirke njegove perzijske poezije so danes ohranjene. ⎟ ] V eni od svojih pesmi je napisal

Preproga je dovolj velika, da sprejme dva sufija, vendar svet ni dovolj velik za dva kralja.

- Yavuz Sultan Selim


Peirce, Cesarica vzhoda

  • Vsaj do 1555-1556 sta v stari palači živeli dve princesi: Şah in Şehzade. Identificira jih kot sestri S & uumlleyman in pravi, da je bila Şehzade vdova in Şah ločena (kot vsi vemo). Še več, Şehzade je imela hčerko: živela je tudi v Stari palači in ni bila identificirana po imenu, ampak po povezavah z dinastijo, tj. njena mati. V istem registru tudi ugotavljamo, da je bila mama Şah & rsquos živa in da je živela tudi v Stari palači, zato Şah ni mogla biti hči Hafsa Sultan & rsquos.

Storitvena zgodovina

Nemška cesarska mornarica (Kaiserliche Marine) naročeno Goeben, the third German battlecruiser, on 8 April 1909 under the provisional name "H" from the Blohm & Voss shipyard in Hamburg, under construction number 201. Her keel was laid on 19 August the hull was completed and the ship was launched on 28 March 1911. Fitting-out work followed, and she was commissioned into the German Navy on 2 July 1912. [1]

When the First Balkan War broke out in October 1912, the German General Staff determined that a naval Mediterranean Division (Mittelmeer-Division) was needed to project German power in the Mediterranean, and thus dispatched Goeben and the light cruiser Breslau to Constantinople. The two ships left Kiel on 4 November and arrived on 15 November 1912. Beginning in April 1913, Goeben visited many Mediterranean ports including Venice, Pola, and Naples, before sailing into Albanian waters. Following this trip, Goeben returned to Pola and remained there from 21 August to 16 October for maintenance. [5]

On 29 June 1913, the Second Balkan War broke out and the Mediterranean Division was retained in the area. On 23 October 1913, Konteradmiral Souchon assumed command of the squadron. Goeben in Breslau continued their activities in the Mediterranean, and visited some 80 ports before the outbreak of World War I. [5] The navy made plans to replace Goeben with her sister Moltke, but the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria in Sarajevo, Bosnia, on 28 June 1914 and the subsequent rise in tensions between the Great Powers made this impossible. [6]

After the assassination, Admiral Souchon assessed that war was imminent between the Central Powers and the Triple Entente, and ordered his ships to make for Pola for repairs. [5] Engineers came from Germany to work on the ship. [7] Goeben had 4,460 boiler tubes replaced, among other repairs. Upon completion, the ships departed for Messina. [5]

1. svetovna vojna

Pursuit of Goeben in Breslau

Kaiser Wilhelm II had ordered that in the event of war, Goeben in Breslau should either conduct raids in the western Mediterranean to prevent the return of French troops from North Africa to Europe, [7] or break out into the Atlantic and attempt to return to German waters, on the squadron commander's discretion. [8] On 3 August 1914, the two ships were en route to Algeria when Souchon received word of the declaration of war against France. Goeben bombarded Philippeville (now Skikda, Algeria) for about 10 minutes early on 3 August while Breslau shelled Bône (now Annaba, on the site of the ancient city of Hippo) in accordance with the Kaiser's order. [9] Admirals Alfred von Tirpitz and Hugo von Pohl then transmitted secret orders to Souchon instructing him to sail to Constantinople, in direct contravention of the Kaiser's instructions and without his knowledge. [8]

Od Goeben could not reach Constantinople without coaling, Souchon headed for Messina. The Germans encountered the British battlecruisers HMS Neumorno in Nezlomljivo, but as Germany was not yet at war with Britain, no violence ensued. The British turned to follow Goeben in Breslau, but the German ships were able to outrun the British, and arrived in Messina by 5 August. Refueling in Messina was complicated by the declaration of Italian neutrality on 2 August. Under international law, combatant ships were permitted only 24 hours in a neutral port. [9] [10] Sympathetic Italian naval authorities in the port allowed Goeben in Breslau to remain in port for around 36 hours while the ships coaled from a German collier. [11] Despite the additional time, Goeben ' s fuel stocks were not sufficient to permit the voyage to Constantinople, so Souchon arranged to rendezvous with another collier in the Aegean Sea. [9] The French fleet remained in the western Mediterranean, since the French naval commander in the Mediterranean, Admiral Lapeyrère, was convinced the Germans would either attempt to escape to the Atlantic or join the Austrians in Pola. [12]

Souchon's two ships departed Messina early on 6 August through the southern entrance to the strait and headed for the eastern Mediterranean. The two British battlecruisers were 100 miles away, while a third, Inflexible, was coaling in Bizerta, Tunisia. The only British naval force in Souchon's way was the 1st Cruiser Squadron, [13] which consisted of the four armored cruisers Obramba, Črni princ, Vojvoda Edinburški in Bojevnik under the command of Rear Admiral Ernest Troubridge. [14] The Germans headed initially towards the Adriatic in a feint the move misled Troubridge, who sailed to intercept them in the mouth of the Adriatic. After realizing his mistake, Troubridge reversed course and ordered the light cruiser Dublin and two destroyers to launch a torpedo attack on the Germans. Breslau ' s lookouts spotted the ships, and in the darkness, she and Goeben evaded their pursuers undetected. Troubridge broke off the chase early on 7 August, convinced that any attack by his four older armored cruisers against Goeben—armed with her larger 28 cm guns—would be suicidal. [15] Souchon's journey to Constantinople was now clear. [16]

Goeben refilled her coal bunkers off the island of Donoussa near Naxos. [16] During the afternoon of 10 August, the two ships entered the Dardanelles. They were met by an Ottoman picket boat, which guided them through to the Sea of Marmara. [17] To circumvent neutrality requirements, the Ottoman government proposed that the ships be transferred to its ownership "by means of a fictitious sale." [18] Before the Germans could approve this, the Ottomans announced on 11 August that they had purchased the ships for 80 million Marks. In a formal ceremony the two ships were commissioned in the Ottoman Navy on 16 August. On 23 September, Souchon accepted an offer to command the Turkish fleet. Goeben je bil preimenovan Yavuz Sultan Selim in Breslau je bil preimenovan Midilli their German crews donned Ottoman uniforms and fezzes. [19]

Black Sea operations

On 29 October Yavuz bombarded Sevastopol in her first operation against Imperial Russia, though the Ottoman Empire was not yet at war with the Entente Souchon conducted the operation to force Turkey into the war on the side of Germany. A 25.4 cm (10 in) shell struck the ship in the after funnel, but it failed to detonate and did negligible damage. [20] Two other hits inflicted minor damage. The ship and her escorts passed through an inactive Russian minefield during the bombardment. [21] As she returned to Turkish waters, Yavuz came across the Russian minelayer Prut which scuttled herself with 700 mines on board. [22] During the engagement the escorting Russian destroyer Lieutenant Pushkin was damaged by two of Yavuz ' s secondary battery 15 cm (5.9 in) shells. In response to the bombardment, Russia declared war on 1 November, thus forcing the Ottomans into the wider world war. France and Great Britain bombarded the Turkish fortresses guarding the Dardanelles on 3 November and formally declared war two days later. [20] From this engagement, the Russians drew the conclusion that the entire Black Sea Fleet would have to remain consolidated so it could not be defeated in detail (one ship at a time) by Yavuz. [23]

Yavuz, escorted by Midilli, intercepted the Russian Black Sea Fleet 17 nautical miles (31 km 20 mi) off the Crimean coastline on 18 November as it returned from a bombardment of Trebizond. Despite the noon hour the conditions were foggy and none of the capital ships were spotted initially. The Black Sea Fleet had experimented with concentrating fire from several ships under the control of one "master" ship before the war, and Evstafi held her fire until Ioann Zlatoust, the master ship, could see Yavuz. When the gunnery commands were finally received they showed a range over 4,000 yards (3,700 m) in excess of Evstafi ' s own estimate of 7,700 yards (7,000 m), so Evstafi opened fire using her own data before Yavuz turned to fire its broadside. [24] She scored a hit with her first salvo as a 12-inch shell partially penetrated the armor casemate protecting one of Yavuz ' s 15-centimeter (5.9 in) secondary guns. It detonated some of the ready-use ammunition, starting a fire that filled the casemate and killed the entire gun crew. [25] A total of thirteen men were killed and three were wounded. [20]

Yavuz returned fire and hit Evstafi in the middle funnel the shell detonated after it passed through the funnel and destroyed the antennae for the fire-control radio, so that Evstafi could not correct Ioann Zlatoust ' s inaccurate range data. The other Russian ships either used Ioann Zlatoust ' s incorrect data or never saw Yavuz and failed to register any hits. Yavuz zadeti Evstafi four more times, although one shell failed to detonate, [25] before Rear Admiral Wilhelm Souchon decided to break contact after 14 minutes of combat. [26] The four hits out of nineteen 28 cm (11 in) shells fired killed 34 men and wounded 24. [27]

The following month, on 5–6 December, Yavuz in Midilli provided protection for troop transports, and on 10 December, Yavuz bombarded Batum. [20] On 23 December, Yavuz in Hamidiye escorted three transports to Trebizond. While returning from another transport escort operation on 26 December, Yavuz struck a mine that exploded beneath the conning tower, on the starboard side, about one nautical mile outside the Bosphorus. [28] The explosion tore a 50-square-meter (540 sq ft) hole in the ship's hull, but the torpedo bulkhead held. Two minutes later, Yavuz struck a second mine on the port side, just forward of the main battery wing barbette this tore open a 64-square-meter (690 sq ft) hole. The bulkhead bowed in 30 cm (12 in) but retained watertight protection of the ship's interior. However, some 600 tons of water flooded the ship. [20] There was no dock in the Ottoman Empire large enough to service Yavuz, so temporary repairs were effected inside steel cofferdams, which were pumped out to create a dry work area around the damaged hull. The holes were patched with concrete, which held for several years before more permanent work was necessary. [28]

Still damaged, Yavuz sortied from the Bosphorus on 28 January and again on 7 February 1915 to help Midilli escape the Russian fleet she also covered the return of the protected cruiser Hamidiye. Yavuz then underwent repair work to the mine damage until May. [28] On 1 April, with repairs incomplete, Yavuz left the Bosphorus in company with Midilli to cover the withdrawal of Hamidiye in zaščiteno križarko Mecidiye, which had been sent to bombard Odessa. Strong currents, however, forced the cruisers 15 miles (24 km) east to the approaches of the Dnieper-Bug Liman (bay) that led to Nikolayev. As they sailed west after a course correction, Mecidiye struck a mine and sank, so this attack had to be aborted. [29] After Yavuz in Midilli appeared off Sevastopol and sank two cargo steamers, the Russian fleet chased them all day, and detached several destroyers after dusk to attempt a torpedo attack. Only one destroyer, Gnevny, was able to close the distance and launch an attack, which missed. Yavuz in Midilli returned to the Bosphorus unharmed. [30]

On 25 April, the same day the Allies landed at Gallipoli, Russian naval forces arrived off the Bosphorus and bombarded the forts guarding the strait. Dva dni kasneje Yavuz Sultan Selim headed south to the Dardanelles to bombard Allied troops at Gallipoli, accompanied by the pre-dreadnought battleship Turgut Reis. They were spotted at dawn from a kite balloon as they were getting into position. When the first 15-inch (380 mm) round from the dreadnought Kraljica Elizabeta landed close by, Yavuz moved out of firing position, close to the cliffs, where Kraljica Elizabeta could not engage her. [31] On 30 April Yavuz tried again, but was spotted from the pre-dreadnought Lord Nelson which had moved into the Dardanelles to bombard the Turkish headquarters at Çanakkale. The British ship only managed to fire five rounds before Yavuz moved out of her line of sight. [32]

On 1 May, Yavuz sailed to the Bay of Beikos in the Bosphorus after the Russian fleet bombarded the fortifications at the mouth of the Bosphorus. Around 7 May, Yavuz sortied from the Bosphorus in search of Russian ships as far as Sevastopol, but found none. Running short on main gun ammunition, she did not bombard Sevastopol. While returning on the morning of 10 May, Yavuz ' s lookouts spotted two Russian pre-dreadnoughts, Tri Sviatitelia in Panteleimon, and she opened fire. Within the first 10 minutes she had been hit twice, although she was not seriously damaged. Admiral Souchon disengaged and headed for the Bosphorus, pursued by Russian light forces. [33] Later that month two of the ship's 15 cm guns were taken ashore for use there, [1] and the four 8.8 cm guns in the aft superstructure were removed at the same time. [34] Four 8.8 cm anti-aircraft were installed on the aft superstructure by the end of 1915. [35]

On 18 July, Midilli struck a mine the ship took on some 600 long tons (610 t) of water and was no longer able to escort coal convoys from Zonguldak to the Bosphorus. Yavuz was assigned to the task, and on 10 August she escorted a convoy of five coal transports, along with Hamidiye and three torpedo boats. During transit, the convoy was attacked by the Russian submarine Tyulen, which sank one of the colliers. The following day, Tyulen and another submarine tried to attack Yavuz as well, though they were unable to reach a firing position. [36]

Two Russian destroyers, Bystry in Pronzitelni, attacked a Turkish convoy escorted by Hamidiye and two torpedo boats on 5 September. Hamidiye ' s 15 cm (5.9 in) guns broke down during combat, and the Turks summoned Yavuz, but she arrived too late: the Turkish colliers had already been beached to avoid capture by the Russian destroyers. [36]

On 21 September, Yavuz Sultan Selim was again sent out of the Bosphorus to drive off three Russian destroyers which had been attacking Turkish coal ships. Escort missions continued until 14 November, when the submarine Morzh nearly hit Yavuz with two torpedoes just outside the Bosphorus. Admiral Souchon decided the risk to the battlecruiser was too great, and suspended the convoy system. In its stead, only those ships fast enough to make the journey from Zonguldak to Constantinople in a single night were permitted outside the Bosphorus they would be met by torpedo boats to defend them against the lurking submarines. [37] By the end of the summer, the completion of two new Russian dreadnought battleships, Imperatritsa Mariya in Imperatritsa Ekaterina Velikaya, further curtailed Yavuz ' s activities. [38]

1916–17

Admiral Souchon sent Yavuz to Zonguldak on 8 January to protect an approaching empty collier from Russian destroyers in the area, but the Russians sank the transport ship before Yavuz arrived. On the return trip to the Bosphorus, Yavuz encountered Imperatritsa Ekaterina. The two ships engaged in a brief artillery duel, beginning at a range of 18,500 meters. Yavuz turned to the southwest, and in the first four minutes of the engagement, fired five salvos from her main guns. Neither ship scored any hits, though shell splinters from near misses struck Yavuz. [39] Though nominally much faster than Imperatritsa Ekaterina, the Turkish battlecruiser's bottom was badly fouled and her propeller shafts were in poor condition. This made it difficult for Yavuz to escape from the powerful Russian battleship, which was reported to have reached 23.5 kn (43.5 km/h 27.0 mph). [40] [lower-alpha 3]

Russian forces were making significant gains into Ottoman territory during the Caucasus Campaign. In an attempt to prevent further advances by the Russian army, Yavuz rushed 429 officers and men, a mountain artillery battery, machine gun and aviation units, 1,000 rifles, and 300 cases of munitions to Trebizond on 4 February. [41] On 4 March, the Russian navy landed a detachment of some 2,100 men, along with mountain guns and horses, on either side of the port of Atina. The Turks were caught by surprise and forced to evacuate. [42] Another landing took place at Kavata Bay, some 5 miles east of Trebizond, in June. [43] In late June, the Turks counterattacked and penetrated around 20 miles into the Russian lines. Yavuz in Midilli conducted a series of coastal operations to support the Turkish attacks. On 4 July, Yavuz shelled the port of Tuapse, where she sank a steamer and a motor schooner. [44] The Turkish ships sailed northward to circle back behind the Russians before the two Russian dreadnoughts left Sevastopol to try to attack them. They then returned to the Bosphorus, [45] where Yavuz was docked for repairs to her propeller shafts until September. [46]

The coal shortage continued to worsen until Admiral Souchon was forced to suspend operations by Yavuz in Midilli through 1917. [47] After an armistice between Russia and the Ottoman Empire was signed in December 1917 following the Bolshevik revolution, formalized in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1918, coal started to arrive again from eastern Turkey. [48]

On 20 January 1918, Yavuz in Midilli left the Dardanelles under the command of Vice Admiral Rebeur-Paschwitz, who had replaced Souchon the previous September. Rebeur-Paschwitz's intention was to draw Allied naval forces away from Palestine in support of Turkish forces there. [48] Outside the straits, in the course of what became known as the Battle of Imbros, Yavuz surprised and sank the monitors Raglan in M28 which were at anchor and unsupported by the pre-dreadnoughts that should have been guarding them. Rebeur-Paschwitz then decided to proceed to the port of Mudros there the British pre-dreadnought battleship Agamemnon was raising steam to attack the Turkish ships. [49] While en route, Midilli struck several mines and sank [48] Yavuz hit three mines as well. [50] Retreating to the Dardanelles and followed by the British destroyers HMS Lizard in Tigress, [51] she was intentionally beached near Nagara Point just outside the Dardanelles. [48] The British attacked Yavuz with bombers from No. 2 Wing of the Royal Naval Air Service while she was grounded and hit her twice, but the bombs from the light aircraft were not heavy enough to do any serious damage. The monitor M17 attempted to shell Yavuz on the evening of 24 January, but only managed to fire 10 rounds before withdrawing to escape the Turkish artillery fire. [52] The submarine E14 was sent to destroy the damaged ship, but was too late [53] the old ex-German pre-dreadnought Turgut Reis had towed Yavuz off and returned her to the safety of Constantinople. [54] Yavuz was crippled by the extensive damage cofferdams were again built around the hull, [55] and repairs lasted from 7 August to 19 October. [54]

Yavuz escorted the members of the Ottoman Armistice Commission to Odessa on 30 March 1918, after the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was signed. After returning to Constantinople she sailed in May to Sevastopol where she had her hull cleaned and some leaks repaired. Yavuz and several destroyers sailed for Novorossiysk on 28 June to intern the remaining Soviet warships, but they had already been scuttled when the Turkish ships arrived. The destroyers remained, but Yavuz returned to Sevastopol. On 14 July the ship was laid up for the rest of the war. [56] While in Sevastopol, dockyard workers scraped fouling from the ship's bottom. Yavuz subsequently returned to Constantinople, where from 7 August to 19 October a concrete cofferdam was installed to repair one of the three areas damaged by mines. [40]

The German navy formally transferred ownership of the vessel to the Turkish government on 2 November. [57] According to the terms of the Treaty of Sèvres between the Ottoman Empire and the Western Allies, Yavuz was to have been handed over to the Royal Navy as war reparations. After the Turkish War of Independence, led by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the Treaty of Sèvres was discarded, and the Treaty of Lausanne was signed in its place in 1923. Under this treaty, the new Turkish republic regained possession of much its fleet, including Yavuz. [58]

Povojna služba

During the 1920s, a commitment to refurbish Yavuz as the centerpiece of the new country's fleet was the only constant element of the various naval policies which were put forward. [59] The battlecruiser remained in İzmit until 1926, in a neglected state: [60] [61] [62] only two of her boilers worked, she could not steer or steam, and she still had two unrepaired scars from the mine damage in 1918. Enough money was raised to allow the purchase of a new 26,000-metric-ton (26,000-long-ton) floating dock from Germany, as Yavuz could not be towed anywhere without risk of her sinking in rough seas. [63] The French company Atelier et Chantiers de St. Nazaire-Penhöet was contracted in December 1926 to oversee the subsequent refit, which was carried out by the Gölcük Naval Shipyard. [61] Work proceeded over three years (1927–1930) it was delayed when several compartments of the dock collapsed while being pumped out. Yavuz was slightly damaged before she could be refloated and the dock had to be repaired before the repair work could begin. The Minister of Marine, Ihsan Bey (İhsan Eryavuz), was convicted of embezzlement in the resulting investigation. [63] Other delays were caused by fraud charges which resulted in the abolition of the Ministry of Marine. The Turkish Military's Chief of Staff, Marshal Fevzi, opposed naval construction and slowed down all naval building programs following the fraud charges. Intensive work on the battlecruiser only began after the Greek Navy conducted a large-scale naval exercise off Turkey in September 1928 and the Turkish Government perceived a need to counter Greece's naval superiority. [64] The Turks also ordered four destroyers and two submarines from Italian shipyards. [65] The Greek Government proposed a 10-year "holiday" from naval building modeled on the Washington Treaty when it learned that Yavuz was to be brought back into service, though it reserved the right to build two new cruisers. The Turkish Government rejected this proposal, and claimed that the ship was intended to counter the growing strength of the Soviet Navy in the Black Sea. [66]

Over the course of the refit, the mine damage was repaired, [50] her displacement was increased to 23,100 t (22,700 long tons), and the hull was slightly reworked. She was reduced in length by a half meter but her beam increased by 10 cm (4 in). Yavuz was equipped with new boilers and a French fire control system for her main battery guns. Two of the 15 cm guns were removed from their casemate positions. [60] Her armor protection was not upgraded to take the lessons of the Battle of Jutland into account, and she had only 2 inches (5.1 cm) of armor above her magazines. [62] Yavuz was recommissioned in 1930, resuming her role as flagship of the Turkish Navy, [67] and performed better than expected in her speed trials her subsequent gunnery and fire control trials were also successful. The four destroyers, which were needed to protect the battlecruiser, entered service between 1931 and 1932 their performance never met the design specifications. [68] In response to Yavuz ' s return to service, the Soviet Union transferred the battleship Parizhskaya Kommuna and light cruiser Profintern from the Baltic in late 1929 to ensure that the Black Sea Fleet retained parity with the Turkish Navy. [65] The Greek Government also responded by ordering two destroyers. [69]

In 1933, she took Prime Minister İsmet İnönü from Varna to Istanbul and carried the Shah of Iran from Trebizond to Samsun the following year. [67] Yavuz Sultan Selim had her name officially shortened to Yavuz Sultan in 1930 and then to Yavuz in 1936. [70] Another short refit was conducted in 1938, and in November that year she carried the remains of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk from Istanbul to İzmit. [60] [61] She and the other ships of the navy were considered outdated by the British Naval Attache by 1937, partly due to their substandard anti-aircraft armament, but in 1938 the Turkish government began planning to expand the force. [71] Under these plans the surface fleet was to comprise two 10,000 ton cruisers and twelve destroyers. Yavuz would be retained until the second cruiser was commissioned in 1945, and the navy expected to build a 23,000 ton ship between 1950 and 1960. The naval building program did not come about, as the foreign shipyards which were to build the ships concentrated on the needs of their own nations leading up to World War II. [72]

Yavuz remained in service throughout World War II. In November 1939 she and Parizhskaya Kommuna were the only capital ships in the Black Sea region, and Življenje magazine reported that Yavuz was superior to the Soviet ship because the latter was in poor condition. [73] In 1941, her anti-aircraft battery was strengthened to four 88 mm (3.5 in) guns, ten 40 mm (1.6 in) guns, and four 20 mm (0.79 in) guns. These were later increased to twenty-two 40 mm guns and twenty-four 20 mm guns. [60] On 5 April 1946, the American battleship USS Missouri, light cruiser Providence, and destroyer Moč arrived in Istanbul to return the remains of Turkish ambassador Münir Ertegün. [74] Yavuz greeted the ships in the Bosphorus, where she and Missouri exchanged 19-gun salutes. [75]


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