Podcasti zgodovine

Charles Edward Stuart, mladi pretvarjenec (1720-1788)

Charles Edward Stuart, mladi pretvarjenec (1720-1788)


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Charles Edward Stuart, mladi pretvarjenec (1720-1788)

Najstarejši sin Jamesa Edwarda Stuarta, starega pretvarjalca, rojenega v izgnanstvu v Rimu. Njihovo trditev so Francozi podprli v okviru vojne za avstrijsko nasledstvo, Charles pa je bil poslan, da poveljuje njihovi predlagani invaziji leta 1743. Naslednje leto je bila pripravljena velika invazijska flota, ki pa jo je angleška flota ustavila pred zapuščanjem Dunkirka. . Končno je poleti 1745 Charles prišel na Škotsko in s sedmimi prijatelji pristal na Hebridih ter sprožil drugi Jakobitski upor. Bil je veliko uspešnejši od svojega očeta leta 1715 in ko je zavzel Edinburgh, se odpravil globoko v Anglijo, prišel do Derbyja pred svojimi ljudmi in pomanjkanje podpore v Angliji ga je prisililo, da se je vrnil na Škotsko. Do takrat je vojvoda Cumberland z vojsko, ki je bila delno sestavljena iz vojakov, ki so služili na Nizozemskem, grozil Charlesu, na koncu pa so ga ujeli pri Cullodenu (16. april 1746), njegova vojska pa je premagala, s čimer je upor končal. Ujeti mu je uspelo in kljub veliki nagradi mu je uspelo pobegniti v Francijo. Bil je živahnega duha, pustolovski, čeden in sposoben vzbuditi navdušenje in zvestobo med svojimi pristaši, mit o "Bonnie Prince Charlie" pa se je izkazal za trajnega. Po neuspehu leta 45 je s svojim pijanim vedenjem odtujil večino svojih preostalih privržencev, preostanek svojega življenja pa preživel v izgnanstvu in umrl v Rimu.

Stuart, Charles Edward

Stuart, Charles Edward (1720 �), ‘Young Pretender ’. Starejši sin Jamesa Francisa Edward Stuart, sin in dedič izgnanca Jakoba II. In VII., Je bil Charles jakobitski knez Walesa. Rodil se je decembra 1720 v Rimu Jakobu in njegovi najstniški poljski ženi Clementini Sobieski. V tem nestabilnem zakonu se je leta 1725 rodil še en sin Henry Stuart. Charles je bil trden in samovoljen otrok, ki je bil nominalno prekrvavljen zaradi vojne, saj je bil pri 13 letih nekaj dni prisoten pri obleganju Gaete.

Zgodaj leta 1744 je zapustil Italijo in odšel v Francijo z očetovo nalogo kot princ regent, ki je bil povabljen k spremljenemu francoskemu vdoru v Anglijo. Odpovedano je bilo. Julija 1745 je Charles odplul na Škotsko, da bi dvignil upor v visokogorju z upanjem, da bo spodbudil francosko pomoč. Popolna samozavest in omejeno razumevanje resničnosti ter izjemna splošnost lorda Georgea Murraya sta ga popeljala skozi osvajanje Škotske in pohod v Derby, ki ga je naredil za junaka. Njegovo obdobje skrivanja po porazu pri Cullodenu ga je romantikom privoščilo kot ‘ Bonnie Prince Charlie ’. Kljub temu je bil Louisu XV (ki je iskal mir) v zadrego ob vrnitvi v Francijo, iz katere so ga morali izgnati. Preostanek njegovega življenja je bil dolgotrajen anti-vrhunec, poln neuspešnih odnosov in alkoholizma. Umrl je v Rimu leta 1788.

Navedite ta članek
Spodaj izberite slog in kopirajte besedilo za svojo bibliografijo.

JOHN CANNON "Stuart, Charles Edward." Oxfordski spremljevalec britanske zgodovine. . Encyclopedia.com. 1. junij 2021 & lt https://www.encyclopedia.com & gt.

JOHN CANNON "Stuart, Charles Edward." Oxfordski spremljevalec britanske zgodovine. . Pridobljeno 1. junija 2021 iz Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/stuart-charles-edward

Slogi citiranja

Encyclopedia.com vam omogoča citiranje referenčnih vnosov in člankov v skladu s skupnimi slogi Združenja za sodobni jezik (MLA), Čikaškega priročnika za slog in Ameriškega psihološkega združenja (APA).

V orodju »Citiraj ta članek« izberite slog, da vidite, kako izgledajo vse razpoložljive informacije, ko so oblikovane v skladu s tem slogom. Besedilo nato kopirajte in prilepite v seznam citiranih bibliografij ali del.


Vsebina

Beseda "pretvarjalec" je nastala z dodajanjem -er do konca glagola pretvarjati. Ta beseda izhaja iz srednje angleščine pretvarjati se, iz stare francoščine pretvarjati se, in na koncu iz latinščine praetendō (vložiti zahtevek). [6] Francoske in latinske besede nimajo pogrdnega pomena. [7]

Stari Rim je poznal številne pretendente na pisarne, ki sestavljajo naslov rimskega cesarja, zlasti v času krize tretjega stoletja.

Običajno jih imenujemo Trideset tiranov, kar je bilo aluzija na trideset atenskih tiranov kakšnih petsto let prej, čeprav je primerjava vprašljiva, Rimljani pa so bili ločeni kandidati, ne (kot so bili Atenjani) Odbor za javno varnost . Loeb prevod ustreznega poglavja avgustovske zgodovine torej predstavlja latinščino triginta tiranni s strani "Thirty Pretenders", da bi se izognili tej umetni in zmedeni vzporednici. Kasneje niso bili upoštevani vsi pretvarjalci nekaj jih je dejansko uspelo, da so vsaj za del cesarstva za kratek čas postali cesarji.

Bizantinsko cesarstvo Edit

Sporna nasledstva rimskega (bizantinskega) cesarstva so se dolgo nadaljevala v Carigradu. Najbolj resno je, da so po padcu Carigrada na četrti križarski vojni leta 1204 in njegovem končnem okrevanju s strani Mihaela VIII Palaiologosa prišle tri bizantinske države naslednice, od katerih je vsaka trdila, da je rimsko cesarstvo, in več latinskih zahtevkov (vključno z Benetke in hiši Montferrat in Courtenay) do Latinskega cesarstva, ki so ga na njenem mestu postavili križarji. Včasih so bile nekatere od teh držav in naslovov izpostavljene več trditvam.

Ciprski pretendenti Edit

Po porazu in smrti kralja Jamesa III, ciprskega kralja leta 1474, je bil oblikovan tudi njegov mlajši in nezakonski brat Eugène Matteo de Lusignan d'Arménie (umrl 1523) odpeljali na Sicilijo, nato na Malto. Priznali so ga za zakonitega dediča prestolov Cipra, Armenije, Jeruzalema in Antiohije, čeprav si nikoli ni resno prizadeval uresničiti svojih zahtevkov. Naslov "Barone de Baccari" je bil ustvarjen leta 1508 za Jacquesa Mattea (sive Eugene Matteo) d'Armenia, preostanek pa za vekomaj njegovim potomcem. [8] Eugene, nezakonski sin ciprskega kralja Jacquesa II., Je ob izgnanstvu svoje družine najprej odšel v Neapelj, nato na Sicilijo, nato pa se naselil na Malti in se poročil s sicilijansko naslednico, Donna Paola Mazzara (potomec kraljeve hiše Aragon na Siciliji in Aragonu), z izdajo. [9]

Moderna Grčija Edit

Zahteva za prestol zadnjega grškega kraljestva je Konstantin II., Ki je kot kralj vladal med letoma 1964 in 1973. Pripada hiši Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, višji veji hiše Oldenburg. Njegov imenovani dedič je njegov sin Pavlos, prestolonaslednik Grčije.

Ustanovitev Prve republike in usmrtitev Ludvika XVI. Leta 1793 sta povzročila, da je kraljevi sin postal pretendent na odpravljeni prestol, imenovan kot Ludvik XVII. Ker je bil Louis XVII otrok in so ga revolucionarji zaprli v Pariz, se je njegov stric, grof de Provence, v imenu svojega nečaka razglasil za regenta. Ko je leta 1795 umrl Louis XVII, se je Comte de Provence sam pretvarjal, saj je Louis XVIII.

Ludvik XVIII je bil na prestol vrnjen leta 1814, nasledil pa ga je njegov brat Charles X leta 1824. [10] Karla X pa je julijska revolucija prisilila v izgnanstvo. Charles X in njegov sin, Louis-Antoine, vojvoda Angoulême, sta se odrekla trditvam v korist Charlesovega vnuka Henrija, grofa Chamborda, vendar je njihov bratranec, vojvoda Orléans, potomec mlajšega brata Ludvika XIV. Filip I., francoski kralj.

Večino julijske monarhije so legitimisti, kot so postali znani privrženci izgnane višje vrste, negotovi, koga podpreti. Nekateri so menili, da je abdikacija Charlesa in njegovega sina zakonita, mladega Chamborda pa priznali za kralja, drugi pa so trdili, da je abdikacija v Franciji ancien régime, in nadaljeval s priznavanjem najprej Charlesa X in nato Louisa-Antoinea, vse do njegove smrti leta 1844. Ob smrti svojega strica je Chambord zahteval krono, vendar je živel v izgnanstvu in po njegovi smrti leta 1883, neposredni moški liniji Ludvika XV. izumrla.

Leta 1848 je Louis Philippe sam zrušil februarska revolucija in se odrekel prestolu v korist svojega mladega vnuka Philippeja, Comte de Paris. Vendar je bila razglašena republika, tako da je Pariz, tako kot njegov bratranec Chambord, zgolj pretendent na neobstoječo krono. [10] V naslednjih nekaj desetletjih je bilo več poskusov tako imenovane "fuzije", da bi združili obe skupini monarhistov v podporo brezročnemu Chambordu kot kralju, ki bi za svojega dediča priznal pariškega grofa. Ta prizadevanja so v petdesetih letih 20. stoletja propadla, toda po ustanovitvi Tretje republike leta 1870, ko je bila v poslanski zbornici izvoljena rojalistična večina, je fuzija spet postala monarhistična strategija. Posledično je leta 1873 pariški grof umaknil svojo kandidaturo za prestol in Chambord priznal kot zakonitega pretendenta na francosko krono. [10] Kljub tej navidezni enotnosti med rojalističnimi silami obnova monarhije ni smela biti. Chambord ni hotel sprejeti trobarvne zastave, zaradi česar je bil za večino Francozov nesprejemljiv kot ustavni kralj. [10] Monarhisti so upali, da se bodo po Chambordovi smrti lahko združili in okronali kandidata Orléanista. Toda Chambord je živel do leta 1883, medtem ko so francoski rojalisti do leta 1877 izgubili večino v parlamentu [10].

Do leta 1883 je večina francoskih monarhistov sprejela pariškega grofa kot zakonitega pretendenta na francoski prestol. [10] Manjšina reakcionarjev, t.i Blancs d'Espagne ("Španski belci"), je še naprej zavračal podporo Orleanske hiše in namesto tega izbral Juana, grofa Montizona, karlitskega pretendenta na španski prestol, ki je bil tudi starejši moški potomec Ludvika XIV. [10]

Argumenti so na eni strani, da se je mlajši vnuk Ludvika XIV., Filip de Bourbon, vojvoda Anžuvinski, odrekel kakršnim koli prihodnjim zahtevam po francoskem prestolu, ko je leta 1700 zapustil Francijo in postal španski kralj kot Filip V. (odpoved je mednarodno ratificiral Utrechtska pogodba), ki je domnevno pustila vojvode Orléans kot dediče francoskega prestola v primeru izumrtja potomcev starejšega vnuka Ludvika XIV., vojvode Burgundije, ki se je zgodil leta 1883. [10] Na drugi strani, Odpoved Anjou velja za neveljavno, ker je bilo pred revolucijo temeljno načelo francoske monarhije, da krone nikoli ni bilo mogoče preusmeriti od zakonitega (starejšega) dediča Hugha Capeta. [10] Poleg tega, čeprav so se Orléanci prostovoljno odložili, da bi po letu 1873 odložili konkurenčni zahtevek za prestol, naj bi regicidni glas njihovega prednika Philippeja Égalitéja leta 1789 in uzurpacija Louisa Philippeja leta 1830 ugasnila vse pravice do prestola za Podružnica Orléans. [10] Razkol se je nadaljeval vse do danes, privrženci višjega reda so si povrnili naziv "legitimist", njihovi nasprotniki rojalisti pa so spet postali znani kot "orleanisti". Trenutni predstavnik starejše linije je Louis Alphonse, vojvoda Anjoujski, starejši zakoniti živi potomec Hugha Capeta (in Filipa V. d'Anjou iz Španije), ki se je rodil in odraščal v Španiji. Orléanistično linijo, ki se je vrnila v Francijo, ko je bil leta 1950 razveljavljen zakon o izgonu, zastopa princ Jean, vojvoda Vendôme, starejši potomec moškega rodu kralja Louisa Philippeja.

Poleg teh dveh zahtev za zgodovinski kraljevski prestol Francije so bili tudi pretendenti na cesarski prestol Francije, ki jih je prvi ustvaril Napoleon Bonaparte leta 1804, poustvaril pa ga je njegov nečak cesar Napoleon III leta 1852 (ukinil 1870). Ta trditev se danes izpodbija med Jean-Christophejem, princem Napoléonom in njegovim očetom, samozavestnim republikanskim princom Charlesom Napoléonom (za katerega velja, da je bil izključen iz nasledstva zaradi nedinastne ponovne poroke), oba potomca najmlajšega Napoleona I. brat, Jérôme Bonaparte.

Veliko se razpravlja o tem, kdo je zakoniti dedič ruskega prestola, in v družini sami ogorčeni spori. [11] Nekateri menijo, da je velika vojvodinja Marija Vladimirovna zakonita dedič. [12] Je edini otrok velikega vojvode Vladimirja, ki je umrl leta 1992, pravnuk carja Aleksandra II., Ki so ga nekateri imeli za zadnjo moško dinastijo iz hiše Romanovih. Nekateri njeni nasprotniki menijo, da ni upravičena do prestola, ker se je rodila iz poroke, ki bi v času ruske monarhije, ki je bila ukinjena leta 1917, veljala za morganatsko. [11] Drugi ji nasprotujejo iz podobnih razlogov kot proti Orleanistična utemeljitev: nečednost in dinastična ambicija njenega dedka odvzemata vse pravice, ki bi sicer pripadale njeni veji nekdanje dinastije.

Spet drugi trdijo, da omejevalna, predrevolucionarna zakonska pravila Romanovih ne puščajo nikogar, ki bi lahko trdil, da je pravi dedič dediščine dinastije. Drugi so za vodjo družine priznali ruskega princa Nicholasa Romanova [13], potomca cesarja Nikolaja I. in izvoljenega predsednika Društva družin Romanov, ki ga sestavlja večina živih moških potomcev cesarjev Romanov. Niti on niti njegov mlajši brat, princ Dimitri Romanov, nista imela sinova in od njihove smrti ta veja ni zahtevala novih zahtevkov.

Anna Anderson je poskušala dokazati, da je velika vojvodinja Anastazija Nikolajevna iz Rusije, izgubljena hči Nikolaja II., Toda testiranje DNK na njenih posmrtnih ostankih se je na koncu izkazalo, da se je predstavila kot imitatorka. [14] Čeprav ni prevzela prestola, per se, ker ženske niso mogle naslediti ruskega prestola, dokler je preživela katera koli moška dinastija, je postala bolj slavna kot kateri koli izmed različnih Romanovih, ki so se potegovali za prestol. [14]

Princ Karl Emich iz Leiningena (rojen leta 1952), ki je leta 2013 prešel v vzhodno pravoslavlje, [15] je najnovejši pretendent na ruski prestol pod imenom princ Nikolaj Kirillovič iz Leiningena. Je vnuk velike vojvodinje Marije Cirilovne (sestre Vladimirja in tete Marije Vladimirovne) in pravnuk velikega vojvode Cirila Vladimiroviča. Monarhistična stranka Rusije podpira princa Nikolaja kot dediča ruskega prestola, saj menijo, da Maria Vladimirovna Romanova in Nicholas Romanov nista dinastiji. [15] V začetku leta 2014 se je izjavil Nikolaj Kirilovič Cesar Nikolaj III (naslednik Nikolaja II.)

Leta 2007 se je Nicholas poročil z grofico Isabelle von und zu Egloffstein, leta 2010 pa je imel sina Emicha.

Anglija, Škotska in Irska Edit

Po usmrtitvi angleškega kralja Stuarta Charlesa I. leta 1649 je bil njegov sin Charles II razglašen za kralja na Škotskem (kjer je bil okronan leta 1651) in na Irskem, vendar sta ti dve državi vdrli angleški vojaki in jih priključili angleški Commonwealtha pod Oliver Cromwell leta 1653. Tako je bil Charles II pretendent na angleški prestol od leta 1649 do obnove leta 1660 in izgnan/odstavljen kralj Škota in kralj Irske, 1653 do 1660. Umrl je leta 1685, njegov brat James II in Na prestol je prišel VII. Prešel je v katolištvo, vendar je to postalo zaskrbljujoče šele, ko je njegova druga žena rodila sina, ki bi bil pred njegovimi dvema protestantskima hčerkama. Starejša hči in zet (ki je bil tudi njegov nečak, sin njegove sestre Marije) sta Jamesa tako umaknila med slavno revolucijo decembra 1688, njuna parlamenta pa sta jim uradno ponudila angleški in škotski prestol. mesec kasneje - kar je bilo v Angliji še vedno 1688 (kjer je bilo novo leto od 25. marca do 1752), na Škotskem (ki je 1. januar 1600 sprejelo 1. januar) pa je bilo že 1689. James je pred svojo smrtjo leta 1701 večkrat poskušal ponovno prevzeti prestol, med katerimi je bil najpomembnejši njegov trud z irsko podporo - ta država še ni pristopila k nasledstvu Williama in Marije - kar je pripeljalo do bitke pri Boynu in bitko pri Aughrimu ter postavili temelje za poznejše jakobitske vstaje (ali upori). To je bila vrsta vstaj ali vojn med letoma 1688 in 1746, v katerih so podporniki Jamesa, njegovega sina ("The Old Pretender") in vnuka ("The Young Pretender") poskušali obnoviti njegovo neposredno moško linijo na prestol.

    , rimskokatoliški sin odstavljenega Jakoba II. in VII., je bil z aktom o poravnavi 1701. prepovedan nasledstvo prestola. Ne glede na zakon o uniji iz leta 1707 je zahteval ločene škotske prestole kot Jakoba VIII. in Irsko kot Jakoba III., vse do svoje smrti leta 1766. Po jakobitskih izrazih zakoni Parlamenta (Anglije ali Škotske) po letu 1688 (vključno z akti Unije) niso prejeli zahtevanega kraljevega soglasja zakonitega jakobitskega monarha in, zato niso imeli pravnega učinka. James je bil odgovoren za številne zarote in upora, zlasti v visokogorju Škotske. Najbolj opazen je bil jakobitski vstaj 1715–16. ("Bonnie Prince Charlie"), Starejši sin Jamesa Frančiška in bodoči Karel III., Ki je v očetovem imenu vodil zadnji večji jakobitski upor, Jakobitski dvig leta 1745–46. Umrl je leta 1788 brez legitimnega vprašanja. (najbolj znan kot Kardinal-vojvoda York), mlajši brat Charlesa Edwarda in rimskokatoliškega kardinala, ki je prevzel prestol kot potencialni angleški Henry IX, čeprav je bil to zadnji dedič Jakobita, ki je to javno storil. Umrl je neporočen leta 1807.

Po letu 1807 je linija Jakoba VII in II izumrla. Jakobiti so po neuspehu upora 1745 prenehali imeti velik politični pomen, gibanje pa je v bistvu popolnoma počivalo po Henryjevi smrti. Genealoško je bila naslednja najvišja črta na angleškem in škotskem prestolu najmlajša sestra Jamesa II., Henriette Anne, katere hči se je poročila v Savojsko hišo. V zelo omejenem obsegu, ko je Jakobitizem preživel smrt kardinala Yorka, so podpirali trditve te vrstice. Njegov trenutni zastopnik je Franz, vojvoda Bavarske, čeprav sam ne prevzame naziva, njegov tajnik pa je nekoč objavil, da je "HRM (sic) zelo zadovoljen s tem, da je princ Bavarske".

Drugi pretendenti na prestol so vključevali:

    (ok. 1477 - ok. 1525) je bil pretendent na angleški prestol. Njegova trditev, da je Edward Plantagenet, 17. grof od Warwicka leta 1487, je ogrozila novoustanovljeno vladavino kralja Henrika VII. (Vladal 1485–1509). To je bilo tik po Vojnah vrtnic. Bil je samo še deček, vendar so ga uporabljali, da je poskušal prevzeti kraljestvo. , Fleming, ki je trdil, da je Richard od Shrewsburyja, vojvoda od Yorka in je v poznem 15. stoletju dvakrat poskušal vdreti v Anglijo in zavzeti prestol.

Wales Edit

Owain Glyndŵr (1349–1416) je verjetno najbolj znan valižanski pretvarjalec, čeprav je to, ali se je pretvarjal ali princ od Walesa, odvisno od vira informacij. Llywelyn ap Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, ki je umrl leta 1282, je bil edini princ od Walesa, katerega status vladarja je uradno priznala angleška krona, čeprav so trije od štirih mož, ki so prevzeli prestol Gwynedda med prevzemom naslova Owaina Gwynedda v 1160 -ih in izguba valižanske neodvisnosti leta 1283 je uporabljal tudi naslov ali podobno. Madog ap Llywelyn je na kratko uporabil tudi naslov med svojim uporom 1294–95. Od leta 1301 je naziv princa Walesa prejel najstarejši živi sin angleškega kralja ali kraljice Regnant (pozneje Velika Britanija, 1707 in Združenega kraljestva, 1801). Beseda "živeti" je pomembna. Po smrti Arthurja, princa Walesa, je Henry VII s svojim naslovom vložil svojega drugega sina, bodočega Henryja VIII. Naslov pa ni samodejen, ampak se združi v krono, ko princ umre ali stopi na prestol, zato ga mora suveren ponovno podeliti.

Kljub temu se mnogi spominjajo Glyndŵra kot zadnjega domačega princa Walesa. Njegovi privrženci so ga 16. septembra 1400 res razglasili za princa Walesa, njegov upor v prizadevanjih za neodvisnost Valižanov pa je Henrik IV. V, njun vnuk pa bi postal Henrik VII., Od katerega izvira trenutni britanski monarh (po hčerki Margaret Tudor, ki se je poročila z Jakobom IV Škotskim).

Različna manjša kraljestva, ki so se združila in oblikovala tisto, kar je danes znano kot kneževina Wales, so imela vsaka svojo kraljevsko dinastijo. Najpomembnejša od teh področij so bila Gwynedd, Powys in Deheubarth. Po letu 878 so vladajoče dinastije v teh kraljestvih trdile, da izvirajo iz sinov Rhodrija Mawra, ki so jih osvojili ali kako drugače dosegli svoje prestole v času njegove vladavine. Merfyn Frych, oče Rhodri Mawr, je prišel na oblast v Gwyneddu, ker je domača dinastija, znana kot Hiša Cunedda je potekel. Merfyn je po rodu izviral iz lastnega očeta Gwriada in je zahteval prednike med vladarji britanskega regeda (zlasti Llywarch Hen). Vsa Waleska kraljestva so po času Rhodrija Mawra priznala, da je hiša Gwynedd (znana tudi kot hiša Aberffraw) starejša in da se mora vsak od njih pokloniti kralju Gwynedda. Po vladavini Owaina ap Gruffudda iz Gwynedda se je kraljestvo začelo združevati s konceptom Kneževina Wales. To je spoznal Owainov potomec Llywelyn ap Gruffudd leta 1267. Ni smelo trajati in ta novi Wales je napadla Anglija in ga razbila med 1277 in 1284. Vsi potomci Llywelyna "zadnji" in njegovi bratje so bili bodisi zaprti ali ubiti .

Poslovanje irskih pretendentov je precej bolj zapleteno zaradi narave kraljevanja na Irskem pred prevzemom Normanov leta 1171. Tako na Irskem kot v zgodnji galski Škotski je bilo nasledstvo kraljevanja po volitvah pogosto (če ne običajno) po natečaju. v sistem, znan kot Tanistry.

Visoki kralj Irske (Ard Rí) je bil v bistvu ceremonialni, zvezni vladar, ki je dejansko oblast opravljal le na področju, ki je bil njegov dinastični sedež. Zaradi nasledstvenih zakonov se ne bi mogel pretendirati na ta naslov v smislu, ki ga običajno razumejo. Od 5. stoletja dalje je kraljevanje običajno ostalo v dinastiji Uí Néill, dokler Brian Boru iz Munstera leta 1002 ni prevzel nadzora nad večino Irske od Máela Sechnailla maca Domnailla. Po njegovi smrti leta 1014 in smrti Máela Sechnailla leta 1022 je boj za prevlado je leta 1171 povzročil Normanovo posredovanje Henrika II.

Kasneje so irski vladarji poskušali oživiti visoko kraljestvo, kot so bili leta 1258, ko je bil priznan Brian Ua Néill iz Cenel Eoghan, leta 1262, ko je bila krona ponujena Haakonu IV Norveškemu, in leta 1315, ko je bila ponujena ponudba. narejeno Škotu Edwardu Bruceu. Učinkovito je naslov padel. Razen kronaške prisege naslova niso uporabljali niti angleški kralji, od katerih so se vsi oblikovali sami Lord of Ireland. Leta 1542 se je Henry VIII imenoval "kralj Irske".

Nekateri irski uporniki so razpravljali o ponudbi irskega prestola pruskemu princu Joachimu (sinu Kaiserja Wilhelma II.) Pred velikonočno vstajo leta 1916. [16] [17] Po neuspehu vstajanja so bili rojalisti manjšina med uporniki, zato ponudba ni bila nikoli dana. [ potreben citat ] Po besedah ​​Huga O'Donnella, sedmega vojvode Tetuanskega, je Éamon de Valera s svojim pradedom Juanom O'Donnellom predstavil idejo o irski monarhiji. [18]

Cem Sultan, najstarejši od sinov Mehmeta Osvajalca, rojenega med njegovo vladavino, je po smrti svojega očeta zahteval sultanat, v bitkah ga je nekaj mesecev kasneje premagal njegov najstarejši brat (po rojstvu) Bajazit II. Pobegnil je na otok Rodos, nato pa na koncu v papeško državo. Njegovi potomci so uveljavljali njegove pravice, dokler Malta v 16. stoletju ni premagala Osmanov. Ko je bilo Osmansko cesarstvo ukinjeno in je na oblast prišla Republika Turčija, so zaporedni poglavarji osmanske družine prevzeli prestol turškega cesarstva. Zadnji pretendent na cesarsko hišo Osman je Harun Osman od 18. januarja 2021.

Etiopski cesarji so imeli naslov "sionskega kralja" s trditvijo, da izvirajo iz biblijske hiše David preko svojega sina kralja Salomona. Menelik II je opustil uporabo tega naslova. Etiopski cesarji so še naprej uporabljali čast "Osvajajoči lev iz Judovega plemena", dokler se monarhija ni končala s padcem cesarja Haileja Selassieja leta 1974.

Od padca Jeruzalemskega kraljestva so mnogi evropski vladarji trdili, da so njegovi zakoniti dediči. Nobeden od teh pa dejansko ni vladal delu nekdanjega kraljestva. Danes obstaja več potencialnih evropskih prosilcev na podlagi dedovanja naslova. Noben od tožnikov nima nobene moči na območju nekdanjega kraljestva. Seznam potencialnih tožnikov si oglejte v članku Kralji Jeruzalema.

Japonska Edit

V štirinajstem stoletju sta prestol prevzeli dve vrsti cesarskega klana, severni in južni. [19] Njihovo rivalstvo je bilo rešeno leta 1392: medtem ko je bil vsak cesar južnega sodišča, ustoličen pred letom 1392, ustanovljen kot zakonit, je prestol določil cesar Go-Komatsu s severnega dvora in njegovi nasledniki.

Japonska vlada je od leta 1911 razglasila, da so bili južni upravičenci dejansko zakoniti cesarji, kljub dejstvu, da so vsi kasnejši cesarji, vključno s takratnim cesarjem Meijijem, izhajali iz severnega sodišča, zaradi česar je južno sodišče ohranilo posest treh svetih zakladov in tako spremenilo cesarji nekdanjega severnega dvora v zgolj pretvarjalce. Z drugimi besedami, od takrat se je šest nekdanjih cesarjev severnega sodišča štelo za pretendance. Zaradi tega kompromisa sedanja japonska cesarska družina izvira iz severnih dvorskih cesarjev.

Kumazawa Hiromichi je javno izpodbijal cesarja Hirohita in izpodbijal zakonitost njegove krvne linije. [20] Kumazawa je trdil, da je 19. neposredni potomec cesarja Go-Kameyame, [21] zadnjega cesarja južnega sodišča.

Singapur Edit

Sultan Husein Shah iz Johorja je v 19. stoletju Britancem odstopil ozemlje Singapurja, vendar so njihovi potomci živeli v nekdanji kraljevi palači, dokler jih vlada ni izgnala. Zdaj živijo v negotovosti. [22]

Številni posamezniki so trdili, da so razseljeni monarhi ali dediči, ki so izginili ali umrli v nekoliko skrivnostnih okoliščinah:

  • Bertrand Rais (ali Ray), ki je trdil, da je Baldwin I. iz Carigrada, ki je trdil, da je Edward Plantagenet, 17. grof od Warwicka, ki je trdil, da je Richard iz Shrewsburyja, prvi vojvoda York, ki je trdil, da je Peter III Ruski je dejansko vladal kot ruski car skoraj eno leto, preden je bil ubit v nemirih

Obstajali so tudi posamezniki, ki so trdili, da so potomci avtorskih pravic:


Uvod v Jakobitski vzrok

Kot sin tožnika in očitnega dediča prestola Velike Britanije je bil Charles vzgojen, da verjame v svojo božansko pravico do absolutne monarhije. Njegov življenjski namen je bil, da se povzpne na prestol Škotske, Irske in Anglije, in to prepričanje je na koncu pripeljalo do poraza tako imenovanega mladega pretvarjalca, saj je njegova želja po zavzetju Londona po zavarovanju Edinburga izčrpala vse manjše vojake in zaloge pozimi 1745.

James in Charles sta za prevzem prestola potrebovala podporo močnega zaveznika. Po smrti Ludvika XIV. Leta 1715 je Francija preklicala podporo jakobitskemu vzroku, vendar je leta 1744 z vojno za avstrijsko nasledstvo po celini Jamesu uspelo zagotoviti financiranje, vojake in ladje Francozom za napredovanje na Škotsko . Hkrati je ostareli James 23-letnega Charlesa Princa poimenoval Regent in mu naložil, naj vzame krono nazaj.


Charles Edward Stuart, mladi pretendent (1720-1788) - zgodovina

Oljna slika na platnu, princ Charles Edward Stuart 'The Young Pretender ' (1720-1788) avtorja Cosmo Alexander (Aberdeen 1724-Edinburgh 1772), 1749. Dolgotrajni portret v črnem oklepu proti zeleni obešeni. Charles Edward Stuart, popularno znan kot Bonnie Prince Charlie, je bil sin 'Old Pretender ', princa Jamesa Francisa Edwarda in vnuk izgnanega kralja Jamesa VII in II, ki je bil strmoglavljen leta 1688. Leta 1745, ob pri 24 letih je pristal na Škotskem, odločen, da si povrne prestol. Kljub temu, da je svojo gorsko vojsko odpeljal tako daleč na jug, kot je Derby, se je Charlesov upor končal s porazom v bitki pri Cullodenu leta 1746. Pobegnil je v Francijo in ostal v izgnanstvu do konca svojega življenja.


Vsebina

Charles se je rodil 20. decembra 1720 v Palazzo Mutiju v Rimu v Italiji [4], kjer je njegov oče papež Klemen XI. Skoraj vse otroštvo je preživel v Rimu in Bologni. Bil je sin starega pretvarjalca, Jamesa Francisa Edwarda Stuarta, sina izgnanega Stuarta kralja Jakoba II. In VII., In Marije Clementine Sobieske, vnukinje Janeza III. Sobieskega, ki je bil najbolj znan po zmagi nad Osmanskimi Turki v bitki leta 1683. z Dunaja. [5]

Charles Edward je imel privilegirano otroštvo v Rimu, kjer je bil vzgojen kot katolik v ljubeči, a argumentirani družini. Kot zakoniti dediči prestolov v Angliji, na Škotskem in Irskem - po Jakobovskem nasledstvu - je njegova družina živela z občutkom ponosa in trdno verjela v božansko pravico kraljev. [6]

Dedek Charlesa Edwarda, James II iz Anglije in Irske ter VII iz Škotske, je vladal državam od 1685 do 1688. [4] Odrešen je bil, ko je parlament povabil nizozemskega protestanta Williama III in njegovo ženo, princeso Mary, najstarejšo hčer kralja Jamesa, ga zamenjati v revoluciji leta 1688. Mnogi protestanti, vključno s številnimi uglednimi parlamentarci, so bili zaskrbljeni, da bi kralj James želel Anglijo vrniti v katoliško past. Od Jakobovega izgnanstva si je »Jakobitski vzrok« prizadeval vrniti Stuarte na prestole Anglije in Škotske, ki sta bili združeni leta 1603 pod Jakobom VI in jaz, parlamentom pa so se leta 1707 pridružili Akti Unije kot Združeno kraljestvo Velike Britanije. Charles Edward je imel pri doseganju tega cilja pomembno vlogo. [ potreben citat ]

Leta 1734 je Charles Edward opazoval francosko in špansko obleganje Gaete, svojo prvo izpostavljenost vojni. Njegovemu očetu je leta 1744 uspelo pridobiti novo podporo francoske vlade, nato pa je Charles Edward odpotoval v Francijo z edinim namenom, da poveljuje francoski vojski, ki jo bo vodil v invaziji na Anglijo. Invazija se ni nikoli uresničila, saj je invazijsko floto razpršila nevihta. Ko se je flota ponovno združila, je britanska flota spoznala preusmeritev, ki jih je zavedla, in ponovno zavzela svoj položaj v Rokavskem prelivu. [7] Charles Edward je bil odločen, da bo nadaljeval prizadevanja za obnovo Stuartov. [ potreben citat ]

Decembra 1743 ga je Charlesov oče poimenoval princ regent in mu dal pooblastilo, da deluje v njegovem imenu. 18 mesecev pozneje je vodil upor, ki ga podpira Francija, z namenom postaviti svojega očeta na prestol Anglije in Škotske. Zbral je sredstva za opremljanje Elisabeth, starega vojnega moža s 66 puškami in Du Teillay (včasih se imenuje Doutelle), a 16-gun privateer which successfully landed him and seven companions at Eriskay on 23 July 1745. He had hoped for support from a French fleet, but it was badly damaged by storms and he was left to raise an army in Scotland. [ potreben citat ]

Many Highland clans, both Catholic and Protestant, still supported the Jacobite cause, and Charles hoped for a warm welcome from these clans to start an insurgency by Jacobites throughout Britain. He raised his father's standard at Glenfinnan and gathered a force large enough to enable him to march on Edinburgh. Lord Provost Archibald Stewart controlled the city, which quickly surrendered. Allan Ramsay painted a portrait of Charles while he was in Edinburgh, [8] which survived in the collection of the Earl of Wemyss at Gosford House and, as of 2016 [update] , was on display at the Scottish National Portrait Gallery. [9]

On 21 September 1745, Charles defeated the only government army in Scotland at the Battle of Prestonpans, led by General Sir John Cope, and their disastrous defence against the Jacobites is immortalised in the song "Johnnie Cope". By November, Charles was marching south at the head of approximately 6,000 men. Having taken Carlisle, his army progressed as far as Swarkestone Bridge in Derbyshire. Here, despite Charles's objections, his council decided to return to Scotland, given the lack of English and French support and rumours that large government forces were being amassed. The Jacobites marched north once more, winning the Battle of Falkirk Muir, but they were later pursued by George II's son Prince William, Duke of Cumberland, who caught up with them at the Battle of Culloden on 16 April 1746. [ potreben citat ]

Charles ignored the advice of general Lord George Murray and chose to fight on flat, open, marshy ground where his forces would be exposed to superior government firepower. He commanded his army from a position behind his lines, where he could not see what was happening. He hoped that Cumberland's army would attack first, and he had his men stand exposed to the British Royal artillery. Seeing the error in this, he quickly ordered an attack, but his messenger was killed before the order could be delivered. The Jacobite attack was uncoordinated, charging into withering musket fire and grapeshot fired from the cannons, and it met with little success. [ potreben citat ]

The Jacobites broke through the bayonets of the redcoats in one place, but they were shot down by a second line of soldiers, and the survivors fled. Cumberland's troops allegedly committed a number of atrocities as they hunted for the defeated Jacobite soldiers, earning him the title "the Butcher" from the Highlanders. Murray managed to lead a group of Jacobites to Ruthven, intending to continue the fight. Charles thought that he was betrayed, however, and decided to abandon the Jacobite cause. James, the Chevalier de Johnstone, acted as aide-de-camp for Murray during the campaign and briefly for Charles himself, and he provided a first-hand account of these events in his "Memoir of the Rebellion 1745–1746". [ potreben citat ]

Charles's subsequent flight is commemorated in "The Skye Boat Song" by Sir Harold Edwin Boulton and the Irish song "Mo Ghile Mear" by Seán Clárach Mac Domhnaill. He hid in the moors of Scotland, always barely ahead of the government forces. Many Highlanders aided him, and none of them betrayed him for the £30,000 reward. [10] Charles was assisted by supporters such as pilot Donald Macleod of Galtrigill, Captain Con O'Neill who took him to Benbecula, [11] and Flora MacDonald who helped him escape to the Isle of Skye by taking him in a boat disguised as her maid "Betty Burke". [12] [13] He ultimately evaded capture and left the country aboard the French frigate L'Heureux, arriving in France in September. The Prince's Cairn marks the traditional spot on the shores of Loch nan Uamh in Lochaber from which he made his final departure from Scotland. With the Jacobite cause lost, Charles spent the remainder of his life on the continent, except for one secret visit to London. [ potreben citat ]

While back in France, Charles had numerous affairs the one with his first cousin Marie Louise de La Tour d'Auvergne, wife of Jules, Prince of Guéméné, resulted in a short-lived son Charles (1748–1749). In 1748, he was expelled from France under the terms of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle that ended the War of the Austrian Succession. [14]

Charles lived for several years in exile with his Scottish mistress, Clementina Walkinshaw, whom he met, and may have begun a relationship with, during the 1745 rebellion. In 1753, the couple had a daughter, Charlotte. Charles's inability to cope with the collapse of the cause led to his problem with alcohol, and mother and daughter left Charles with his father James's connivance. Charlotte went on to have three illegitimate children with Ferdinand, an ecclesiastical member of the Rohan family. Their only son was Charles Edward Stuart, Count Roehenstart. Clementina was suspected by many of Charles's supporters of being a spy planted by the Hanoverian government of Great Britain. [15]

After his defeat, Charles indicated to the remaining supporters of the Jacobite cause in England that, accepting the impossibility of his recovering the English and Scots crowns while he remained a Roman Catholic, he was willing to commit himself to reigning as a Protestant. [16] Accordingly, he visited London incognito in 1750 and conformed to the Protestant faith by receiving Anglican communion, likely at one of the remaining non-juring chapels. Bishop Robert Gordon, a staunch Jacobite whose house in Theobald's Row was one of Charles's safe-houses for the visit, is the most likely to have celebrated the communion, and a chapel in Gray's Inn was suggested as the venue as early as 1788 [Revija Gentleman's, 1788]. This rebutted David Hume's suggestion that it was a church in the Strand. [17]

In 1759, at the height of the Seven Years' War, Charles was summoned to a meeting in Paris with the French foreign minister, the Duc De Choiseul. [18] Charles failed to make a good impression, being argumentative and idealistic in his expectations. Choiseul was planning a full-scale invasion of England, involving upwards of 100,000 men [19] —to which he hoped to add a number of Jacobites led by Charles. However, he was so little impressed with Charles, he dismissed the prospect of Jacobite assistance. [20] The French invasion, which was Charles's last realistic chance to recover the British throne for the Stuart dynasty, was ultimately thwarted by naval defeats at Quiberon Bay and Lagos.

Pretender Edit

In 1766, Charles's father died. Pope Clement XIII had recognised James as King of England, Scotland, and Ireland as "James III and VIII" but did not give Charles the same recognition however on 23 January, Charles moved into the Palazzo Muti which his father had lived in for over 40 years. [21]

In 1772 Charles married Princess Louise of Stolberg-Gedern. They lived first in Rome and in 1774 moved to Florence, where in 1777 he purchased for his residence the Palazzo di San Clemente, now known also in his memory as the Palazzo del Pretendente. In Florence he began to use the title "Count of Albany" as an alias. This title is frequently used for him in European publications his wife Louise is almost always called "Countess of Albany".

In 1780, Louise left Charles. She claimed that Charles had physically abused her this claim was generally believed by contemporaries. [22] At the time Louise was already involved in an adulterous relationship with the Italian poet Count Vittorio Alfieri. [22]

In 1783, Charles signed an act of legitimation for his illegitimate daughter Charlotte, born in 1753 to Clementina Walkinshaw (later known as Countess von Alberstrof). Charles also gave Charlotte the title "Duchess of Albany" in the peerage of Scotland and the style "Her Royal Highness", but these honours did not give Charlotte any right of succession to the throne. Charlotte lived with her father in Florence and Rome for the next five years. [ potreben citat ]

John Hay Allen and Charles Stuart Allen, later known as John Sobieski Stuart and Charles Edward Stuart, revived the unsubstantiated claim that their father, Thomas Allen, was a legitimate son of Charles and Louise. [23]

Charles died in Rome of a stroke on 30 January 1788, aged 67. The death was stated by the cardinals to have been the following morning, as it was deemed unlucky to have him declared dead on the same date as his unfortunate great grandfather met his end on the scaffold at Whitehall. [24] He was first buried in Frascati Cathedral near Rome, where his brother Henry Benedict Stuart was bishop. At Henry's death in 1807, Charles's remains (except his heart) were moved to the crypt of St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican where they were laid to rest next to those of his brother and his father and below the spot where the monument to the Royal Stuarts would later be erected. [25] His mother is also buried in St. Peter's Basilica. His heart remained in Frascati Cathedral, where it is contained in a small urn beneath the floor under a monument.

During his pretence as Prince of Wales, Charles claimed a coat of arms consisting of those of the kingdom, differenced by a label argent of three points. [26]


Five surprising facts about Charles Edward Stuart

Prince Charles Edward Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie, if you insist) was born 300 years ago on 31 December, 1720 (New Style), in the Palazzo Muti complex in Rome. Why is this surprising? Because, although ‘Bonnie Prince Charlie’ is one of the most recogisable names in UK history, featuring in the top Google search results for famous Scots, and Culloden Battlefield had 209,011 visitors in 2019 – numbers boosted by the TV series Outlander – and was struggling to cope with them all before lockdown began, there has been relatively little attention paid to the 300th anniversary of his birth.

It appears that Charles’s life before and after the Jacobite Rising of 1745–6 doesn’t attract the interest that the romantic story of the kilted Bonnie Prince and his ‘Highland army’, their defeat at Culloden and his escape though the Western Highlands and Isles does.

Though Charles wasn’t actually a Scot. His father was James Stuart, the English-born claimant to the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland, known to his followers (Jacobites) as King James III and VIII and to his opponents as the Pretender.

In 1719 James married Maria Clementina Sobieska, a Polish princess, the granddaughter of Jan Sobieski III, the ‘hero king’ of Poland who defeated the Ottoman army at the siege of Vienna in 1683. Charles was born just over nine months later.

He was (at least) bilingual

Charles spoke English and Italian as his mother tongues. Italian is obvious he grew up in Rome. His father and most of the exiled court were English speakers, and James employed English governesses (effectively nannies) for the little Prince from when he was six months old. Four years later, Charles was put under the governorship of the Scot James Murray of Stormont and Sir Thomas Sheridan, of Anglo-Irish descent.

Actors portraying the Prince, as in Peter Watkins’s film Culloden and, to some extent, in Outlander, have given him a ‘European’-style accent, presumably to underline his non-British birth. But it’s unrealistic to imagine that his father would have had his heir brought up sounding like anything but an Englishman. And this is borne out by an eye-witness account of his arrival in Edinburgh on 12 September, 1745, from Andrew Henderson, an admirer of the Duke of Cumberland and thus not inclined to flatter the Stuart Prince: “His Speech was sly [quiet, soft], but very intelligible his Dialect was more upon the English than the Scottish Accent…”

Charles was fluent in French, too. It was, well, the lingua franca of Europe’s courts and a sign of elegance and breeding. And speaking French well was vital in his dealings with Louis XV of France and his ministers Charles’s best hope of financial and military aid was from the French.

He also had a Gaelic tutor, the bard Alasdair mac Mhaighstir Alasdair (Alexander MacDonald), an ardent Jacobite whose songs had helped rally supporters for the Prince’s cause before Charles arrived on the Scottish mainland in August 1745. He was one of the first to meet Charles and joined his army as a captain in Clanranald’s regiment.

One of his mistresses was (probably) guillotined

In 1747 Charles was the darling of Paris, but emotionally he was shattered. His bid to restore his father’s throne had been defeated, he was estranged from his family and his attempts to get Louis XV’s support for another rising failed again and again. Late that summer he was made welcome by the noble Rohan family, old friends of the Stuarts.

Marie Louise de La Tour d’Auvergne was the young wife of Jules de Rohan, Prince de Guéméné, and, through her mother, Maria Karolina (Charlotte) Sobieska, Duchesse de Bouillon, she was Charles’s first cousin. At the time she was recovering from smallpox. Charming, attractive – but fragile – the cousins fell passionately in love.

With Jules away fighting in the War of the Austrian Sucession, it was fairly easy for the lovers to meet. By October Marie Louise was pregnant, to Charles’s delight. But in late January, 1748, her father and mother-in-law confronted her: they knew about the affair and forced her to end it.

Charles and Marie Louise’s son, Charles Godefroi, was born on 28 July, 1748, but died five months later. After her double loss, Marie Louise lived a quiet life, spending her later years doing charitable work. But fate hadn’t finished with her. It appears that she was guillotined in 1793 and was buried at the Couvent des Feuillants in Paris.

He visited London in 1750

London had been Charles’s goal in 1745 until, at Derby on 5 December, his war council refused to march any further south. But he did visit London in 1750.

Accompanied by an English Jacobite, John Holker, Charles arrived in London on 16 September. He’d made the journey from France disguised and in strict secrecy. So secret was his trip that his hostess, Lady Primrose, wasn’t expecting him at her house in Essex St. But Ann Primrose, who’d had Flora MacDonald stay with her after Flora’s parole from prison in 1747, was more than capable of gathering 50 of Charles’s supporters to a meeting at a safe house.

To the gathered Jacobites, who included the Duke of Beaufort, the Earl of Westmorland and Dr William King of St Mary Hall, Oxford, Charles explained his need of 4,000 men to start a new rising he already had arms and ammunition prepared. But his audience proved no more enthusiastic about getting involved in actual fighting than most of them had been five years previously.

Still with the aim of winning the English Jacobites to his cause, Charles, who (unlike his father and brother) was never strongly attached to the Catholic faith, was received into the Church of England, possibly in a church near Lady Primrose’s house. Contrary to popular belief, he had more Protestant than Catholic supporters in 1745-6 it would have seemed a practical move to him.

There was little more to keep him in London. Charles and the Jacobite agent Colonel Brett went, as visitors to London do, to view the Tower of London but Charles was there less for the sights than to judge how well it could be assaulted. After an evening with Dr King, during which King’s servant mentioned how much the incognito visitor looked like “the busts of Prince Charles” he’d seen on sale, Charles left London on 22 September.

He had a daughter – and three secret grandchildren

On 29 October, 1753, Charles’s mistress, Clementina Walkinshaw, gave birth to a daughter, Charlotte, the only child of his to survive infancy. Clementina left Charles, by then an abusive alcoholic, in 1760 and she and her child lived in France, supported by a pension from James. Attempts at a reconciliation failed Charles couldn’t forgive Clementina for taking his daughter away.

In 1772, he married Princess Louise of Stolberg-Gedern but the marriage was unhappy and produced no children. However, as Charlotte was Charles’s only living child, though illegitimate, she was to some extent his heir – though his brother, Henry, was next in the Jacobite line of line of succession. Charles refused her permission to find a husband perhaps he had some idea of her succeeding him, after all.

Unable to marry, Charlotte took a lover, Ferdinand de Rohan, who was Archbishop of Bordeaux – and the brother of Jules, Prince de Guéméné, Marie Louise’s husband. (The great families of Europe swam in a small, but active, gene pool.) Their doubly illicit relationship had to be kept secret. And so had their children, Marie Victoire Adelaide, Charlotte Maximilienne Amélie and Charles Edward. This was done so successfully – even Charles never knew about them – that all three disappeared from history until the 1950s, when two historians, the Taylers, found evidence of their existence.

After Charles’s marriage ended in 1784 she went to live with him in Florence. He legitimised Charlotte, creating her Duchess of Albany, the name by which Robert Burns referred to her in his song, The Bonie Lass of Albany. Charlotte nursed her father in his final years until his death in Rome on January 30, 1788. Charlotte died of liver cancer in 1789.

Frances Owen is editor of Historia. She has studied the Jacobite movement for a number of years and worked on a BBC Scotland series about Prince Charles Stuart’s escape after Culloden. She is the co-author of A Rebel Hand: Nicholas Delaney of 1798.

Read about Charles’s arrival in Scotland and the raising of the standard at Glenfinnan. And in Remembering Culloden Historia examines how, and why, we commemorate the battle, the battlefield, and those who fell.

Frank McLynn: Charles Edward Stuart (1988)
Murray Pittock: Jacobitism (1998), Culloden (2016)
Jacqueline Riding: Jacobites: A New History of the 󈧱 Rebellion (2017)

Charles Edward Stuart in Highland costume: via Wikipedia
His father, James Francis Edward Stuart, in the year of his marriage, 1719, by Francesco Trevisani: via Wikimedia
His mother, Maria Clementina Sobieska, companion portrait of 1719 by Francesco Trevisani: via Wikimedia
Portrait presumed to be Marie Louise de La Tour d’Auvergne, Princesse de Guéméné by Jean-Marc Nattier (1746): via Wikimedia
Prince Charles Edward Stuart by Allan Ramsay, 1745 (the ‘lost portrait’): via Wikimedia
Charlotte Stuart, Duchess of Albany by Hugh Douglas Hamilton: via Wikimedia


Celotna paleta umetniških tiskov

Naši standardni fototiski (idealni za uokvirjanje) so poslani isti ali naslednji delovni dan, večina drugih predmetov pa bo poslana nekaj dni kasneje.

Tisk v okvirju ($57.63 - $294.62)
Naši sodobni tiskani okvirji so profesionalno izdelani in pripravljeni na obešanje na steno

Fotografski tisk ($8.95 - $192.14)
Naši fototiski so natisnjeni na robustnem arhivskem papirju za živo reprodukcijo in so kot nalašč za kadriranje.

Sestavljanka ($35.86 - $48.67)
Sestavljanke so idealno darilo za vsako priložnost

Tisk na platnu ($38.42 - $320.24)
Profesionalno izdelani, pripravljeni za obešanje platneni odtisi so odličen način za dodajanje barve, globine in teksture v vsak prostor.

Tiskanje plakatov ($14.08 - $76.85)
Papir za kakovostne arhivske dokumente, idealen za tiskanje večjih slik

Torbica ($38.37)
Naše torbe so narejene iz mehke trpežne tkanine in vključujejo pas za lažje prenašanje.

Fotografska skodelica ($12.80)
Uživajte v svoji najljubši pijači iz skodelice, okrašene s podobo, ki vam je všeč. Sentimentalne in praktične, prilagojene foto skodelice so odlično darilo za ljubljene, prijatelje ali sodelavce

Voščilnice ($7.65)
Voščilnice, primerne za rojstne dneve, poroke, obletnice, mature, hvala in še veliko več

Cushion ($32.01 - $57.63)
Okrasite svoj prostor z okrasnimi, mehkimi blazinami

Kovinski tisk ($75.58 - $511.12)
Kovinski odtisi, narejeni s trpežno kovino in razkošnimi tehnikami tiskanja, oživijo slike in vsakemu prostoru dodajo sodoben pridih

Tisk likovne umetnosti ($38.42 - $512.39)
Naslednja najboljša stvar pri lastništvu izvirnega umetniškega dela z mehko teksturirano naravno površino so naši grafični reprodukcijski odtisi, ki ustrezajo standardu najbolj kritičnih muzejskih kustosov.

Montirana fotografija ($16.64 - $166.52)
Natisi fotografij, priloženi v izrezanem nosilcu za kartice, pripravljenem za kadriranje

Stekleni okvir ($29.45 - $88.39)
Nosilci iz kaljenega stekla so idealni za prikaz na steni, manjše velikosti pa lahko uporabite tudi samostojno prek vgrajenega stojala.

Akrilni bloks ($38.42 - $64.04)
Poenostavljen, enostranski sodoben in privlačen namizni tisk

Tisk v okvirju ($57.63 - $320.24)
Naša prvotna paleta britanskih tiskanih okvirjev s poševnim robom

Podloga za miško ($17.92)
Arhivski kakovostni fotografski tisk v trpežni brisači s čisto podlago za brisanje z nedrsečo podlago. Deluje z vsemi računalniškimi miškami.

Steklene preproge ($64.04)
Set 4 steklenih podstavkov. Elegantno polirano varnostno steklo in toplotno odporno. Na voljo so tudi ustrezni podstavki

Stekleni podstavek ($10.24)
Individualni stekleni podstavek. Na voljo so tudi elegantno polirano varnostno kaljeno steklo in toplotno odporni ujemajoči se preprogi


Ближайшие родственники

About Charles Edward Stuart "Bonnie Prince Charlie"

Charles Edward Stuart (31 December 1720 – 31 January 1788) was the exiled Jacobite claimant to the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland. He is most commonly known in English and Scots as Bonnie Prince Charlie. Charles is perhaps best known as the instigator of the unsuccessful Jacobite uprising of 1745, in which he led an insurrection to restore his family to the throne of Great Britain, which ended in defeat at the Battle of Culloden that effectively ended the Jacobite cause. Jacobites supported the Stuart claim due to hopes for religious toleration for Roman Catholics and a belief in the divine right of kings. Charles's flight from Scotland after the uprising has rendered him a romantic figure of heroic failure in some later representations.

Charles was the son of James Francis Edward Stuart who was in turn the son of James II and VII, who had been deposed in the Revolution of 1688. The Jacobite movement tried to restore the family to the throne. Charles' mother was James' Polish wife, Maria Clementina Sobieska (1702�, granddaughter of the Polish King, John III Sobieski). After his father's death Charles was recognised as Charles III by his supporters his opponents referred to him as The Young Pretender.

Charles Edward Louis John Casimir Silvester Severino Maria Stuart was born in Rome, Italy, where his father had been given a residence by Pope Clement XI. He spent almost all of his childhood in Rome and Bologna. In 1734 he participated in the French and Spanish siege of Gaeta this was his first exposure to a military battle.

In December 1743, Charles' father named him Prince Regent, giving him full authority to act in his name. Eighteen months later he led a rising to restore his father to his thrones. Charles raised funds to fit out two ships: the Elisabeth, an old man-of-war of sixty-six guns, and a small frigate of sixteen guns named the Doutelle (le Du Teillay) which successfully landed him with seven companions at Eriskay on 23 July 1745. Charles had hoped for support from a French fleet, but this was badly damaged by storms, and he was left to raise an army in Scotland.

The Jacobite cause was still supported by many Highland clans, both Catholic and Protestant, and the Catholic Charles hoped for a warm welcome from these clans to start an insurgency by Jacobites throughout Britain, but there was no immediate response. Charles raised his father's standard at Glenfinnan and there raised a large enough force to enable him to march on the city of Edinburgh, which quickly surrendered. On 21 September 1745 he defeated the only government army in Scotland at the Battle of Prestonpans, and by November was marching south at the head of around 6,000 men. Having taken Carlisle, Charles' army progressed as far as Swarkestone Bridge in Derbyshire. Here, despite the objections of the Prince, the decision was taken by his council to return to Scotland, largely because of the almost complete lack of the support from English Jacobites that Charles had promised. By now he was pursued by King George II's son, the Duke of Cumberland, who caught up with him at the Battle of Culloden on 16 April 1746.

Ignoring the advice of his best commander, Lord George Murray, Charles chose to fight on flat, open, marshy ground where his forces would be exposed to superior British firepower. Charles commanded his army from a position behind his lines, where he could not see what was happening. Hoping that Cumberland's army would attack first, he had his men stand exposed to Hanoverian artillery for twenty minutes before finally ordering an attack. The Jacobite attack, charging into the teeth of musket fire and grapeshot fired from the cannons, was uncoordinated and met little success. Only in one place did a group of Jacobites break through the bayonets of the redcoats, but they were shot down by a second line of soldiers, and the survivors fled. Cumberland's troops committed numerous atrocities as they hunted for the defeated Jacobite soldiers, earning him the title "the Butcher" from the Highlanders. Murray managed to lead a group of Jacobites to Ruthven, intending to continue the fight. However Charles, believing himself betrayed, had decided to abandon the Jacobite cause.

Bonnie Prince Charlie's subsequent flight has become the stuff of legend, and is commemorated in the popular folk song "The Skye Boat Song" (lyrics 1884, tune traditional) and also the old Irish song Bímse Buan ar Buairt Gach Ló by Seán Clárach Mac Domhnaill. Assisted by loyal supporters such as Flora MacDonald who helped him escape pursuers on the Isle of Skye by taking him in a small boat disguised as her Irish maid, "Betty Burke," he evaded capture and left the country aboard the French frigate L'Heureux, arriving back in France in September. The cause of the Stuarts being lost, the remainder of his life was - with a brief exception - spent in exile.

Whilst back in France, Charles had numerous affairs the one with his first cousin Louise, wife of the Duke of Montbazon, resulted in a short-lived son Charles (1748�). He lived for several years in exile with his Scottish mistress, or common-law wife, Clementina Walkinshaw, whom he met, and may have begun a relationship with, whilst on the '45 campaign. In 1753 the couple had a daughter, Charlotte. Charles's inability to cope with the collapse of the cause led to his heavy drinking and mother and daughter left Charles with James' connivance. Charlotte went on to have three illegitimate children with Ferdinand, an ecclesiastical member of the de Rohan family.

After his defeat, Charles indicated to the remaining supporters of the Jacobite cause in England that, accepting the impossibility of his recovering the English and Scots crowns while he remained a Roman Catholic, he was willing to commit himself to reigning as a Protestant[citation needed]. Accordingly he visited London incognito in 1750 and conformed to the Protestant faith by receiving Anglican communion at the Church of St Mary-le-Strand, a noted centre of Anglican Jacobitism. On Charles's return to France he reverted to Catholic observance.

In 1766 Charles' father died. Until his death James had been recognised as King of England, Scotland, and Ireland by the Pope, as "James III and VIII". But Clement XIII decided not to give the same recognition to Charles.

In 1772 Charles married Princess Louise of Stolberg-Gedern. They lived first in Rome, but in 1774 moved to Florence where Charles first began to use the title "Count of Albany" as an alias. This title is frequently used for him in European publications his wife Louise is almost always called "Countess of Albany".

In 1780 Louise left Charles. She claimed that Charles had physically abused her this claim was generally believed by contemporaries in spite of the fact that Louise was already involved in an adulterous relationship with the Italian poet, Count Vittorio Alfieri, before she left Charles.

The claims by two nineteenth century charlatans, Charles and John Allen alias John Sobieski Stuart and Charles Edward Stuart, that their father Thomas Allen was a legitimate son of Charles and Louise, are without foundation.

In 1783 Charles signed an act of legitimation for his illegitimate daughter Charlotte, his child born in 1753 to Clementina Walkinshaw (later known as Countess von Alberstrof). Charles also gave Charlotte the title "Duchess of Albany" in the peerage of Scotland and the style "Her Royal Highness". But these honours did not give Charlotte any right to the succession to the throne. Charlotte lived with her father in Florence and Rome for the next five years.

Charles died in Rome on 31 January 1788. He was first buried in the Cathedral of Frascati, where his brother Henry Benedict Stuart was bishop. At Henry's death in 1807, Charles's remains were moved to the crypt of Saint Peter's Basilica in the Vatican where they were laid to rest next to those of his brother and father. His mother is also buried in Saint Peter's Basilica. When the body of Charles Stuart was transferred to the Saint Peter's Basilica, his "praecordia" were left in Frascati Cathedral: a small urn encloses the heart of Charles, placed beneath the floor below the funerary monument.


Charles Edward Stuart

Although the Stuarts had lost the throne, the dynasty continued in the person of James II's son, James Francis Edward Stuart (1688-1766) and his sons, one of whom was Charles Edward Stuart is popularly known as Bonnie Prince Charlie (1720-1788), who pressed their rights to the succession to the thrones of Britain. On a hereditary basis, their claim was far superior to that of their Hanoverian cousins, but they were debarred from the throne by the Act of Succession, which forbade Catholics from succeeding.

The supporters of the exiled James Francis Edward Stuart became known as Jacobites from the Latin term Jacobus for James. Several attempts were made by them to regain the throne, most notably those of the 1715 and 1745 rebellions. They remained popular particularly in Scotland, the traditional homeland of the Stuarts.

The Royal Stuart dynasty finally became extinct in the male line in 1807, on the death of the last legitimate grandson of James II, Henry Stuart, a Roman Catholic Cardinal, known as Cardinal York, at Frascati, Italy.

The modern day heir to the Jacobite claim to the throne is Francis, Duke of Bavaria (b. 1931), who descends through Henrietta Anne, youngest daughter of Charles I.

Charles Edward Stuart as a boy

EARLY YEARS

Charles Edward Stuart or Bonnie Prince Charlie, as he was later to go down in history, was born at the Palazzo Muti in Rome on 31st December, 1720. The son of James Francis Edward Stuart and the Polish Princess Clementina Sobieski, he was baptised Charles Edward Louis John Casimir Sylvester Severino Maria.

Charles father, James, was the only surviving son of the Catholic King James II and VII, who died in exile in France, after his Protestant daughter, Mary II and her husband William III had taken the throne at the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The Stuart descendants of James II had remained in exile since then, a thorn in the side of the Hanoverian dynasty which had eventually supplanted them on the throne of Britain.

Charles, who from the start Jacobite hopes rested upon, was an attractive and boisterous child on whom his parents doted. He was good with languages and was taught to speak English, Italian, French and Latin.

Charles experienced warfare for the first time at the siege of Gaeta, only fourteen at the time, he was reported to have conducted himself bravely when under fire. His parent's relationship had deteriorated over the years, his deeply religious mother spent long periods in unhealthy fasting and excessive devotions. Sadly, this undermined her health and Clementina died in 1735.

THE 1745 REBELLION

The tangled matter of the Austrian Succession resulted in war being declared between Britain and France in 1744, which raised Jacobite hopes that they might now acquire much-needed support from the French. Louis XV agreed that a diversionary Jacobite rebellion in England would be greatly advantageous to his cause. Accordingly, he assembled a fleet at Dunkirk, to where the young and enthusiastic Charles travelled incognito from Rome.

Charles Edward Stuart

Charles expedition set sail for England in March, 1744. They were met by a British fleet near Torbay, the Jacobite fleet was badly damaged and forced to return to France. Charles, greatly disappointed but unbowed, harboured a steely determination that the only way to regain the Stuart thrones was to get to Scotland and raise a rebellion himself. Along with a small band of followers he borrowed enough money to buy munitions, and acquired three ships, the Elizabeth, the Du Teillay, and La Doutelle.

When the impatient Charles' over-optimistic expedition finally put to sea, the Elizabeth was attacked by an English man-of-war and had to return to France. La Doutelle was forced to flee. Charles continued alone in the Du Teillay and landed on the Hebridean Island of Eriskay. He sent messages to the local clan chiefs making them aware of his presence and asking for support. Alexander MacDonald informed him that their support would not be forthcoming and advised him to go home. Charles replied famously "Sir I am come home, and I will entertain no notion of returning to that place whence I came, for that I am persuaded that my faithful Highlanders will stand by me."

The Du Teillay anchored the next morning at the remote sea loch of Loch nan Uamh. Further Highland chiefs came to see and admire the Prince, a handsome and dashing figure, but were similarly unenthusiastic of the chances of his expedition's success. Charles, characteristically refusing to accept defeat, persuaded some of them to join him in his rash venture, and solicited the support of the influential Cameron of Lochiel.

Glenfinnan

The standard of 'James III' was again raised in Scotland at Glenfinnan on Loch Shiel on 19th August 1745. This was the appointed rendezvous point for those of the clansmen who had promised to join the rebellion. After a three hour wait, during which he must have been on the brink of despair, the clans began to descend from the surrounding hills to join their Prince. It must have been an evocative and moving sight as the tartan-clad clans marched down from the hills to the rousing sound of the bagpipes.

The Hanoverian government in London placed a price on the head of the Young Pretender. Charles responded in defiance by offering the same amount for the capture of "the Elector of Hanover". The Jacobite army entered Perth on 4th September, and was joined there by Lord George Murray, the brother of the Duke of Athol and an experienced soldier, whom Charles appointed Commander of his army.

The army reached the outskirts of Edinburgh on the 16th of September and delivered an ultimatum to a deputation from the city. A second deputation arrived requesting time to discuss the ultimatum, which Charles suspected to be merely creating delays. As the deputation returned through the city gates, Lochiel and Murray rushed in with 900 troops, they were not offered resistance and Charles rode proudly into Edinburgh dressed in the Stuart tartan to rousing cheers from the populace. The capital of Scotland was now his. Edinburgh Castle alone held out for the Hanoverians.

Sir John Cope advanced with government forces to confront the Highland army. The Stuart Prince marched to meet him and the two armies faced each other at Preston pans on 21st September 1745. Charles' army, led by a local man who was familiar with the marshes which covered the area, made a daring approach on the enemy, under cover of darkness.

When dawn broke, a thick damp Scottish mist obscured the entire area, clinging to the ground, it concealed the two armies from each other. Taking them entirely by surprise, the Highlanders charged Cope's unprepared army. The government forces and Cope himself panicked and fled, thus distinguishing himself by becoming the first general to bear the news of his defeat. This victory unfortunately instilled in the overconfident and naturally high spirited Charles the mistaken belief that his Highlanders were an invincible fighting force.

Charles Edward Stuart

The Prince held court at Edinburgh, taking up residence at Holyrood House, the Palace of his Stewart ancestors and wrote triumphantly of his victory to his father in Rome. He remained in Edinburgh for six weeks, flirting with the people of Edinburgh, the ladies especially, were much taken by the young Stuart Prince, who cut a dashing figure in his highland dress. On Charles' prompting, the decision was reached for the army to advance into England.

Lord George Murray

The Jacobite strategy was to split their army into a two-pronged advance which re-met by the walls of Carlisle. The border town was placed under siege and capitulated to the Jacobites on 17th November. They continued to Preston, and despite appalling weather conditions, reached Manchester, where they gathered a small number of recruits, which formed the Manchester Regiment, but to their dismay, the English did not rush in large numbers to join his rash venture, as Charles had anticipated they would. On 5th December the Jacobites reached Derby, a few days march from London. Here matters began to go awry for Charles.

His sources informed him that in back in Edinburgh, the Castle garrison had received reinforcements which had plundered the city, and that William, Duke of Cumberland, the vastly obese younger son of the Hanoverian King George II, was on the move to meet him with a force of around 10,000 troops.

Jacobite commanders, in London, but 150 miles away, panic had gripped the city, the streets were empty and people rushed to withdraw their savings from the banks. It was rumoured that George II himself had packed his bags in preparation to leave for his native Hanover before the ranks of the wild and savage Highlanders descended on the city.

At the resulting Council of War, Prince Charles argued passionately and at length in favour of proceeding with the march on London. Murray, of a more cautious frame of mind, was concerned about the vulnerability of their position and urgently counselled a return to Scotland. In the resultant vote, Charles, to his utter fury, was overruled.

The army turned despondently back to Scotland, which had a detrimental effect on its morale, the strong-headed Charles himself took the decision with bad grace and spent days sulking over it. Leaving a garrison at Carlisle Castle, later to be utterly annihilated, they reached Glasgow on Christmas Day, 1745.

The government forces under General Hawley were met in battle on a moor to the south-west of Falkirk on 17th January, 1746, where the Jacobites triumphed. The Prince then made his biggest blunder of the campaign, weeks were wasted in a fruitless and futile attempt to besiege Stirling Castle. Charles stubbornly ignored the advice of the more experienced Murray and most of his chiefs, let the army rest and recuperate over the winter.

On 16th April, Charles came to the fatal and foolish decision to lead his now ragged and exhausted army to meet Cumberland's highly disciplined and well-provisioned forces at the fateful field of Culloden.


Poglej si posnetek: Charles Edward Stuart (Julij 2022).


Komentarji:

  1. Mazukasa

    Prepričan sem, da je varala.

  2. Nikolmaran

    It seems it's going to come close.

  3. Gauvain

    še vedno je nekaj vrzeli

  4. Akinorg

    it is not logical

  5. Kajilkree

    I have thought and have removed the message

  6. Kejinn

    Portal je odličen, vsi bi bili takšni!



Napišite sporočilo